Lung Cancer Questions
1. Is fever a common finding with lung cancer? ; 10% of lung CA patients have fevers
; Usually associated with post-obstructive atelectasis, pneumonia or abscess
2. What percent of patients with lung CA present with symptoms at the time of diagnosis?
; 90% of patients have symptoms at the time of diagnosis
2. What are the clinical manifestations of lung CA? ; Bronchopulmonary disease(coughing, dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis)
; 80% of patients
; Metastatic disease(CNS, bone, liver)
; 30% of patients
; Systemic symptoms(malaise, weight loss, anorexia)
; 30% of patients
; Paraneoplastic syndromes
; 2% of patients
3. What are the different types of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung CA?
; Cushing’s syndrome
; Peripheral neuropathy
; Eaton-Lambert syndrome
; Pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthopathy ; Cutaneous
; Acanthosis nigricans
; Hematologic disorders
4. What is the differential diagnosis for a solitary lung nodule?
; Inflammatory/infectious conditions
; Fungal infection
; Neoplastic disorders
; Benign tumors
; Malignant tumors(primary and secondary)
; Congenital lesions
; Traumatic lesions
5. What are the pertinent findings on a chest radiograph in a patient suspected of having
; Mass with irregular borders
; Pleural effusion
; Elevated diaphragm
; Widened mediastinum
; Contralateral nodules
; No calcifications
6. Which radiologic features characterize a benign lesion in a patient with a solitary
; Smooth border
; Homogenous appearance
; Fat within the lesion
; Calcifications in a benign pattern(central, laminated or diffuse) ; Stable size over 2 yrs.
7. What is the likelihood that an adult with a new pulmonary nodule has lung CA?
; 50% if the patient has a significant smoking history
8. What is the incidence of lung CA in the U.S.?
; 1 in 12 for men
; 1 in 19 for women
9. What factors have been linked to the development of lung CA? ; Smoking
; Exposure to uranium, asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chromium, berrylium, aromatic
hydocarbons, chlormethyl ether, isopropyl oils
; Consumption of vegetables or fruits containing B-carotene is protective
10. How is the diagnosis of lung CA confirmed?
; Sputum cytology, bronchoscopy or transthoracic needle biopsy
11. How are patients assessed for operability?
; Cardiac work-p in patients with symptoms of heart disease ; Pulmonary function tests
; Exercise tolerance tests
; Overall performance status
12. How is lung CA classified and staged?
; T(tumor size, site, local invasion, associated atelectasis) ; N(node- hilar, mediastinal, extrathoracic, ispsilateral or contralateral)
; M(metastases present or not)
13. How are the extent and resectability evaluated?
; Bronchoscopy and CT for local and regional extent of the cancer
14. What bronchoscopic finding would suggest unresectability? ; Invasion of the trachea or main carina
15. What CT findings suggest unresectability?
; Bulky metastatic ipsilateral mediastinal adenopathy ; Contralateral mediastinal or extrathoracic metastatic adenopathy ; Invasion or the heart, great vessels, esophagus, trachea or vertebral body
16. Which tests should be included in the work-up for metastatic disease? ; Liver function tests
; Serum calcium levels
; CT of the chest(liver, adrenal glands)
; Bone scan in selected patients
17. What are the most frequent sites of metastases from lung CA? ; Mediastinal lymph nodes
; Contralateral lung
; Adrenal glands
18. How are malignant tumors of the lung classified histologically? ; Primary malignant tumors
; Bronchogenic carcinoma
; Squamous cell
; Large cell
; Small cell
; Bronchial gland
; Pulmonary blastoma
; Secondary malignant tumors
; Metastatic lesions from primary tumors outside the lung
19. Which are the most common metastatic tumors to the lung?
; Soft tissue sarcoma
20. How is preoperative pulmonary functional status assessed?
; PFT’s(spirometry and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide) to establish the extent
of resection(wedge, lobectomy, pneumonectomy)
; Arterial blood gas analysis, V/Q scanning and exercise testing for selected patients
21. What PFT values constitute an acceptable operative risk for pneumonectomy? ; FEV1>60%, maximal voluntary ventilation>50%, and DLco>60%
; Or, predicted post-op FEV1>40% and DLco>40%
22. How does the VO2max help in assessing operability?
; VO2max>15-20mL/kg/min associated with low mortality and acceptable operative
; VO2max<10mL/kg/min is a contraindication for any resection other than a biopsy or
23. In what circumstances is a mediastinoscopy recommended?
; Nodes> 1cm in the paratracheal region
; Nodes>1.5cm in the subcarinal area
; Large hilar masses
; Chest wall involvement
; Recurrent lung CA prior to surgery
; Bilateral lesions
; To exclude small cell CA
24. Why must frozen section analysis be done during surgical procedures? ; Pathologic analysis must be done to verify tumor free margins ; Suspicious nodes must be sampled for biopsy
; Status of hilar and interlobar nodes must be determined
; Possibility of N2 disease must be determined because this information influences type
and extent of resection
25. What should be done if pleural effusion is discovered at the time of thoracotomy? ; Metastatic seeding of the pleura must be ruled out
; Malignant effusion is classified as a T4 tumor(stage IIIB) and contraindicates
26. What are the survival rates for stage I and stage II disease and what are some
; Stage I tumors- 5 yr. survival rate of 60-80%
; Lesions<3cm have better prognosis than larger lesions
; Stage II tumors- 5 yr. survival rate of 40%
; Size, histology, and number of nodes influence prognosis
; Squamous cell CA has far better prognosis than adenocarcinoma
27. What is recommended therapy for stage IIIA cancers, especially for N2 disease?
; Complete resection with mediastinal node dissection
28. How should stage IIIB tumors be managed?
; Therapy limited, prognosis poor, patients considered inoperable ; Neoadjuvant therapy may be beneficial
29. What are the morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resection for lung CA? ; Major complications occur in 10% of patients with stage I and II disease ; 20% complication rate in patient requiring extended resection for stage III disease ; Mortality after lobectomy and pneumonectomy is 1-2% and 4-7%
30. What are the risk factors for post-op complications?
; Age> 70
; Restricted pulmonary reserve
; Need for pneumonectomy