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    SomeHotPointsofBambooandRattanintheWorld ;ZHANGXinping

    ;(ChineseAcademyofForestry,Beijing,100091) ;Abstract:BambooandrattanaremainlydistributedintropicalandsubtropicalareasofAsia,Africa

    ;andSouthAmericaandarewidelyusedinindustrialandagriculturalproduction,andhaveabroad

    ;prospectinwholenationaleconomyandpeople’sdailylifeintheworld.Somehotpointsintheirde— ;velopmenttrendarementionedinthepaper,suchasbamboocharcoal,textiles,healthfoodand

    ;ecologicaltourism.

    ;Keywords:bambooandrattanresources;bamboocharcoal;textiles;ecologicaltourism;prospect

    ;ofdevelopment

    ;摘要竹子和藤类在植物王国中是一个大家族,是森林资源的重要组成部分.世界竹藤植物主要分布

    ;在亚洲,非洲和南美洲的热带和亚热带地区,竹藤产品及其副产品在世界的农业生产乃至整个国民经

    ;济及人民生活中有着广泛的用途和发展前景.对目前竹藤开发的几个热点领域——竹炭,健食品,

    ;竹纤维和生态旅游的发展趋势进行了阐述.

    ;关键词竹藤资源竹炭竹纤维生态旅游发展趋势

    ;Bamboosandrattansareimportantplantsamong ;forestresourcesintheworld.Theyaremainnon

    ;woodforestresourceswitheconomic,ecologicaland ;socialbenefits,andarethechiefsubstitutesofwood ;inplacesofwoodshortage.Thereare17millionha ;ofbambooforestsintheworld.with1200more ;species.TheyaremainlydistributedinEastAsia ;andneighborhood.Someofthemaredistributedin ;AfricaandSouthAmerica.Theyarecharacterized ;byfastgrowth,highoutputandhigheconomicben

    ;efit.Bambooforestisreputedasgreengolden ;mine”,andmuchimportanceisattachedtothemby

    ;bambooproducingcountries.

    ;Rattansareplantsbelongingtopalmfamily.There ;are600species,13generaintheworld.Theyareof ;twokinds.oneisnaturalandtheothercultivated. ;TheyaredistributedinMalaysia,Indonesia,Laos,

    Ianka,thePhilippines,Indiaand ;Bangladesh,Sri

    ;China.TheyarealsowidelydistributedinAfrica, ;suchasinSenegal,Coted’Ivoire,Ghana,Benin

    ;andNigeriaofWesternAfrica,andCameroon,the

;CongoandGabonofCentralAfrica,etc.Thedistri

    ;butionofindividualrattanspeciesisnoteven.It ;rangesfromthousandsto1or2millionsquareme

    ;ters.RattanresourcesofAsiaandAfricaare ;

    ;4一一

    ;sharplyreducedwiththeincreaseofruralpopula

    ;tion,damageoftropicalforestsandoveruseofrat

    ;tans.ForexampleinChina,only10;20re

    ;quirementindomesticmarketcanbemetbyrattan ;supply.InIndia,themaincommercialrattanisless ;seeninoriginalproducingarea;inBangladesh,rat

    ;tanprocessingindustrymainlyreliesonimportma

    ;terials,butinrecentyears,withthereductionof ;rattanresourcesinneighborcountries,andincrease ;ofimportprice,alotofenterprisesareforcedto ;stopproduction.InSriLanka,theforestareahas ;graduallydecreasedforahundredmoreyears.Inre

    ;centyears,theaverageannualreductionis2%.Ac

    ;cordinglyrattanresourcesarealsoreduced[,the ;areaoftropicalrainforestsinGhanawasreducedby ;bigmargininrecent20years.20yearsago,16O ;thousandhaofnaturalforestswereconservedin ;Ghana.Itwasreducedby5O10yearsago.Now ;only8Othousandhaareleft.Lastyear,therere

    ;mainonlylessthan20thousanclhaF.ThelOSSof ;rattanrsol1rcesisconceivab1e.

