By Stephanie Parker,2014-07-10 19:20
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Queensland ...




    This paper has been prepared by the National Pro Bono Resource Centre („the Centre‟)

    to provide a background for parties interested in discussing the legal needs of older persons in NSW and how they might be met through specifically targeted resources and services. The paper deliberately focuses on access to legal services for older persons but acknowledges that their legal problems need to be addressed in a wider context which includes the role of education, law enforcement, addressing technological barriers to accessing legal information and effective methods of communication with older persons. The Centre has prepared this paper and convened the roundtable meeting in accordance with its role of brokering relationships between communities in need and legal service providers.

    Legal needs of older persons

    Legal needs of older persons are often complex and can cross over many legal areas. They are further complicated by additional obstacles that beset many older people such as diminished mental capacity, intimidation and medical problems.

    The sorts of law-related issues faced by older persons, their families and carers can include:

? Age Discrimination

    ? Elder Abuse

    ? Consumer Rights

    ? Employment and Retirement

    ? Estate and Financial Planning

    ? Family Law (including family care agreements and custody of grandchildren) ? Guardianship

    ? Healthcare

    ? Housing (including retirement villages, nursing homes and tenancies) ? Pensions and Superannuation

    ? Wills and Powers of Attorney

    A detailed study of the legal needs of older people in NSW was undertaken by the NSW Law and Justice Foundation in 2004. The results were published by the Foundation in its report Access to Justice: The legal needs of older people in NSW (Dec 2004).

    The above law-related issues involve both Commonwealth and State laws and many require quite specific legal knowledge and expertise. The Commonwealth, and the States, through budget allocations, fund legal aid, community legal centres (CLCs) and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Service which provide legal services to members of the community which of course include older persons.

    In NSW the Aged-care Rights Service provides advocacy for the residents of

    Commonwealth funded hostels and nursing homes, self-care retirement villages and recipients of in-home aged care in NSW but it is not a legal advice service. Other


generalist CLCs in NSW provide legal advice but have limited resources and many are

    limited to serving particular geographic areas.

    The Legal Aid Commission of NSW provides services mainly in the areas of criminal

    and family law and also provides civil law services from most of its offices. While the

    Commission does not grant aid for all civil law matters and it does have a means and

    merit test, the Commission's Board has recently approved developing proposals to target

    older persons as a priority client group. Activities to give effect to this Board decision

    are well underway.

    Current Commonwealth parliamentary inquiry into older people and the law

    The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs

    is currently undertaking an inquiry into older people and the law. The definition of

    „older‟ Australians adopted in this inquiry is that of persons aged 65 years or older. Its

    terms of reference require it to report on the adequacy of current legislative regimes in

    addressing the legal needs of older Australians specifically in the areas of fraud,

    financial abuse, powers of attorney, family agreements, barriers in older persons

    accessing legal assistance, and discrimination. The Committee has received 112

    submissions from individuals and organizations, many of which are available at As part of the

    inquiry, a series of public hearings is being conducted. Public hearings will be held in

    Sydney on 14 and 15 of May 2007.


    The Queensland Department of Communities has committed $1.9m to fund a one year

    pilot for older persons‟ legal services in Brisbane (at Caxton Legal Centre), Hervey Bay, Toowoomba, Townsville and Cairns with funds to flow from April 2007.

    The Seniors‟ Advocacy Information and Legal Service (SAILS) was initially set up in 1998 by Caxton Legal Centre, Queensland‟s oldest non-profit community based legal

    service with a „Legal Outreach for Older People‟ service established under a special

    grant from the QLD State Government.. The service was set up to protect and advocate

    for older persons who are at risk of becoming victims or are victims of domestic (non-

    spousal) violence. It provided both a social worker and a solicitor to offer advice and, in

    some cases, limited counselling and legal representation to older persons in abusive or

    potentially abusive environments. The service ran for 4 years but ceased when it was

    unable to obtain further funds

    Caxton now employs 11 effective full time staff (including 6 lawyers, 2 social workers

    and a publications coordinator), but this is soon to increase to 19 workers with the

    additional funding under the new one year pilot scheme. However the majority of its

    direct client services are provided by more than 200 volunteer solicitors, barristers,

    academics, trainee lawyers, law clerks and students. The majority of Caxton‟s clients

    are economically and/or socially disadvantaged in some way and over a third are in

    receipt of Centrelink benefits.

    Many of the older clients legal problems tend to be multi-layered in nature and often involve a mixture of questions relating to estate planning, social security entitlement,

    capacity concerns and substituted decision making, undue influence, other forms of 1abuse and exploitation, family law, property issues and system abuses.

