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OG11-VerbalReview

By Yvonne Stone,2014-06-29 14:53
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gmat

5.0 Sentence Correction

    Sentence correction questions appear in the Verbal section of the GMAT examThe Verbal section uses multiple-choice questions to measure your ability to read and comprehend written materialto reason and evaluate argumentsand to correct

    written material to conform to standard written EnglishBecause the Verbal section includes passages from several different content areasyou may be generally familiar with some of the material?however, neither the passages nor the questions assume detailed knowledge of the topics discussedSentence correction questions are intermingled with critical reasoning

    and reading comprehension questions throughout the Verbal section of the examYou will have 75 minutes to complete the Verbal sectionor about 1minutes to answer each question

    Sentence correction questions present a statement in which words are underlinedThe questions ask you to select from the answer options the best expression of the idea or relationship described in the underlined sectionThe first answer choice always repeats the original phrasingWhereas the other four provide alternativesIn some casesthe original phrasing is the best choiceIn other casesthe underlined section has obvious or subtle errors that require correctionThese questions

    require you to be familiar with the stylistic conventions and grammatical rules of standard written

    English and to demonstrate your ability to improve incorrect or ineffective expressions

    You should begin these questions by reading the sentence carefullyNote whether there are any obvious grammatical errors as you read the underlined sectionThen read the five answer choices carefullyIf there was a subtle error you did not recognize the first time you read the sentenceit may become apparent after you have read the answer choicesIf the error

    is still unclear, see whether you can eliminate some of the answers as being incorrectRemember that in some casesthe

    original selection may be the best answer

51 Basic English Grammar Rules

    Sentence correction questions ask you to recognize and potentially correct at least one of the following grammar

    rulesHowever, these rules are not exhaustiveIf you are interested in learning more about English grammar as a way to

    prepare for the GMAT examthere are several resources available on the Web

    Agreement

    Standard English requires elements within a sentence to be consistentThere are two types of agreement?noun-verb and

    pronoun

    Noun-verb agreement"Singular subjects take singular verbswhereas plural subjects take plural verbs

Examples"

    Correct?“I walk to the store;”Incorrect?“I walks to the store;”

    Correct?“We go to schoo1;”Incorrect?“We goes to schoo1;”

    Correct?“The number of residents has grown;”Incorrect?“The number of residents have grown;”

    Correct?“The masses have spoken;”Incorrect?“The masses has spoken;”

    Pronoun agreement"A pronoun must agree with the noun or pronoun it refers to in person

    number, and gender

Examples

    Correct?“When you dreamyou are usually asleep;”

    Incorrect?“When one dreamsyou are usually asleep;”

    Correct?“When the kids went to sleepthey slept like logs;”

    Incorrect?“When the kids went to sleephe slept like a log;”

Diction

    Words should be chosen to correctly and effectively reflect the appropriate part of speechThere are several words that are

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    commonly used incorrectlyWhen answering sentence correction questionspay attention to the following conventions Among~betweenAmong is used to refer to relationships involving more than two objectsBetween is used to refer to

    relationships involving only two objects

Examples:

    Correct?“We divided our winnings among the three of us;”Incorrect?“We divided our winnings between the three of us;”

    Correct?“She and I divided the cake between US;”Incorrect?“She and I divided the cake among us;” As~like;’As can be a preposition meaningin the capacity of, but more often is a conjunction of manner and is followed

    by a verbLike is generally used as a prepositionand therefore is followed by a noun, an object pronoun, or a verb ending

    in ing.

Examples?