    ;1Bambooproductsofhighnewtechnology ;1.1Utilizationofbamboocharcoalandvinegar ;Inthebeginningof21century,humanityfaces ;

    ;greatchallenge,becausepeoplesattentionisdrawn ;bythequestionofdwindlingresourcesandsustain;

    ;abledevelopment.Bambooischaracterizedbyshort ;rotation,easyregeneration,fastgrowth,earlyma

    ;turityandeasysustainedmanagement,somoreat

    ;tentionispaidtoitbythepeople.Inrecentyears, ;muchprogressinbambooprocessingandutilization ;ismadebyexpertsandscholarsbothforeignanddo

    ;mestic,sogreatSuccessinbambooindustrydevel

    ;opmenthasbeenachieved.Incaseofindustrialuti

    ;lization,besidessometraditionaluses,onewayof ;utilizationisbamboopulpingandpapermakingand ;waremakingfordailyuse;theotherwayisbamboo

    ;basedpanelmaking.Theboardsarewidelyusedas ;bottomboardsoftrucks,floor,templatesandin ;furnituremaking.Onthewhole,inbamboopro

    ;cessing,theactua1rateofbambooutilizationis1ess ;than1/3ofthecuttingrate.Mostofresiduesare ;notwel1used.The1eve1ofmechanizationinham

    ;booprocessingislowandcostishigh.Mostofculm ;utilizationisunderextensivemanagement,sothere ;isgreatpotentialityforfurtherutilization.Forfull ;useofbambooresources,increasingvalueaddedof ;productsandopeningupnewmarket,peoplebegin ;topayattentiontochemicaluseofbamboo.Bamboo ;charcoalproductionisoneofsuchuse.Accordingto ;calculationbvFAO,from2020to2050,thecon

    ;sumptionrateofcharcoa1wil1be3450millionm.;

    ;3930m.intheworldrespectively[.Thecalcula

    ;tionbytheworldbank,showsthatthecharcoal ;consumptionratein2010wil1be3450millionm.. ;During1996~2010,theincreasingrateis68.As ;thenaturalresourcesintheworldaregraduallyre;

    ;duced,andnaturalforestprotectionprojectinChina ;iscarriedout,theconsumptionofwoodresourcesis ;restricted.Tofindasubstancesubstitutingwood ;charcoalisimperative.Bamboocharcoalisamain ;productwhichisobtainedbycumandresidueafter ;pyrolyzation,andtheby——productisvinegar.Bam;

    ;boocharcoalmakingnotonlycangiveeconomic, ;ecologicalandsocialbenefits,butalsocanimprove ;industrilizationdevelopmentandvalueincreasingof ;bambooresources.Bamboocharcoa1isakindof ;newlydevelopedproductrecently.Itsformmaybe ;tubular,striategranular,powderandtechnologi

    ;ca1.Itsscopeofutilizationisextremelywide.It ;maybeusedforairandwaterpurification,health ;protection,freekeeping,soilimprovement,deodor

    ;ization,electromagneticscreening,etc.Bamboo ;charcoalrepresentsanewdirectionofculmdevelop;

    ;mentandutilization.Ithasdenseproperty,special ;microporousstructure,withminera1content, ;strongabsorbilityandanionpenetrationfunction.It ;canpurifytapwater,foulwater,runningriver, ;fishingfarm,wetbodyandabsorbperspirationand ;saliva.Itcanbealsousedasmateria1ofresidence ;environment.Forexample,itmaybeputitinto

    ;floorandwallandcanregulatewatercontent.In ;addition.bamboocharcoa1hasthefunctionofan

    ;ions,andcanmaketheresidencecomfortablefor ;livingbypeople.Inrecentyears,2000bamboo ;charcoalsareexportedtoJapanandKoreafromChi

    ;na.Therichpeopleofthesecountriesbegantoenjoy ;it.Accordingtoinformation,bambooactivecarbon ;madeaftervaportreatment,hasevenmicroporous ;structure.Thespecificsurfaceareacanincrease ;from500m/gto900m/g.Theyieldofactivecar

