Lecture 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology
Pathology, Infection and Disease
; The concept of normal flora
; Microbial antagonism
3. List and describe the three kinds of symbiotic relationships.
4. Define opportunistic pathogens.
Etiology of Infectious Disease
5. List and describe:
; Koch’s postulates
; The significance and applicability of Koch’s postulates
; The exceptions to Koch’s postulates
Classification of Infectious Disease
; Communicable disease
; Non-communicable disease
; Contagious disease
; Inapparent infection
7. List the basic components of the diagnostic process.
8. Define and differentiate between incidence and prevalence.
9. Differentiate between:
; Local and systemic infections
; Primary and secondary infections
Spread of Infection
10. Define reservoir.
11. List and describe the:
; Five types of reservoirs
; Seven mechanisms of disease transmission
; Five portals of exit
12. Define nosocomial infections.
13. List the:
; Three major determinants of nosocomial infections
; Sources of microorganisms involved in nosocomial infections
; Common bacterial causes of nosocomial infections 14. Describe the
; Role of the compromised host in nosocomial infections
; Chain of transmission in nosocomial infections
; Control of nosocomial infections
Patterns of Disease
15. Define predisposing factors.
16. List the five stages of disease.
; Descriptive epidemiology
; Analytical epidemiology
; Relative risk
; Odds ratio
; Experimental epidemiology
18. Define and describe the following major techniques of analytical epidemiology:
; Cross-sectional study
; Prospective study (follow-up study)
; Retrospective study (case-control) 19. Define and describe:
; Clinical drug trails
; Health education techniques
; Case reporting
20. Explain the purpose of case reporting.
Lecture 15 Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
Entry of Microbes into the Host
2. List the portals of entry of microorganisms. 3. Define:
; LD 50
; ID 50
Evasion of Host Defenses
4. List and describe the mechanisms used by microorganisms to evade host defenses
and give examples of each.
Damage to Host Cells
5. Describe how microorganisms damage host cells. 6. Define and differentiate between exotoxins and endotoxins.
; Exotoxins and give specific examples
; The types of exotoxins
; Endotoxins and give specific examples
; Host responses to endotoxins
; Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay
Plasmids, Lysogeny, and Pathogenicity
8. Define plasmid.
9. Describe the role of plasmids in pathogenicity.
10. Describe how the following microbes caused disease:
11. Describe how algae are involved in disease. 12. Define cytopathic effect.
Lecture 16 Nonspecific Defenses
; Nonspecific resistance
2. Define and differentiate among the:
; First line of defense
; Second line of defense
; Third line of defense
First Line of Defense
3. Describe the first line of defense. 4. List the:
; Mechanical factors involved
; Chemical factors involved
Second Line of Defense
5. List the components of second line of defense.
6. List the:
; Types blood cells
; Phagocytic cells
7. Differentiate between leukocytosis and leukopenia.
8. Define and describe the process of phagocytosis.
9. List the:
; Four cardinal signs of inflammation
; Functions of inflammation
10. Describe the effects of
; Increased permeability
11. List the chemical mediators of inflammation. 12. Define:
; Diapedesis or emigration
; Phagocyte migration
; Diapedesis or emigration
; Tissue repair
15. Give the principal indicator of fever. 16. Describe the induction of fever.
17. Describe and differentiate among the complement pathways (classical, alternative
and lectin pathways).
; The outcomes of complement fixation
; The effects of deficiencies of specific complement proteins
19. Define interferon.
20. Describe the
; Induction of interferon
; Outcome of interferon induction
Lecture 17 The Immune Response
1. List factors affecting resistance.
; Innate resistance
; Acquired immunity
; Active immunity
; Passive immunity
; Naturally acquired immunity
; Artificially acquired immunity
3. List the types of acquired immunity and give specific examples of each. 4. Explain what is meant by the duality of the immune system. 5. Distinguish between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.
Antigens and Antibodies
7. Describe the structure of a typical antibody monomer describing the function of
8. List the five classes of antibodies; give the functions of each, the size, abundance,
and location where found.
9. Identify the site of production of B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages. 10. Describe:
; The function of B cells
; B-cell and antigen interactions
; Clonal selection
11. Differentiate between T-independent and T-dependent antigens and describe how
the B-cell system deals with each one.
