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Spatial

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    Spatial

JournalofMountainScienceVol1No1(2004):8995

    ;l,?.h./,……;,…,:…1

    ;ArticleID:1672-6316(2004)O1-0089.O7

    ;SpatialDisparityofSlopeFarmlandandFood

    ;WANGLiming

    ;InstituteofGeographicalSciencesandNaturalResourcesResearch,CAS,BeO‟ing100101

    ;Email:Wanglm@igsnrr.accn|wanglm2ooo@yahoocom ;FENGRenguo

    ;BureauofScienceandTechnologyforResourcesandEnvironment,CAS,BeO‟ing100864,China

    ;YANGYanfeng

    ;DepartmentofGeography,TheUniversityofHongKong,China ;GUANQingfeng

    ;InstituteofGeographicalSciencesandNaturalResourcesResearch,cBeijing100101,China

    ;Abstract:Asanimportantmeasureofeco.

    ;environmentalconstruction,theprocessof

    ;de-farminginslopefarmlandisbeingundertaken ;graduallyintl1ewholeChina.Meanwhile.theproblem ;ofreducinginfoodyieldindefarmingareascannot

    ;beneglectedanymore.Itisespeciallythecasein ;areaswitl1concentratedslopefarmlandand

    ;inconvenienttransportation.Intl1ispaper.weanalyze ;tl1ecausesofhiddentroublesinfoodsecurity,andthe ;spatialrelationshipbetweenfarmlandandslope ;farmlandintl1ereservoirareaofThreeGorges.and ;unveiltl1espatialdisparityofcontradictionsbetween ;foodsupplyanddemand.Finally,combiningthe ;accessibilityofareas,threedifferentspatialtypesof ;foodsecurity,foodsecurityarea,foodalertarea,and ;foodcrisisarea,aredivided.

    ;Keywords:Slopefarmland;de-farming;food

    ;security;spatialdisparity

    ;ThereservoirareaofThFeeGorgesinthispaperrefersto20 ;countylevelregion:Yichang,Xingshan,Zigui,Badong,Wushan, ;Wuxi,Feng~ie,Kaixian,Yunyang,Wanzhou,Zhongxian,Shizhu, ;Wulong,Fengdu,Fuling,Changshou,Yubei,Banan,Chongqing ;downtown,andJiang~in.

    ;Received:30June2003

    ;Accepted:10October2003

    ;In1998,atremendousflooddisasteroccurred

    ;inYangtsedrainagearea,whichwasdirectly ;causedbytheclimateabnormity,whilesoilerosion ;intheuppercoursealsotookanimportantrolein ;conductingtheflooddisaster(LiWenhua1999,Shi ;Deming1999).Thehugedamagecausedbythe ;disastermadethecentralgovernmenttopaygreat ;attentiontotheeco-environmentalconstructionin ;themiddleanduppercoursesofYangtseRiver.The ;defarmingprojectinslopefarmlandisundertaken ;graduallyinthewholecountryasanimportant ;measureofecoenvironmentalconstruction

    ;(PeopleDaily,Sep.26,2000).Experimentsof ;returningslopefarmlandtowoodlandand ;grasslandhasbeenconductedin20provinciallevel ;areasalloverthecountryin2OO1(PeopleDaily. ;Mar.17,2OO1).Itisestimatedthatfill2010.the ;de-farmingprojectwillcontrolsoil..erosionareasof ;o.34billionmu(15mu=1hectare)andreducethe ;amountofsedimentbyo.21billiontonsflowing ;intoYellowRiverandYangtseRivereveryyear ;(PeopleDaily,Feb.16,2OO1).