    Correct?“1 work as a librarian;”Incorrect?“1 work 1ike a librarian;”

    Correct?“Do as I say, not as I do;”Incorrect?“Do like I say, not like I do;”

    Correct?“It felt like a dream;”Incorrect?“It felt as a dream;”

    Correct?“People like you inspire me;”Incorrect?“People as you inspire me;”

    Correct?“There's nothing like biking on a Warmautumn day;”Incorrect?“Theres nothing as biking on a warm fall day;” Mass and count words: Mass words are nouns quantified by an amount rather than by a number

    Count nouns can be quantified by a number

Examples:

    Correct?“We bought a loaf of bread;”Incorrect?“We bought one bread;”

    Correct?“He wished me much happiness;”Incorrect?“He wished me many happinesses;”

    Correct?“We passed many buildings;”Incorrect?“We passed much buildings;”

    Pronouns?Myself should not be used as a substitute for I or me

Examples:

    Correct?“Morn and I had to go to the store;”Incorrect?“Mom and myself had to go to the store;” Correct?“He gave the present to Dad and me;”Incorrect?“He gave the present to Dad and myself;”

Grammatical Construction

    Good grammar requires complete sentencesBe on the lookout for improperly formed constructions Fragments"Parts of a sentence that are disconnected from the main clause are called fragments Example:

    Correct?“We saw the doctor and his nurse at the party;”Incorrect?“We saw the doctor at the partyAnd his nurse;” Run-on sentences"A run-on sentence is two independent clauses that run together without proper punctuation

Example?

    Correct?Jose Canseco is still a feared batter, most pitchers don't want to face him;”

    Incorrect?"Jose Canseco is still a feared batter most pitchers don't want to face him;”

    Constructions"Avoid wordy, redundant constructions

Example:

    Correct?“We could not come to the meeting because of a conflict;”Incorrect?“The reason we could not come to the

    meeting is because of a conflict;”

Idiom

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It is important to avoid nonstandard expressionsthough English idioms sometimes do not follow conventional grammatical

    rulesBe careful to use the correct idiom when using the constructions and parts of speech

    Prepositions"Specific prepositions have specific purposes

Examples:

    Correct?“She likes to jog in the morning;”Incorrect?“She likes to jog on the morning;”

    Correct?“They ranged in age from 10 to 15;”Incorrect?“They ranged in age from 10 up to 15;”

    Correlatives"Word combinations such asnot onlybut also" should be followed by an element of the same grammatical

    type

Example:

    Correct?“I have called not only to thank her but also to tell her about the next meeting;”

    Incorrect?“I have called not only to thank her but also I told her about the next meeting;”

    Forms of comparison"Many forms follow precise constructionsFewer refers to a specific number, whereas less than refers to a continuous quantityBetween;;;and is the correct form to designate a choiceFarther refers to distancewhereas further refers to degree

Example?

    Correct?“There were fewer children in my class this year;”Incorrect?“There were less children in my class this year;” Correct?“There was less devastation than 1 was told;”Incorrect?“There was fewer devastation than 1 was told;”

    Correct?“We had to choose between chocolate and vanilla;”Incorrect?“We had to choose between chocolate or vanilla;”(It is also correct to say,We had to choose chocolate or vanilla;”)

    Correct?“I ran farther than Johnbut he took his weight training further than I did;”Incorrect?“I ran further than Johnbut he took his weight training farther than I did;”

Logical Predication

    Watch out for phrases that detract from the logical argument

    Modification problems?Modifiers should be positioned so it is clear what word or words they are meant to modifyIf modifiers are not positioned clearly, they can cause illogical references or comparisonsor distort the meaning of the statement

    Examples:

    Correct?“I put the cake that I baked by the doorIncorrect?“I put the cake by the door that I baked;”

    Correct?“Reading my mindshe gave me the delicious cookie;”Incorrect?“Reading my mindthe cookie she gave me was delicious

    Correct?“Inthe Middle Agesthe world was believed to be flat;”Incorrect?“In the Middle Agesthe world was flat;”

Parallelism

    Constructing a sentence that is parallel in structure depends on making sure that the different elements in the sentence

    balance each other?this is a little bit like making sure that the two sides of a mathematical equation are balancedTo make sure that a sentence is grammatically correct check to see that phrasesclausesverbsand other sentence elements parallel each other

    Examples?

    Correct?“I took a bathwent to sleepand woke up refreshed;”Incorrect?“I took a bathsleeping

    and waking up refreshed;”

    Correct?“The only way to know is to take the plunge;”Incorrect?“The only way to know is taking the plunge;”

Rhetorical Construction

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    Good sentence structure avoids constructions that are awkwardwordy, redundantimpreciseor unclear, even when they are free of grammatical errors

    Example?

