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OG11-VerbalReview

By Yvonne Stone,2014-06-29 14:53
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gmat

5.0 Sentence Correction

    Sentence correction questions appear in the Verbal section of the GMAT examThe Verbal section uses multiple-choice questions to measure your ability to read and comprehend written materialto reason and evaluate argumentsand to correct

    written material to conform to standard written EnglishBecause the Verbal section includes passages from several different content areasyou may be generally familiar with some of the material?however, neither the passages nor the questions assume detailed knowledge of the topics discussedSentence correction questions are intermingled with critical reasoning

    and reading comprehension questions throughout the Verbal section of the examYou will have 75 minutes to complete the Verbal sectionor about 1minutes to answer each question

    Sentence correction questions present a statement in which words are underlinedThe questions ask you to select from the answer options the best expression of the idea or relationship described in the underlined sectionThe first answer choice always repeats the original phrasingWhereas the other four provide alternativesIn some casesthe original phrasing is the best choiceIn other casesthe underlined section has obvious or subtle errors that require correctionThese questions

    require you to be familiar with the stylistic conventions and grammatical rules of standard written

    English and to demonstrate your ability to improve incorrect or ineffective expressions

    You should begin these questions by reading the sentence carefullyNote whether there are any obvious grammatical errors as you read the underlined sectionThen read the five answer choices carefullyIf there was a subtle error you did not recognize the first time you read the sentenceit may become apparent after you have read the answer choicesIf the error

    is still unclear, see whether you can eliminate some of the answers as being incorrectRemember that in some casesthe

    original selection may be the best answer

51 Basic English Grammar Rules

    Sentence correction questions ask you to recognize and potentially correct at least one of the following grammar

    rulesHowever, these rules are not exhaustiveIf you are interested in learning more about English grammar as a way to

    prepare for the GMAT examthere are several resources available on the Web

    Agreement

    Standard English requires elements within a sentence to be consistentThere are two types of agreement?noun-verb and

    pronoun

    Noun-verb agreement"Singular subjects take singular verbswhereas plural subjects take plural verbs

Examples"

    Correct?“I walk to the store;”Incorrect?“I walks to the store;”

    Correct?“We go to schoo1;”Incorrect?“We goes to schoo1;”

    Correct?“The number of residents has grown;”Incorrect?“The number of residents have grown;”

    Correct?“The masses have spoken;”Incorrect?“The masses has spoken;”

    Pronoun agreement"A pronoun must agree with the noun or pronoun it refers to in person

    number, and gender

Examples

    Correct?“When you dreamyou are usually asleep;”

    Incorrect?“When one dreamsyou are usually asleep;”

    Correct?“When the kids went to sleepthey slept like logs;”

    Incorrect?“When the kids went to sleephe slept like a log;”

Diction

    Words should be chosen to correctly and effectively reflect the appropriate part of speechThere are several words that are

     1

    commonly used incorrectlyWhen answering sentence correction questionspay attention to the following conventions Among~betweenAmong is used to refer to relationships involving more than two objectsBetween is used to refer to

    relationships involving only two objects

Examples:

    Correct?“We divided our winnings among the three of us;”Incorrect?“We divided our winnings between the three of us;”

    Correct?“She and I divided the cake between US;”Incorrect?“She and I divided the cake among us;” As~like;’As can be a preposition meaningin the capacity of, but more often is a conjunction of manner and is followed

    by a verbLike is generally used as a prepositionand therefore is followed by a noun, an object pronoun, or a verb ending

    in ing.

Examples?

    Correct?“1 work as a librarian;”Incorrect?“1 work 1ike a librarian;”

    Correct?“Do as I say, not as I do;”Incorrect?“Do like I say, not like I do;”

    Correct?“It felt like a dream;”Incorrect?“It felt as a dream;”

    Correct?“People like you inspire me;”Incorrect?“People as you inspire me;”

    Correct?“There's nothing like biking on a Warmautumn day;”Incorrect?“Theres nothing as biking on a warm fall day;” Mass and count words: Mass words are nouns quantified by an amount rather than by a number

    Count nouns can be quantified by a number

Examples:

    Correct?“We bought a loaf of bread;”Incorrect?“We bought one bread;”

    Correct?“He wished me much happiness;”Incorrect?“He wished me many happinesses;”

    Correct?“We passed many buildings;”Incorrect?“We passed much buildings;”

    Pronouns?Myself should not be used as a substitute for I or me

Examples:

    Correct?“Morn and I had to go to the store;”Incorrect?“Mom and myself had to go to the store;” Correct?“He gave the present to Dad and me;”Incorrect?“He gave the present to Dad and myself;”

Grammatical Construction

    Good grammar requires complete sentencesBe on the lookout for improperly formed constructions Fragments"Parts of a sentence that are disconnected from the main clause are called fragments Example:

    Correct?“We saw the doctor and his nurse at the party;”Incorrect?“We saw the doctor at the partyAnd his nurse;” Run-on sentences"A run-on sentence is two independent clauses that run together without proper punctuation

Example?

    Correct?Jose Canseco is still a feared batter, most pitchers don't want to face him;”

    Incorrect?"Jose Canseco is still a feared batter most pitchers don't want to face him;”

    Constructions"Avoid wordy, redundant constructions

Example:

    Correct?“We could not come to the meeting because of a conflict;”Incorrect?“The reason we could not come to the

    meeting is because of a conflict;”

Idiom

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It is important to avoid nonstandard expressionsthough English idioms sometimes do not follow conventional grammatical

    rulesBe careful to use the correct idiom when using the constructions and parts of speech

    Prepositions"Specific prepositions have specific purposes

Examples:

    Correct?“She likes to jog in the morning;”Incorrect?“She likes to jog on the morning;”

    Correct?“They ranged in age from 10 to 15;”Incorrect?“They ranged in age from 10 up to 15;”

    Correlatives"Word combinations such asnot only