Lecture 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology

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Lecture 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology

    Lecture 14 Principles of Disease and Epidemiology

Pathology, Infection and Disease

    1. Define:

    ; Pathology

    ; Etiology

    ; Pathogenesis

    ; Infection

    ; Disease

Normal Flora

    2. Describe

    ; The concept of normal flora

    ; Microbial antagonism

    ; Symbiosis

    3. List and describe the three kinds of symbiotic relationships.

    4. Define opportunistic pathogens.

Etiology of Infectious Disease

    5. List and describe:

    ; Koch’s postulates

    ; The significance and applicability of Koch’s postulates

    ; The exceptions to Koch’s postulates

Classification of Infectious Disease

    6. Define:

    ; Diagnosis

    ; Syndrome

    ; Communicable disease

    ; Non-communicable disease

    ; Contagious disease

    ; Sporadic

    ; Endemic

    ; Epidemic

    ; Pandemic

    ; Acute

    ; Chronic

    ; Subacute

    ; Inapparent infection

    7. List the basic components of the diagnostic process.

    8. Define and differentiate between incidence and prevalence.

    9. Differentiate between:

    ; Local and systemic infections

    ; Primary and secondary infections

Spread of Infection

10. Define reservoir.

    11. List and describe the:

    ; Five types of reservoirs

    ; Seven mechanisms of disease transmission

    ; Five portals of exit

Nosocomial Infections

    12. Define nosocomial infections.

    13. List the:

    ; Three major determinants of nosocomial infections

    ; Sources of microorganisms involved in nosocomial infections

    ; Common bacterial causes of nosocomial infections 14. Describe the

    ; Role of the compromised host in nosocomial infections

    ; Chain of transmission in nosocomial infections

    ; Control of nosocomial infections

Patterns of Disease

    15. Define predisposing factors.

    16. List the five stages of disease.


    17. Define:

    ; Epidemiology.

    ; Descriptive epidemiology

    ; Analytical epidemiology

    ; Relative risk

    ; Odds ratio

    ; Experimental epidemiology

    18. Define and describe the following major techniques of analytical epidemiology:

    ; Cross-sectional study

    ; Prospective study (follow-up study)

    ; Retrospective study (case-control) 19. Define and describe:

    ; Clinical drug trails

    ; Health education techniques

    ; Case reporting

    20. Explain the purpose of case reporting.

    Lecture 15 Mechanisms of Pathogenicity


    1. Define:

    ; Pathogenicity

    ; Virulence

Entry of Microbes into the Host

    2. List the portals of entry of microorganisms. 3. Define:

    ; LD 50

    ; ID 50

Evasion of Host Defenses

    4. List and describe the mechanisms used by microorganisms to evade host defenses

    and give examples of each.

Damage to Host Cells

    5. Describe how microorganisms damage host cells. 6. Define and differentiate between exotoxins and endotoxins.

    7. Describe:

    ; Exotoxins and give specific examples

    ; The types of exotoxins

    ; Endotoxins and give specific examples

    ; Host responses to endotoxins

    ; Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay

Plasmids, Lysogeny, and Pathogenicity

    8. Define plasmid.

    9. Describe the role of plasmids in pathogenicity.

Nonbacterial Microbes

    10. Describe how the following microbes caused disease:

    ; Viruses

    ; Fungi

    ; Protozoans

    ; Helminths

    11. Describe how algae are involved in disease. 12. Define cytopathic effect.

    Lecture 16 Nonspecific Defenses


    1. Define:

    ; Resistance

    ; Susceptibility

    ; Nonspecific resistance

    2. Define and differentiate among the:

    ; First line of defense

    ; Second line of defense

    ; Third line of defense

First Line of Defense

    3. Describe the first line of defense. 4. List the:

    ; Mechanical factors involved

    ; Chemical factors involved

Second Line of Defense

    5. List the components of second line of defense.


    6. List the:

    ; Types blood cells

    ; Phagocytic cells

    7. Differentiate between leukocytosis and leukopenia.

    8. Define and describe the process of phagocytosis.


    9. List the:

    ; Four cardinal signs of inflammation

    ; Functions of inflammation

    10. Describe the effects of

    ; Vasodilatation

    ; Increased permeability

    11. List the chemical mediators of inflammation. 12. Define:

    ; Migration

    ; Margination

    ; Diapedesis or emigration

    13. Describe:

    ; Phagocyte migration

    ; Margination

    ; Diapedesis or emigration

    ; Tissue repair


    14. Define

    ; Fever

    ; Crisis

    15. Give the principal indicator of fever. 16. Describe the induction of fever.


    17. Describe and differentiate among the complement pathways (classical, alternative

    and lectin pathways).

    18. Describe:

    ; The outcomes of complement fixation

    ; Opsonization

    ; The effects of deficiencies of specific complement proteins


    19. Define interferon.

    20. Describe the

    ; Induction of interferon

    ; Outcome of interferon induction

    Lecture 17 The Immune Response


    1. List factors affecting resistance.

    2. Define

    ; Innate resistance

    ; Acquired immunity

    ; Active immunity

    ; Passive immunity

    ; Naturally acquired immunity

    ; Artificially acquired immunity

    3. List the types of acquired immunity and give specific examples of each. 4. Explain what is meant by the duality of the immune system. 5. Distinguish between humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity.

Antigens and Antibodies

    6. Define:

    ; Antigen

    ; Epitope

    ; Valence

    ; Hapten

    ; Antibodies

    7. Describe the structure of a typical antibody monomer describing the function of

    each part.

    8. List the five classes of antibodies; give the functions of each, the size, abundance,

    and location where found.

Humoral Immunity

    9. Identify the site of production of B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages. 10. Describe:

    ; The function of B cells

    ; B-cell and antigen interactions

    ; Clonal selection

    11. Differentiate between T-independent and T-dependent antigens and describe how

    the B-cell system deals with each one.