    ;bonis689/6.Ithasbestabsorbility.Ithasnatural ;fragranceandthefunctionoffarinfraredray.Pil;

    ;1owsandmatressesmadeofitcancurearthritis. ;andcanletmanenjoyagoodsleep.Bamboochar;

    ;coalalsohasafunctionofskinprotection.Per;

    ;fumedsoap,shampooliquidandbeautycreamcan ;bemadeofit,whichcanmakeskinbrighten,fresh ;andcoo1.Charcoalmadeathightemperatureisa ;kindofmaterial,withhighelectricconductivity.It ;hasthecharactersofelectomagneticscreening, ;lightness,fireandheatresistance,andchemical ;stability.Itcanbeusedinmakingelectronicinstru;

    ;ments,vehicles,aircraft,andasnew,highgrade ;constructionmaterials[5:.Besides,itcanbeusedin ;foodprocessing.

    ;Japanesepeopleputstickcharcoalorhightern;

    ;peraturecharcoalintoricewhichisboiled.Itcan ;makericefragrant.Theyusebamboocharcoalto ;filterwine(Japanesericewine),andproduceakind ;ofnewwinewithspecialtaste.namelyJapanese ;whisky.Yellowpaperboxmadewithbamboochar

    ;————

    ;

    ;coalcankeepfruitandvegetablefresh.Besidesit ;canbeused3sfieldcookingfuelforroasting,being ;cleananddelightfu1.Bamboovinegarisakindof ;complexreddishbrownliquid,andcanbeusedas ;additiveoffodderandpesticide.Inpharmacy,it ;maybeusedas3ningradientinaprescriptionto ;curestomachtroubleandtoprotectskin,or3san ;additivetosmokedfood.Methylalcoholandacetic ;acidcanbealsoextractedfromit,moreover,itis3n ;activematterofmicroorganism,used3ssoildisin

    ;fectant,compostfermentingagentandplantgrowth

;regulatorijo

    ;Accordingtoinformation,bamboovinegar ;mixedatacertainratiowithbamboocharcoalcan ;leadtosoilimprovement,andcanimprovethe ;growthofcroproots,withfruityield,andwith ;fruitqualityimproved.Besides,bamboovinegar ;hasalotofmixedheterocyclicmatter,andcandis

    ;Dellinsects,so,itcanbeusedasanthelmintic. ;Bamboocharcoalandvinegararewidelyusedinin

    ;dustryagricultureandemcirnomentalprotection ;fieldinJapanandKorea.Evennowthetotalcon

    ;sumptionisnothigh,but,itispredicted,withthe ;gradualdevelopmentofnewproductsintheenviro

    ;mentalprotectionfield,bamboowillbecome3new ;hottopic.Forexample,inJapan,compositionanal

    ;ysisismadeofvinegarfrom5yearsoldmoso.A ;testofitseffectonseedgerminationandgrowthis ;carried()ut.Resultsshowthatthetotalrateofor

    ;ganicmatteris7.7/00,withvinegarbeingabout ;58.7..

    ;Bamboovinegarsprayinghasstrongeffectonseed ;germinationandgrowthinhibition.Intheviewof ;developmenttrendofbamboocharcoalandvinegar ;inthefuture,newfieldofdevelopmentshouldbe ;openedup.Such3sstudyoncharcoalpreparation, ;whichcanbeusedtoremovenuclearradioactivityof ;radiatedpatientsandthepoisonousmatterinthe ;courseofmetabolizminhumanbody.Itcanbeused ;aselectrodematerialofmicroelectronics,functional ;materialsofallkindsofcomposite,andforstorage ;ofenergymaterialsofhighdensity(hydrogen, ;methane).Itisalsousedinseparatingandrefining ;ofhighly——purematter.Inthemedicalfieldre

    ;searchshouldbeconductedintreatingdiabetesand ;difficultandcomplicatedcases.Itcanbeforecasted ;thatbamboocharcoalandvinegarwillhave3posi

    ;tion3s3newtypematerialinthehighnewtechno

    ;logicalfield.