     1 Submission from Caxton Legal Centre to the House of Representatives Legal and Constitutional

    Standing Committee Inquiry into Older persons and the Law, December 2006.


A relevant recommendation made by Caxton Legal Centre to the current House of Reps.

    inquiry is that:

    Funds need to be injected into making sure that there are sufficient free or low cost

    (long term) counselling and legal services which are able to provide a broad range of

    service delivery modes including home visits, outreach services, telephone and face-to-

    face services, advice to carers and community legal education to older people accessing

    legal assistance or dealing with Centrelink. We submit that federal funds should be

    made available to establish specialist community legal centres for the aged and that 2specific funding for litigation positions should be included in such funding


    In March 2005 the Victorian Government announced an inquiry into the abuse of

    elderly people in Victoria. Two of the key recommendations of that inquiry were that a

    community based legal service and an elder abuse prevention unit be established. In

    June 2006, the Victorian Minister for the Aged announced that the government would

    provide $1.25 million to establish a dedicated legal and advocacy service for older

    persons in the Department of Justice. As well as offering a service to older people and their families, staff will train lawyers in the 31 generalist community legal centres, 24 3specialist and 14 legal aid offices on the issues facing older Victorians. The Centre

    understands that $300K has been provided to Victoria Legal Aid and $300K to

    Department of Victorian Communities to establish these two services.

    The Minister said in the media release that a “partnership would be formed with the existing 69 Victorian Community legal centres and legal aid offices to create a pool of

    specialist lawyers trained in the legal issues facing older people.

    At the Loddon Campaspe Community Legal Centre based in Bendigo, the Older

    Persons‟ Legal Program is a two year pilot project which began in May 2006. It is funded by Philanthropic trusts with a 0.8EFT (equivalent full time) solicitor position.

    Emphasising an older person‟s need for face to face consultation, it has focussed on

    developing partnerships with community organisations. Some outreach centres have

    been established to provide free legal advice and information on a number of legal

    issues including: accommodation, aged discrimination, finance and consumer issues,

    elder abuse, family agreements, health and welfare issues, wills, and more. A panel of

    pro bono private solicitors has been brought together to extend the capacity of the

    outreaches and engage the private profession in elder law issues.

    Stakeholders/Interested parties in NSW

    This doesn‟t purport to be an exhaustive list but aims to include key organisations that

    have a strong interest in this issue.

    Department of Ageing, Disability and Home Care (DADHC)

    DADHC is the department in charge of support and services for older persons, those

    with disabilities and their carers. The Office for Ageing, created in 2002, is located

    within this department and their main task is to anticipate, advise and implement the

    necessary government changes needed to accommodate an ageing population.

    Legal Aid NSW

    The Legal Aid Commission of NSW is established under the Legal Aid Commission

    Act 1979 of New South Wales and is an independent statutory body. It provides legal

     2 at p.6. 3 Media Release from the Minister for Aged Care 15 June 2006, “Dedicated Legal Service to support

    Older Victorians.


aid and other legal services to disadvantaged people. It provides free legal advice and

    minor assistance at its head office in Sydney as well as at 20 regional offices, numerous

    advice clinics located in various metropolitan and country centres and specialist services.

    Legal Aid may also provide grants of legal aid for representation in many civil, family,

    criminal, administrative law, mental health and veteran's matters. For most services

    clients must meet means and merit tests. Also clients usually have to pay some money

    towards the cost of their case.

Public Trustee

    The Public Trustee was established in 1913 and has 19 branches throughout New South

    Wales providing services such as making wills, creating and managing trusts and

    providing attorney services. Administration fees for these services are set by the


    Benevolent Society

    The Benevolent Society is a NSW based charity that works with women, children,

    families, older people and communities across NSW. The Society strives to support and

    assist older persons (and their families) to maintain independent living and to continue

    to be active within their communities. Resources on the Society‟s website include

    literature on social issues facing older persons as well as advice for carers and family


    Centre for Elder Law University of Western Sydney (UWS)

    The UWS, through its Centre for Elder Law, is one of only two universities in Australia

    teaching the subject Elder Law. It published the Elder Law Review in 2004 and 2005

    raising awareness within the Australian legal community of legal issues faced by older 4. persons and is examining the feasibility of developing a program for legal practitioners

    Combined Pensioners & Superannuants Association (CPSA)

    CPSA was established in 1931 to advocate for the rights of pensioners in New South

    Wales. CPSA provides pensioners, superannuants and low-income retirees with

    information and advice and acts as an advocate for its constituents on a variety of issues.

    They have produced fact sheets for the public on matters such as health, funerals, aged

    care and income security and are aware of the need for legal services for older persons.