    Correct?“Before we left on vacationwe watered the plantschecked to see that the stove was off, and set the burglar alarm;”Incorrect?“Before we left to go on our vacationwe wateredchecked to be sure that the stove had been turned off, and set it;”

Verb Form

    In addition to watching for problems of agreement or parallelismmake sure that verbs are used in the correct tenseBe

    alert to whether a verb should reflect pastpresentor future tense

    Example?

    Correct?“I went to school yesterday;”“I go to school every weekday;”“1 will go to school tomorrow;”

    Each tense also has a perfect form(used with the past participleie;,walkedran)a progressive form(used with the present participleie;,walkingrunning)and a perfect progressive form (also used with the present participleie

    walkingrunning)

    Present perfect?Used with has or have, the present perfect tense describes an action that occurred at an indefinite time in the

    past or that began in the past and continues into the present

Examples"

    Correct?“I have traveled all over the world;”(at an indefinite time)

    Correct?“He has gone to school since he was five years old;”(continues into the present)

    Past perfect"This verb form is used with had to show the order of two events that took place in the past

Example"

    Correct?“By the time I left for schoolthe cake had been baked;”

    Future perfect"Used with will have, this verb form describes an event in the future that will precede another event

Example:

    Present progressive?Used with amisor are, this verb form describes an ongoing action that is happening now.

Example:

    Correct?“I am studying for exams""The student is studying for exams""We are studying for exams;”

    Past progressive?Used with was or were, this verb form describes something that was happening when another action

    occurred

Example?

    Correct?“The student was studying when the fire alarm rang;”“They were studying when the fire broke out;”

    Future progressive?Used with will be or shall be, this verb tense describes an ongoing action that will continue into the

    future

Example:

    Correct?“The students will be studying for exams throughout the month of December;”

    Present perfect progressive: Used with have been or has been, this verb tense describes something that began in the past

    continues into the presentand may continue into the future

Example:

    Correct?“The student has been studying hard in the hope of acing the test;”

    Past perfect progressive?Used with had beenthis verb form describes an action of some duration that was completed

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before another past action occurred

Example?

    Correct?“Before the fire alarm rangthe student had been studying.

    Future perfect progressive?Used with will have beenthis verb form describes a futureongoing action that will occur before a specified time

Example?

    Correct?“By the end of next year, the students will have been studying math for five years;”

5.2 Study Suggestions

    There are two basic ways you Can study for sentence correction questions?

    Read material that reflects standard usage

    One way to gain familiarity with the basic conventions of standard written English is simply to readSuitable material will usually be found in good magazines and nonfiction bookseditorials in outstanding newspapersand the collections of essays used by many college and university writing courses

    Review basic rules of grammar and practice with writing exercises

    Begin by reviewing the grammar rules laid out in this chapterThenif you have school assignments(such as essays and research papers)that have been carefully evaluated for grammatical errorsit may be helpful to review the comments and corrections

    53 What Is Measured

    Sentence correction questions test three broad aspects of language proficiency?

    Correct expression

    A correct sentence is grammatically and structurally soundIt conforms to all the rules of standard written English

    including noun-verb agreementnoun-pronoun agreement, pronoun consistency, pronoun caseand verb tense sequenceA

    correct sentence will not have danglingmisplacedor improperly formed modifiers?unidiomatic or inconsistent expressions?or faults in parallel construction

    Effective expression

    An effective sentence expresses an idea or relationship clearly and concisely as well as grammaticallyThis does not mean that the choice with the fewest and simplest words is necessarily the best answer, It means that there are no superfluous

    words or needlessly complicated expressions in the best choice

    Proper diction

    An effective sentence also uses proper diction(Diction refers to the standard dictionary meanings of words and the

    appropriateness of words in context)In evaluating the diction of a sentenceyou must be able to recognize whether the words are well chosenaccurateand suitable for the context.

    54 Test-Taking Strategies for Sentence Correction Questions 1Read the entire sentence carefully

    Try to understand the specific idea or relationship that the sentence should express

    2Evaluate the underlined passage for errors and possible corrections before reading the answer choices

    This strategy win help you discriminate among the answer choicesRemember, in some cases the underlined passage is correct.