12. List and describe the outcomes of antigen-antibody binding and the effects of
each of these outcomes.
Major Histocompatibility Complex
13. Define major histocompatibility complex and explain its significance.
; Monoclonal antibody
; Chimeric monoclonal antibodies
; Humanized antibodies
; Fully human antibodies
; How monoclonal antibodies are produced
; The uses of monoclonal antibodies
16. Define immunotoxin.
17. Describe the function and uses of immunotoxins.
18. List the:
; Nonspecific cellular components of the immune system
; Four functional types of T-cells
; Antigen presenting cells
19. Differentiate between CD4 and CD8 cells. 20. Describe the:
; Roles of T-cells in cell-mediated immunity
; Cell-mediated response
; Functions of the major cytokines
21. Describe immunological memory.
22. Differentiate between primary and secondary responses.
Lecture 18 Practical Applications of Immunology
1. Define vaccine.
2. List the
; Types of vaccines and give and example of each
; Vaccines of major importance
3. Describe the:
; Routes of vaccine administration
; Complications of vaccines
5. Describe and give examples of:
; Precipitation reactions
; Western blot
; Direct and indirect agglutination reactions
; Neutralization reactions
; Complement-fixation reactions
; Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques
; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure
Lecture 19 Immune Disorders
Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis Reactions
; Type I hypersensitivity
; Systemic anaphylaxis reactions
; Local anaphylaxis reactions
; How anaphylactic reactions can be prevented
; Desensitization process to prevent allergic reactions
Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Reactions
3. Describe type II hypersensitivity reactions and give examples.
Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Reactions
4. Describe type III hypersensitivity reactions ands give examples.
5. Describe glomerulonephritis.
Hypersensitivity: Cell-Mediated Reactions
6. Describe type IV hypersensitivity reactions and give examples.
; How autoimmunity occurs
; Type I autoimmunity (autoimmunity against self antigens) and give examples.
; Type II autoimmunity (cytotoxic) and give examples.
; Graves’ disease
; Myasthenia gravis
; Type III autoimmunity (immune complex) and give examples.
; Systemic erythematosus
; Rheumatoid arthritis
; Type IV autoimmunity (cell-mediated) and give examples
Major Histocompatibility Complex
9. Define major histocompatibility complex.
10. Explain how tissue typing is done.
11. List the types of self-antigens.
12. Define privileged sites.
13. List and describe the types of transplants. 14. Describe the problems encountered with transplants and how we deal with them.
15. Define immunosuppression.
16. Define immune deficiency.
17. List the kinds of immune deficiencies.
18. Describe AIDS.
Lecture 20 Chemotherapy
; Chemotherapeutic agents
; Antimicrobial drugs
; Synthetic drugs
; Semisynthetic drugs
2. Describe the history of antimicrobial therapy. 3. Explain why antimicrobial agents are most effective against bacteria.
4. Differentiate between narrow and broad-spectrum drugs. 5. Define:
; Bactericidal drugs
; Bacteriostatic drugs
Mode of Action
6. List the specific modes of action of antimicrobial drugs.
7. Give the antibiotic with
; Fewest side effects
; Broadest spectrum of activity.
8. List the antibacterial drugs that:
; Are used to treat tuberculosis
; Work by inhibition of cell wall synthesis 9. Define penicillinase and describe what it does. 10. List and describe the:
; Semisynthetic penicillins
; Monobactam antibiotics
11. Give the specific functions of isoniazid and ethambutol. 12. List the
; Antibacterial drugs that inhibit protein synthesis
; Aminoglycosides and describe their uses
; Tetracyclines and describe their uses
13. Describe the uses of:
14. List and describe:
; The antibiotic that injuries the plasma membrane
; The antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
; The antibiotics that inhibit the synthesis of essential metabolites.
15. List the antifungal drugs and describe their uses.
16. List the major antiviral drugs and describe their uses. 17. Define
; Nucleotide analog
; Enzyme inhibitor
18. List and describe the major antiprotozoan drugs and give their uses.
19. List and describe the major antihelminthic drugs and give their uses.
; The Kirby-Bauer method of antibiotic susceptibility testing
; How the results of the Kirby-Bauer procedure are interpreted
; The use of broth dilution tests
Effectiveness and Abuse
; Antibacterial resistance
; The effects of drug combinations
; The misuse of antibiotics