    ;TakingthereservoirareaofThreeGorges,one ;oftheexperimentalunits,asthecasestudy,and ;usingthetechniqueofGIS,thispaperexploresthe ;spatialdisparityofslopefarmlandandfood ;

    ;WANGLingming,FENGRenguo,YANGYanfeng,andGUANQingfeng ;securitycausedbydefarmingaction.Finally,three ;differentspatialtypesoffoodsecurityaredivided. ;1De-farminginSlopeFarmlandinthe

    ;ReservoirAreaoftheThreeGorges

    ;andHiddentroublesinFoodSecurity

    ;BasedontheFA0(FoodandAgricultural

    ;Organization)definition,foodsecurityisthe ;securityofnecessaryfoodthatisaffordableto ;anybodyinanytime.Foodsecurity.whichisan ;integratedsecuritysystem,isnotonlyaconceptof ;f0odproduction,butalsoineludescirculation. ;reservation,importandexportregulationandso ;on.The”TenthFiveYearPlan”ofChinafirstly

    ;introducedtheconceptionof‟Foodsecurity‟.and

    ;announcedtoestablishafoodsecuritysystemthat ;issuitabletoChinesesituationandsocialism ;marketeconomytokeepthebalanceoffood

    ;demandandsupply(ZhuRongji,PeopleDaily,Oct. ;20,2000).

    ;Inrecentyears,theconcentrationsonfood ;securitymainlyfocusedonthenationallevelrather ;thanthesubnationallocalleve1.Infact.inthelocal ;leveltherearestilllotsofproblemsconcerning ;thfoodsecurity.FA0‟sdefinitionoffoodsecurity

    ;comprisesseveralimportantkeywords:‟anybody‟,

    ;„anytime‟and‟affordable‟.‟Anybody‟referstothe

    ;populationofthewholecountry.oralocaldistrict; ;„anytime‟canbeanabundantyear,oradisaster

    ;year;‟Affordable‟meansthepeopleshouldhave

    ;enoughmoney.Therearespatialdisparitiesin ;Chinainallthesethreeaspects.So,theproblemsof ;f0odsecuritymayoccurnotonlyinnationallevel ;butalsolocalleve1.

    ;Basedonthesecriteriaoffoodsecurity,the ;hiddentroublesinfoodsecurityinthereservoir ;areaofThreeGorgesincludefollowingthree ;aspects:

    ;(1)Thefoodsecuritytofarmers(thosewhodid ;notreturnanyoftheirfarmlandtogreenland)in

    ;thereservoirareaandtheuncertaintyoffood ;supplytodefarmers(thosewholostsomeortotal ;oftheirfarmlandinde.farmingaction).Unlikethe ;condifionsofwesterncountries,thefood ;productioninthereservoirareaisbasedonlotsof ;smal1.sizedseparatedfarms.Onlyafterthe ;producershavefulfilledtheirOWl2needs,canthey ;arrangethemerchandiseproduction.Itisakindof ;self-protectionandfamily..basedfood..security ;system.I.hisforillsthespecialstructureoffood ;productionandexchangeinthereservoirarea. ;Althoughatpresentthekindsoffoodthefarmers ;consumearenotentirelywhattlleyproduce,and ;theyexchangesomekindsoffoodinthemarket, ;thefoodmerchandiserateisstillquitelow.The ;family-basedfoodsecuritysystemmakessurethe

    ;steadyfoodsupplytofarmers,thusisthemost ;importantfactortostabilizetllefoodsecurityin

    ;thereservoirareathroughal1thoseyearswithout ;enoughfarmlands.Eveninadisasteryear,aslong ;asthereisasmal1harvest.itcanstillmaintainthe ;reproductionoflaborforcetosomeextent.

;However,thefamilybasedfoodsecuritysystem

    ;encumbersthedevelopmentoflocalfoodmarketat ;thesametime.Afterde-farming,thesteady ;situationmaybebrokenup:thefarmerswhostill ;havetheir1andcanmaintainahighstandardof ;f0odsecurity.whilethefm;rnerswholosttheir ;landshavea1owerstandardoffoodsecurity.0nee ;thefoodsupplygivesacrisissignal,thefarmers ;whostillhavelandswillstrengthentheir ;self-supplyfoodproduction,theirhouseholdfood ;storagewillincrease.whilethefarmerswholost ;theirlandscanonlydependontheimportedfood. ;andmayhaveariskoffoodshortage.After ;defarming,eveniftheaveragesituationoffood ;supplyinthereservoirareaisfairlywel1.itmaynot ;bethesamecaseto‟anybody‟.therearestil1some

    ;uncertaintiesinfoodsupplywitllthefarmerswho ;losetheirlands.