    3Read each answer choice carefully

    The first answer choice always repeats the underlined portion of the original sentenceChoose this answer if you think that the sentence is best as originally writtenbut do so only after examining all the other choices

    4 Try to determine how to correct what you consider to be wrong with the original sentence

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Some of the answer choices may change things that are not wrongwhereas others may not change everything that is

    wrong

    5 Make sure that you evaluate the sentence and the choices thoroughly

    Pay attention to general clarity, grammatical and idiomatic usageeconomy and precision of languageand appropriateness

    of diction.

    6Read the whole sentencesubstituting the choice that you prefer for the underlined passage.

    A choice may be wrong because it does not fit grammatically or structurally with the rest of the sentenceRemember that

    some sentences will require no correctionWhen the given sentence requires no correctionchoose the first answer.

    55 The Directions

    These are the directions that you will see for sentence correction questions when you take the GMAT testIf you read them

    carefully and understand them clearly before going to sit for the examyou will not need to spend too much time reviewing

    them once you are at the test center and the exam is under way.

Sentence correction questions present a sentencepart or all of which is underlinedBeneath the sentenceyou will find five

    ways of phrasing the underlined passageThe first answer choice repeats the original underlined passage?the other four are

    differentIf you think the original phrasing is best,,choose the first answer?otherwise choose one of the others

    This type of question tests your ability to recognize the correctness and effectiveness of expression in standard written EnglishIn choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English?that ispay attention to grammar,

    choice of wordsand sentence constructionChoose the answer that produces the most effective sentence?this answer

    should be clear and exactwithout awkwardnessambiguity redundancy, or grammatical error

56 Sentence Correction Sample Questions

    Sentence correction questions present a sentencepart or all of which is underlinedBeneath the sentences, you will

    find five ways of phrasing the underlined passageThe first answer choice repeats the original?the other four are

    differentIf you think the original phrasing is best, choose the first answer, otherwise choose one of the others.

    This type of question tests your ability to recognize the correctness and effectiveness of expression in standard written EnglishIn choosing your answer, follow the requirements of standard written English; that is, pay attention to grammar, choice of words, and sentence construction. Choose the answer that produces the most effective sentence; this answer should be dear and exact, without awkwardness, ambiguity, redundancy, redundancy, or grammatical error.

58 Sentence Correction Answer Explanations

    The following discussion of sentence correction is intended to familiarize you with the most efficient and effective approaches to these kinds of questionsThe particular questions in this chapter are generally representative of the kinds of sentence correction questions you will encounter on the GMAT

1. Some bat caveslike honeybee hiveshave residents that take on different duties such as defending the entranceacting

    as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites

    (A) acting as sentinels and to sound

    (B) acting as sentinels and sounding

    (C) to act as sentinels and sound

    (D) to act as sentinels and to sound

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    (E) to act as a sentinel sounding

    Parallelism + Agreement

    The original sentence has an error in parallel structureIt starts by using the-ing (participial) form to list the bats

    dutiesDefendingactingand scouting all use the same-ing formThe phrase to sound uses the to-(infinitive)formand

    so it is not parallelThe word sounding is required in this sentence

    A To sound is not parallel to defending, actingand scouting

    B CorrectThis sentence has sounding, which properly parallels defending, acting, and scouting

    C To act and sound are not parallel to defending and scouting

    D To act and to sound are not parallel to defending and scouting

    E Introduces agreement error(a sentinel)?to act is not parallel to scouting

    The correct answer is B

2. However much United States voters may agree that there is waste in government and that the government as a whole

    spends beyond its meansit is difficult to find broad support for a movement toward a minimal state

    (A) However much United States voters may agree that

    (B) Despite the agreement among United States voters to the fact

    (C) Although United States voters agree

    (D) Even though United States voters may agree

    (E)There is agreement among United States voters that

    Parallelism + Grammatical construction

    In this correctly written sentenceparallel subordinate clauses are followed by a main clause

    These parallel subordinate clauses are both introduced by that: that there is and that the government????