    CPSA auspices the Park and Village Service (PAVS) and the Older Persons Tenants‟

    Service (OPTS) that advocate on behalf of residents of parks and manufactured home

    estates. It provides training, resources, advocacy and information on the rights and

    responsibilities of residential park residents, public & private tenants and older tenants.

    Combined Community Legal Centres Group (CCLCG) in New South Wales

    Community legal centres throughout New South Wales provide free advice and

    information as well as legal education on a variety of issues that affect older persons.

    The peak body of CLCs in NSW is the Combined Community Group of CLCs.

    Particular centres that have significant client bases of older persons are The Elizabeth

    Evatt Community Legal centre and the Disability Discrimination Legal Centre.

    NSW Law & Justice Foundation

    The NSW Law and Justice Foundation is an independent statutory body working to

    improve access to justice in NSW, particularly for socially and economically

    disadvantaged people. In 2004 the Foundation, as part of its Access to Justice and Legal

    Needs Study published The Legal Needs of Older People which examined the barriers

     4 NSW Ministerial Advisory Committee on Ageing submission to the House of Representatives Legal and

    Constitutional Standing Committee Inquiry into Older Persons and the Law. 5 December 2006, p. 5.


older persons face in obtaining legal assistance to resolve legal issues. The Foundation

    places an emphasis on research and producing plain English materials.

    NSW Young Lawyers

    NSW Young Lawyers is a division of the Law Society of NSW. It works to heighten

    awareness of the issues faced by the disadvantaged and to match the personal and

    professional skills of members with volunteer opportunities throughout the community.

    In April 2006 the Community Services Committee of the NSW Young Lawyers

    published Older People & the Law, providing the seniors of New South Wales with a plain English guide to legal services and issues in the state.

    The Aged Rights Care Service (TARS) TARS is a community legal centre advocating for the rights of residents in

    Commonwealth funded care for the aged (hostels, nursing homes, in-home care, etc.).

    Information fact sheets and booklets regarding aged care issues are available through its

    website (

    Office of the Public Guardian and Office of the Protective (Financial) Commissioner

    Both these offices exist within the NSW Attorney-General‟s Department and, whilst not

    specifically concerned with older persons, have many elder clients. The Office of the

    Public Guardian exists to promote the rights and interests of people with disabilities

    through the practice of guardianship, advocacy and education. The Protective

    Commissioner provides financial management services for people who are unable to

    manage their own affairs due to disability.

National Pro Bono Resource Centre

    2 April 2007


    Possible Issues for Discussion

    (Comments by Sue Field from UWS Elder Law)

    Identifying the legal need of older persons

    Key areas of immediate need?

    ? The provision of a legal service specifically targeting older persons who cannot, for

    financial reasons, access legal advice and are therefore denied access to justice. ? Assistance at local courts (note Tasmanian Magistrate‟s Project on accessibility of

    courts for older persons))

How are the legal needs of older persons different from others?

    ? As we age we have less time to recoup financial losses occasioned either by

    mismanagement or abuse, we often also have insufficient financial resources and

    mental and emotional stamina to seek the services of a solicitor to address the

    situation. Sometimes the situation may only require simple advice or in more severe

    cases legal proceedings may be called for, however, without access to free legal

    advice the older person remains in ignorance of their rights and remedies. Many of

    the situations that arise cannot be dealt with solely by legal intervention and the

    collaboration of lawyers with social workers is essential. Equally, as we age some

    issues become more pressing, ie estate planning and substitute decision making.

Identifying existing services in NSW, their areas of operation and their limitations.

    ? TARS is really the only service available and their mandate is essentially restricted

    to accommodation agreements pursuant to the ACA and contracts pursuant to the

    RVA. CLC‟s do offer a service but this is not specifically catering to the needs of

    older persons and training would be required. The Legal Aid Commission is looking

    into this area. Elder Law at UWS remains the only centre in Australia devoted to

    the legal needs of older persons but cannot provide advice.

What are the ways that existing services can work better together?

    ? The proposed meeting on 2 May is an excellent opportunity to find out what is

    happening and to look at forming a central body (clearing house) so that there is

    central agency that collates all the information on all the existing (and proposed)

    legal services for older persons.

Does NSW need a new dedicated legal service for older persons and if so, what is

    the way forward?

    ? Most definitely and such a centre should be combined with a community health

    centre (see Southport Community Legal Centre model). The Centre should also

    offer the services of a social worker and financial planner. There should be face to

    face consultations and a telephone free call number for country people. Students

    who have undertaken, or are enrolled in, the subject elder law could perhaps then

    undertake placements at the centre.


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