    ;1.2Developmentofbamboomedicalandhealth ;products

    ;Inrecentyears,withtheraisingofeconomy, ;moreandmorecustomersattentionarepaidto ;healthfood.Studyonmedicalvalue,pharmacology ;andbiologicalefficiencyofbamboosdrawspeople’s

;attentiontomedical,foodandnutrientfieldsindo

    ;mesticandforeigncountries.Lateron,bamboo ;medicine,beverage,andmedicalfoodaredevel

    ;oDed,andsomeofthemoncearesoldonmarket, ;theyarewelcomedbythepeople.Meantime,re

    ;markableeconomicbenefitisachieved.Bamboo ;shootis3kindoffoodwithhighnutritivevalue, ;freshanddelicious,andissoldwel1.Ithasbecome ;3pillarindustryforutilizationofbambooresources. ;Anditisahealthfoodoflowfatandlesspollution. ;Itisnotonlywelcomedbypeopleinbamboopro

    ;ducingcountries,butisalsolikebypeopleofNorth ;AmericaandWesternEurope.InJapan,theaver- ;ageconsumptionofbambooshootincreasedfrom ;1.2kgin1950sto3kgnow.Especiallyinrecent ;vears,highlevelconsumptionleadstodiversityof ;demand.Therearedifferentlifehabitsandtastesin ;differentplaces.Tomeetthefasttempooflifeand ;demandoftourismdevelopment,various0fshoots ;foreasypreservation,easycarrying,andconvement ;usearedeveloped,suchasbaggedshoot,canned ;shoot,touristproduct,andpurenaturalproduct ;withoutchemicaladditives.Thelatterisparticular

    ;lywelcomedbythepeople.Moreover,bamboo ;shoothashungersatisfyingandweightreducing ;effect.Itisalso3goodexportproducttoearnfor

    ;eignexchange.Inrecentyears,thebambooproduc

    ;ingprovincesinsouthChinaalsopayattentionto ;bambooby-——productswhiletheydevelopbamboo ;industry.Especiallytheyspendeffortsindevelop

    ;ingbamboodrink.Theflavonenutrientcontaining ;lactonessuch3sbamboole3fflavoneglucosideand ;coumarinisdevelopedbyZhejiangscientists.Bam

    ;

    ;boobeer”istheproductdevelopedandsoldonmar—

    ;ket.Theserialdrinksmadeofbambooleavesare ;bambooleafjuice,carbonicdrink,bambooleaf ;wine,bambooleafcrystalsetc.Inaddition. ;Phyllostachysglauceleafhealthdrinkandmixed ;drinkofpineneedleandbambooleaf.etc.These ;drinkshavethefunctionsofbloodfatreduction,hy

    ;pertension,antipyresis.diuresisandbeingcon

    ;ducivetomentalsobriety.Developmentofedible ;pigmentisalsodevelopedrecently.Naturalpigment

    ;canbeextractedfromchlorophyllrichinbamboo ;leaves7.Thischlorophyllwithoutpoisonandpecu

    ;lJarsmellisfreshincolorandedible.Withbamboo ;leafasrawmateria1.chlorophyllketosodiumsalt ;canbemade.Thissalthasbeenconsideredasnatu

    ;ralpigmentadditivebymanycountriesandwidely ;usedinbeverage,milk,sweets.cannedfoodand ;cakes.So,themedicaluseofbamboochlorophyll ;ketosodiumsaltandhealthproductshavebroad ;prospectofdevelopment.

    ;1.3Manufactureofbamboofibertextiles ;Manufactureofbamboofibertextilesoriginated ;fromJapan.Withtheincreasingconcernaboutenvi

    ;ronmentandresourcesproblemsbyhumanity.barn

    ;booproductsaremoreandmoreinpeople’sfavor.