    ;(2)ThereservoirareaofThreeGorgesisa ;placewherenaturaldisastersoccurfrequently,and ;theagriculturalinfrastructuressuchasirrigation ;worksarenotdeveloped,sotheabilitytoprevent ;thedisastersislimited.Forexample.intheearly ;summertheremaybesomedroughtdisastersthat ;willcauseagreatdecreaseinfoodproduction.so ;theannualfoodproductionofdifferentyearsmay ;fluctuategreatly.Meanwhile,mostofthe ;farmlandsinthereservoirareaarelocatedonthe ;slopes,whichcausetheinconvenienceoffood ;transportation.Sothecostoffoodtransportingis ;high,andthetimeoftransportationwillnotbe ;guaranteed.Ifthereisalargescaledisaster.the

    ;trafficconditionswouldbeagreat1imit,andthe ;f0odsupplywouldnotmeetthedemandat

    ;„anytime‟.

    ;

    ;

    ;(3)ThepoorpeopleconcentrateintheThree ;Gorgesarea,andtheeconomicfoundationisweak. ;Theregulationofdefarminghasaclear

    ;prescriptionontheproportionofecologicalwoods ;andeconomicwoods.Thequantityofecosystem ;woodsshouldreachabout80percentafter ;defarming.Therefore,defarmedpeasantsare

    ;restrictedinsearchingforenoughproduction ;resources.Moreover,thepolicyofsubsidyisiust ;forthepresentstage,butthefoodconsumptionis ;continuous.Guaranteeingthefoodsupplybythe ;governmentnodoubtlesslyisacontinuous ;pressuretopublicfinance.Inordertomakesure ;allthepeasantsinthedefarmingareascan

    ;continuously‟afford‟thefoodtheyneed,somehard

    ;worksstillneedtobedone,includingthe ;developmentoflocaleconomyandthefinancial ;supportfromthegovernment.

    ;Besidesthethreespecificregionalreasons ;above,consideringthemacroscopicbackground, ;therearestillseriousproblemsoffoodsecurityin ;China.Thesituationofabundantfoodsupplymay ;stillbeconvertedthuswillinfluencethe ;foodsecurityintheThreeGorgesarea.In1997, ;f00dpercapitainChinawasmorethan400kgand ;f00dstorageaccountsfor30percentoffood ;consumption,whichwashigherthanthegenerally ;acceptedinternationalstandardof18percentof ;foodsecurityertline.Thepercapitafoodand ;storagereachedthemaximuminthehistory.But ;now,theabilityoffoodproductioninChinais ;unsteady.andisvulnerabletotheserioustrialof ;naturedisasters.Iffoodplantingareaisreduced

    ;continuously,andthegapbetweenfoodproduction ;andsupplyexistsforyears,foodsecuritywouldbe ;spoiled.Thedefarmingpolicynamedproviding

    ;grainasaformofreliefcameintobeinginthe ;specialbackgroundthattotalquantityoffood ;supplyexceededdemand,whichmightbea ;temporarysituation.Ifthesituationisconverted, ;thepolicyofrelivinggraininsteadofmoneywould ;behardtofulfil1.

    ;Theproblemsoffoodsecurityhavestrong ;relationshipwiththefulfillmentofthedefarming

    ;Dr03ect.Iffoodsupplyislowerthanfooddemand ;inthedefarmingareas,thepressureofreclaiming ;thedefarmedslopefarmlandswillexist.Therefore. ;approachingtheproblemsoffoodsecurityis ;importantnotonlyforthelivingstandardoflocal ;people,butalsofortheeffectofdefarmingpr03ect.