    12. List and describe the outcomes of antigen-antibody binding and the effects of

    each of these outcomes.

Major Histocompatibility Complex

    13. Define major histocompatibility complex and explain its significance.

Monoclonal Antibodies

    14. Define

    ; Monoclonal antibody

    ; Hybridoma

    ; Chimeric monoclonal antibodies

    ; Humanized antibodies

    ; Fully human antibodies

    15. Describe:

    ; How monoclonal antibodies are produced

    ; The uses of monoclonal antibodies


    16. Define immunotoxin.

    17. Describe the function and uses of immunotoxins.

Cell-Mediated Immunity

    18. List the:

    ; Nonspecific cellular components of the immune system

    ; Four functional types of T-cells

    ; Antigen presenting cells

    19. Differentiate between CD4 and CD8 cells. 20. Describe the:

    ; Roles of T-cells in cell-mediated immunity

    ; Cell-mediated response

    ; Functions of the major cytokines

Immunological memory

    21. Describe immunological memory.

    22. Differentiate between primary and secondary responses.

    Lecture 18 Practical Applications of Immunology


    1. Define vaccine.

    2. List the

    ; Types of vaccines and give and example of each

    ; Vaccines of major importance

    3. Describe the:

    ; Routes of vaccine administration

    ; Complications of vaccines

Diagnostic Immunology

4. Define:

    ; Specificity

    ; Sensitivity

    ; Titer

    ; Microtiter

    ; Seroconversion

    5. Describe and give examples of:

    ; Precipitation reactions

    ; Western blot

    ; Direct and indirect agglutination reactions

    ; Neutralization reactions

    ; Complement-fixation reactions

    ; Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques

    ; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure

    Lecture 19 Immune Disorders


    1. Define:

    ; Hypersensitivity

    ; Allergy

    ; Allergen

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis Reactions

    2. Describe:

    ; Type I hypersensitivity

    ; Systemic anaphylaxis reactions

    ; Local anaphylaxis reactions

    ; How anaphylactic reactions can be prevented

    ; Desensitization process to prevent allergic reactions

Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Reactions

    3. Describe type II hypersensitivity reactions and give examples.

Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Reactions

    4. Describe type III hypersensitivity reactions ands give examples.

    5. Describe glomerulonephritis.

Hypersensitivity: Cell-Mediated Reactions

    6. Describe type IV hypersensitivity reactions and give examples.


    7. Define:

    ; Autoimmunity

    ; Tolerance

    8. Describe:

    ; How autoimmunity occurs

    ; Type I autoimmunity (autoimmunity against self antigens) and give examples.

    ; Type II autoimmunity (cytotoxic) and give examples.

    ; Graves’ disease

    ; Myasthenia gravis

    ; Type III autoimmunity (immune complex) and give examples.

    ; Systemic erythematosus

    ; Rheumatoid arthritis

    ; Type IV autoimmunity (cell-mediated) and give examples

Major Histocompatibility Complex

    9. Define major histocompatibility complex.

    10. Explain how tissue typing is done.

    11. List the types of self-antigens.


    12. Define privileged sites.

    13. List and describe the types of transplants. 14. Describe the problems encountered with transplants and how we deal with them.

    15. Define immunosuppression.

Immune Deficiencies

    16. Define immune deficiency.

    17. List the kinds of immune deficiencies.

    18. Describe AIDS.

    Lecture 20 Chemotherapy


    1. Define:

    ; Chemotherapy

    ; Chemotherapeutic agents

    ; Antimicrobial drugs

    ; Antibiotics

    ; Synthetic drugs

    ; Semisynthetic drugs


    2. Describe the history of antimicrobial therapy. 3. Explain why antimicrobial agents are most effective against bacteria.


    4. Differentiate between narrow and broad-spectrum drugs. 5. Define:

    ; Superinfection

    ; Bactericidal drugs

    ; Bacteriostatic drugs

Mode of Action

    6. List the specific modes of action of antimicrobial drugs.

Antibacterial Drugs

    7. Give the antibiotic with

    ; Fewest side effects

    ; Broadest spectrum of activity.

    8. List the antibacterial drugs that:

    ; Are used to treat tuberculosis

    ; Work by inhibition of cell wall synthesis 9. Define penicillinase and describe what it does. 10. List and describe the:

    ; Semisynthetic penicillins

    ; Monobactam antibiotics

    ; Cephalosporins.

    11. Give the specific functions of isoniazid and ethambutol. 12. List the

    ; Antibacterial drugs that inhibit protein synthesis

    ; Aminoglycosides and describe their uses

    ; Tetracyclines and describe their uses

    13. Describe the uses of:

    ; Chloramphenicol

    ; Erythromycin

    14. List and describe:

    ; The antibiotic that injuries the plasma membrane

    ; The antibiotics that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis

    ; The antibiotics that inhibit the synthesis of essential metabolites.

Antifungal Drugs

    15. List the antifungal drugs and describe their uses.

Antiviral Drugs

    16. List the major antiviral drugs and describe their uses. 17. Define

    ; Nucleotide analog

    ; Enzyme inhibitor

Antiprotozoan Drugs

    18. List and describe the major antiprotozoan drugs and give their uses.

Antihelminthic Drugs

    19. List and describe the major antihelminthic drugs and give their uses.

Susceptibility Testing

20. Describe:

    ; The Kirby-Bauer method of antibiotic susceptibility testing

    ; How the results of the Kirby-Bauer procedure are interpreted

    ; The use of broth dilution tests

Effectiveness and Abuse

    21. Describe

    ; Antibacterial resistance

    ; The effects of drug combinations

    ; The misuse of antibiotics

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