    ;Itsconsumptionhasbecomeafashion.Bamboo ;culmisarenewableresource,andisinexhaustible. ;Toproduceapieceofbambooproductneedslessen

    ;ergyconsumedthanplasticandmetalproduct,and ;lessenvironmentalpollutioniscaused.Nowadays. ;bamboofibertextileisnotonlyaproductofhigh ;technology,butalsoanewproductofhighadded ;value.Thematerialofcottontextilefortheoutside ;ofgarmentsmaybecottonfiber.chemicalfiberand ;flaxfiber.Withtheraisingoflivingstandard,the ;materialsofcottonandflaxfiberaremorewe1comed ;bypeople,becausethesetwohavebetterfunctions ;ofventilationandeasytoremovesweat.Bamboo ;fibertextilehasbeenonmarketinJapan.Itissuit

    ;ableformakingsuminercloththanothertextiles. ;Testsshowthatbamboofiberhasaseriesofadvan

    ;tagesoverthatofcottonfibers.Atfirst,inviewof ;fiberstructure,itscrosssectionhasmanvelliptical ;pores,whichfacilitatequickabsorptionandevapo

    ;rationofmoisture.Perspirationcanbesoonre.. ;movedfrombody,so,suminerclothesmadeof ;bamboofibertextilecanmakeyoufeelCOOlineIe

    ;gantdemeanor.Theotheradvantageislightness ;andsoftness,creaseproofnexttotheskinIs~.

    ;Moreover,ithasthefunctionofultravioletresis

    ;tance.Testsshowthatitslightpenetrationisonly ;0.06underirradiationofultravioletray.while ;thatofflax,silkandcottonis25.So,bamboo ;fiberclothingcaneffectivelyresistirradiationoful

    ;travioletray,andhastheskinbetterprotected. ;WiththeraisingofeconomicdevelopmentinChina ;andthestrongpropensityofreturningtooriginal ;naturalstatus.inapparelwhatonepursueislash

    ;ionandindividualization.Butthepriceofbamboo ;fibertextileishigh.Asetoffemaleclothingmay ;cost400USD.However,itisalsowelcomedbythe ;people.Nowadays,thescientistsofChinahaveal

    ;readysucceededinsilkreelingandsofteningofbarn

    ;boofiber.Thisisthekeyofthetechnology.Itnot ;onlyshouldbeuptothestandardofenvironmenta1 ;protection,butalsoshouldbefineandeven.The ;productsturnedoutareclot’hing,tableclothsand

    ;shoes.Furtherresearchesareunderwaytoimprov

    ;ingthecolor,fiberlengthandevenness.Thenew ;productisoflowcost,highqualityandnewerenvi

    ;ronmentalprotection.Ithasdrawntheattentionof ;thebambooproducingareasandthetextileindustry ;theworldover.Wehopetheconcerneddevelop.. ;mentsformulatetradestandard,uniformtechnical ;specificationnice,andtrademarktodevelopmarket ;toensurethesteadydevelopmentofbamboofiber ;textj1as.

    ;2Bambooecologicaltourism

    ;Nowadays,ecologicaltourismisahotspot. ;“Returntonature”and”foresttourism”havebe—

    ;comeafad,soenvironmentalutilizationofbamboo ;forestsshouldbestrengthened.Withtheincreaseof ;culturallevelofthepeople,theunderstandingof ;ecologicalbenefitofbambooforestisalsodeepened. ;Ecologicalfunctionaluseisnotonlylimitedtosoil ;andwaterconservation,conservationofwatersup

    ;plyandenvironmentalprotection,butbamboo ;

    ;7

    ;

    ;forestsshouldbetransformedintoscenicforestsfor ;developmentoftourism.Tourismhasbecomea ;mostprofitabletradewhichdevelopmostfastinthe ;world.Andwillmaintainamomentumofvigorous ;development.Inincomeoftourismis6oftotal ;GNPintheworld,withanannualincreaseof6. ;InSingapore,MalaysiaandThailand,theannual ;increaseofinternationaltouristsisl0,andthere

    ;ceptioncapacityincreasesoverl7.Thequota ;sharedis40intheworld..InChina,domestic ;touristswere980millionin2000,foreignvisitors ;were82.10million.Theforeignexchangeearned ;was20300millionUSD.Theto?

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