    ;JotmlalofMountainScienceVol1No1(2004)

    ;2TheSpatialDisparitiesofFoodSupply ;andDemandRelationshipsafter

    ;DefarmingintheReservoirArea

    ;So—called‟spatialdisparitiesoffoodsupplyand

    ;demandrelationships‟referstothesurplusoffcIod

    ;productiontofooddemandinsomeareas.ande

    ;shortageofproductioninotherareas.Befclre ;defarming,foodsupplyanddemandrelationships ;intheresecvoirareaalreadytookcertainspafial ;disparities,butthetextualpointishowtosettlethe ;newdisparitiesbroughtoutbvdefarming.The

    ;followingaspectsarethemaincausesofthespatial ;disparities:(1)Thespatialdisparitiesofdefarmed

    ;slopefarmlandscausespatialdisparitiesoffood ;demand.Thoseareaswithconcentrated ;defarmingslopefarmlandswillfacehigherfood ;demandpressure,whiletheareaswithscattered ;defarmingslopefarmlandswillhavelower ;pressure;(2)Slopefarmlandswhichhavenot ;defarmedhavespatialdifferences,thuscause ;spatialdisparityoffoodsupply.Thoseareaswith ;c0ncentratedfarmlandsthatneednottobe ;defarmedhavestrongcapacityoffoodsupply,and ;thecapacitytoalleviatethefooddemandpressure ;arealsostrong;(3)Spatialdisparitiesof ;transportationaccessibilityinfluencefood ;transportationandtimeliness.

    ;Inordertomeasurescientificallythespatial ;disparityoftheabovethreeaspects,wemadeuse ;ofthe‟integratedhuman—naturedataplatform‟

    ;constitutedbythelandusedatainterpretedfrom ;TMremotesensingimagesfortheChinese ;resourcesenvironmentdatabases.theDigital ;ElevationModel(DEM)data.andothersocialand ;economicdata.

    ;Belowarerespectivemeasurementsofspatial ;disparitiesofslopefarmlands,farmlandsand ;transportationaccessibilitybasedontheGIS. ;2.1Measurementofspatialdisparitiesof ;slopefarmlands

    ;Firstly,tocreatelandgradientdataofthe ;reservoirareausingDEMdatabase,andquery ;farmlanddatainlandusemap.thengetthedataof ;slopetarmlandover25degreebycrossquerynng.

    ;Sincetheseslopefarmlanddataonlydescribethe ;distributionofsingleparcels,itisnotenoughto ;explainthedegreeofspatialconcentration,a ;91

    ;

    ;WANGLingming,FENGRenguo,YANGYanfeng,andGUANQingfeng ;coefficientindexisdesigned,whichisnamedslope ;farmlanddistributioncoefficient.Itindicatesthe ;proportionofslopefarmlandinlandperunit.The ;formulais:

    ;

    ;?(xqxh)k:l

    ;k=1,2,…,n

    ;×100(1)

    ;Informula(1),UiiSthedistributionindexof ;slopefarmland.SkiStheareaoflandunitkinthe ;neighborhoodoflandunit,qkistheproductivity ;indexofk.andhkiStheidentificationparameterof ;slopefarmland(1forslopefarmland,andofor ;others).

    ;ThevalueofuirangesfromotolOO,Whenui ;=o.itindicatesthereisnoslopefarmlandsinthe ;neighborhoodoff;whenui=lOO,itmeansall ;farmlandsareslopefarmlandsintheneighborhood ;off.

    ;qkrepresentsfarmlandproductivityinfluenced ;bydiversitiesinsoil,height,slope,hydrothermal ;condition,etc.Usually,farmlandswiththesame ;areacannotsubstituteequallybecauseof ;differencesinfarmlandquality.SoweuseSkqkto ;transforillareaoffarmlandintostandardizedarea ;offarmlandwhichcanbesubstitutedequally,and ;wecallitstandardarea.

    ;2.2Measurementofspatialdisparities ;Non-?of??de-?farmingfarmlands

    ;Non?de-?farmingfarmlandsaresuchfarmlands ;thgradientlessthan25..Theformulaforthe ;distributionindexofnon-?de-?farmingfarmlandis: ;?(xq×)

    ;v=』皇———————×1oo

    ;l”

    ;?

    ;uisthedistributionindexofno.defarmed

    ;farmland,hrkiStheidentificationparameterof

    ;farmland(1fornon./de.farmedfarmland,ando ;forothers).

    ;Thevalueofu{alsorangesfromoto100, ;Whenvf=o,itindicatesthatthereisnofarmland ;intheneighborhoodofwhenvi=100,itmeans ;tllatalllandarefarmlandsintheneiborhoodof ;f.

    ;2.3Measurementofspatialdisparitiesof ;transportationaccessibilityforfood ;security

    ;Factorsinfluencingtransportationaccessibility ;f0rfoodsecurityincludethedistributionof ;transportationlinesanddirentlandformsinthe ;reservoirareaofThreeGorges.Theindexof ;transportationaccessibilityiscalculatedbythe ;followingformula:

    ;(3)

    ;istheindexoftransportationaccessibilityof ;landunit:risthenumberofthefactors ;influencingtransportationaccessibility;wjisthe ;weightofpi,andpiisthefuzzyindexfunctionof ;evaluatingfactor.

    ;fiscalculatedbyafuzzymul廿.factor

    ;comprehensiveevaluationmodelbasedonmap ;algebraoperation.Theformulaisasfollow: ;g(x)=

    ;?一易

    ;1when以一易<<+

    ;

    ;-(…一易

    ;init,=2,,:!(4)

    ;41n2din2

    ;a,b,c,darefourparametersthatidentifythe ;shapeoftheindexfunction.Whenisbetween. ;6)and(a+6),theindexreachestoitsmaximum,1. ;Whenisnomorethan(Q6),ornolessthan(Q+

    ;6),theindexiscalculatedbytheabovefunction. ;Whenxisequaltocord.theindexiSO.5. ;Thevalueofrangesfromoto100,when=

    ;100,itmeansthesituationoftransportationisthe ;bestinthearea,When=o,itindieatesthe ;situationoftransportationistheworstinthearea. ;?

    ;0

;0

    

    ;?

    ;=

    ;

    ;3Simulationofthe

    ;foodsecurity

    ;indexofde-farming

    ;Inordertoquantitatetheleveloffoodsecurity. ;theindexoffoodsecurityiSinduced.Thebigger ;thevalueofthisindexiS.thebettertheleveloffood ;security.andviceversa.ThevalueoftheindexiS ;determinedbytheinterplayamongUi,Ui,.Uiand ;varyinthesamedirectionwiththefoodsecurity ;index,whichmeansthebiggerthevaluesofUand ;.thehighertheleveloffoodsecurity.Onthe ;contrary,Uivariesintheoppositedirectionwith ;thefoodsecurityindex.whichmeansthebiggerthe ;valueofUi,thelowertheindexoffoodsecurity.For ;betterunderstanding,UiisreplacedbyU‟i,whichis

    ;calculatedasfollow:

    ;“.

    ;,=

    ;1-ui

    ;(u))MAX(u×?..c5

    ;MAX(u)isthemaximumofUiinthewhole

    ;reservoirareaofThreeGorges.

    ;SupposeAistheindexoffoodsecurity,then: ;Al=W114+WV+(6)

    ;AiiStheindexoffoodsecurityforlandunitf.W ;?u,?raretheweightsforu,Ui,,whichare

    ;endowedwiththevaluesofO.66,O.26,O.08.The ;valueofAirangesfromOto1OO,thebiggerthe ;value.thehighertheleveloffoodsecurity. ;Therelocationoffarmlandsafterde.farming ;wouldoftenoccurwithinthelevelofadministrative ;village.Iffarmlandsareadjustedwithintheunits ;oftownorcounty,acceptabledistancefor ;cultivationwillbeexceeded.andfarmershaveto ;changetheirlivingplacesandbecome

    ;environmentalemigrants.So,farmlandsrelocation ;acrossadministrativevillagesiSquitecomplicated. ;ItiScalculatedthattheaverageradiusof ;administrativevillagesinthereservoirareaiS1I22

    ;km.Concerningtheirregularityofthespatialshape, ;theradiusofthemodelingneighborhoodiSdefined ;as1.5km.

    ;Thefoodsecurityindexforde.farmingcanbe ;calculatedthroughformula(5),theresultsrange ;from10to1OO.Taking30aStheinterva1.three ;differentspatialty

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