    A CorrectIn this sentencethe repetition of that to introduce two subordinate clauses makes the construction

    parallel and correct

    B That is omitted?the sense of the sentence is changed by the omission of may, agreement.to the fact is awkward

    C That is omitted?the sense of the sentence is changed by the omission of may

    D That is omitted

    E Using two independent clauses separated only by a comma creates a run-on sentence?the sense of the sentence is changed by the omission of may

    The correct answer is A

3. Native American burial sites dating back 5000 years indicate that the residents of Maine at that time were part of a

    widespread culture of Algonquian-speaking people.

    (A) were part of a widespread culture of Algonquian-speaking people

    (B) had been part of a widespread culture of people who were Algonquian-speaking

    (C) were people who were part of a widespread culture that was Algonquian-speaking

    (D) had been people who were part of a widespread culture that was Algonquian-speaking

    (E) were a people which had been part of a widespreadAlgonquian-speaking culture

    Verb form + Rhetorical construction

    The original sentence contains no errorsEach alternative introduces an error, adds unnecessary wordsor changes the meaning of the original sentence

    A CorrectThe original sentence uses the correct verb tense(were)to indicate an ongoing action in the past?the

    phrasing is concise and clear

    B Had been is an incorrect verb tensesuggesting that the Native Americans were no longer part of the culture?

    wordy

    C Algonquian-speaking should refer to peoplenot culture?wordy

    D Had been is an incorrect verb tensesuggesting that the Native Americans were no longer part of the culture?

    wordy and imprecise

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    E Were and had been are inconsistent for tenses?which is not the proper pronoun for people?wordy and imprecise

    The correct answer is A

4The voluminous personal papers of Thomas Alva Edison reveal that his inventions typically sprang to lire not in a flash

    of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous works

    (A) sprang to life not in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly

    (B) sprang to lire not in a flash of inspiration but were slowly evolved

    (C) did not spring to lire in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly

    (D) did not spring to lire in a flash of inspiration but had slowly evolved

    (E) did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but they were slowly evolved

    Parallelism +Idiom

    The construction not;;;but shows a contrastThe words following not must be parallel in construction to the words following butIn the original sentence not is followed by a prepositional phrase(in a flash of inspiration)?but is followed by

    a verb(evolved)To make the two contrasting elements parallelnot should be followed by a verb rather than a phrase

    A Construction following not is not parallel to the construction following but

    B Construction following not is not parallel to the construction following but ,the passive voice were evolved is incorrect

    C CorrectIn this sentencenot is followed by the verb spring just as but is followed by the verb evolved

    D Had evolved introduces an incorrect verb tense

    E Construction following not is not parallel to the construction following but

    The correct answer is C

5 A Labor Department study states that the numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than a thirty-five

    percent increase in the past decade and accounted for more than sixty-two percent of the total growth in the civilian work force

    (A) numbers of women employed outside the home grew by more than a thirty-five percent increase

    (B) numbers of women employed outside the home grew more than thirty-five percent

    (C) numbers of women employed outside the home were raised by more than thirty-five percent

    (D) number of women employed outside the home increased by more than thirty-five percent

    (E) number of women employed outside the home was raised by more than a thirty-five percent increase

    Diction +Rhetorical construction

    The sentence misuses the word numbers and contains the redundant word increaseThe plural numbers means a large

    crowd or multitudewhile the singular number refers to a specific quantity of individualsThe count of women here should

    be expressed as the numberThe noun increase repeats the meaning already present in the verb grew?only one of the two

    words is necessary to the sentence

    A Numbers should be number?grew and increase repeat the same idea

    B Numbers should be the singular number

    C Numbers should be number?the passive voice verb were raised by is unclear and wordy

    D CorrectIn this sentencenumber correctly replaces numbersand redundancy is eliminated with the use of the

    verb increased

    E Passive voice verb were raised by is unclear and wordy?increase is redundant

    The correct answer is D

    6. From the earliest days of the tribekinship determined the way in which the Ojibwa society organized its labor provided access to its resourcesand defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources

    (A) and defined rights and obligations involved in the distribution and consumption of those resources

    (B)defining rights and obligations involved in their distribution and consumption

    (C) and defined rights and obligations as they were involved in its distribution and consumption

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    (D) whose rights and obligations were defined in their distribution and consumption

    (E) the distribution and consumption of them defined by rights and obligations

    Parallelism

    This correctly written sentence uses a series of three parallel constructions to describe how the Ojibwa society

    organized;;;,provided;;;,and defined;;;The three verbs match each other, an example of correct parallelism

    A CorrectThe three verbs are parallel in this sentence

    B Defining is not parallel to organized and provided

    C As they were is wordy and imprecise?its has no clear referent

    D Whose rights and obligations illogically refers to resources

    E This construction breaks the parallel structure and is illogical and ungrammatical

    The correct answer is A

7. Delighted by the reported earnings for the first quarter of the fiscal year, it was decided by the company manager to

    give her staff a raise

    (A) it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise

    (B) the decision of the company manager was to give her staff a raise

    (C) the company manager decided to give her staff a raise

    (D) the staff was given a raise by the company manager

    (E) a raise was given to the staff by the company manager

    Logical predication +Verb form

    Who was delighted? The company manager was delightedThe long modifying phrase that introduces the sentence describes a personnot it; the delighted person must be the subject of the sentenceCorrecting the modification error also changes the construction from passive voiceit was decided by xto active voicex decided?the active voice is generally preferred

    A The modifier illogically describes it, not the company manager?wordy

    B The modifier illogically describes the decision; wordy

    C CorrectThe modifying phrase correctly modifies the company manager?using the active voice creates a better sentence

    D The modifier describes the staff rather than the company manager?wordy

    E The modifier illogically describes a raise?the passive voice is wordy

    The correct answer is C

8. The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has created a growing opportunity for

    independent companies to provide these services more efficiently and at lower cost

    (A) The rising of costs

    (B) Rising costs

    (C) The rising cost

    (D) Because the rising cost

    (E) Because of rising costs

    Idiom +Agreement

    The rising of costs is wordy and awkwardThe correct idiom is the more concise the rising costThe main verb of the sentencehas created, requires a singular subject to maintain subject-verb agreement

    A The rising costs is not the correct idiom

    B Rising costs does not agree with singular verbhas created

    C CorrectThe rising cost is the correct idiomand it agrees with the singular verb in this sentence

    D Because introduces a subordinate clausecreating a sentence fragment

    E Because introduces a subordinate clausecreating a sentence fragment

    The correct answer is C

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9. William HJohnson's artistic debt to Scandinavia is evident in paintings that range from sensitive portraits of citizens in

    his wife's Danish homeKertemindeand awe-inspiring views of fjords and mountain peaks in the western and northern

    regions of Norway

    (A) and

    (B) to

    (C) and to

    (D) with

    (E) in addition to

    Idiom

    The correct idiom is range from X toyIn this sentencethe correct idiom is paintings that range from sensitive

    portraitsto awe-inspiring views

    A And does not complete the idiomatic expression correctly

    B CorrectIn this sentenceto correctly completes the idiomatic construction range from X to y

    C And to does not complete the idiomatic expression correctly

    D With does not complete the idiomatic expression correctly

    E In addition to does not complete the idiomatic expression correctly

    The correct answer is B

    10 Growing competitive pressures may be encouraging auditors to bend the rules in favor of clients?auditors may, for instanceallow a questionable loan to remain on the books in order to maintain a bank's profits on paper.

    (A) clients?auditors may, for instanceallow

    (B) clientsas an Instanceto allow

    (C) clientslike to allow

    (D) clientssuch as to be allowing

    (E) clients?which mightas an instancebe the allowing of

    Grammatical construction

    This sentence correctly joins two independent clauses with a semicolonThe first clause makes a generalization?the

    second clause gives a particular example that supports the generalization

    A CorrectThis sentence correctly has two independent clauses with linked ideas joined with a semicolon

    B In trying to condense two main clauses into onethis construction produces an ungrammatical sequence of words

    with no clear meaning

    C The preposition like should not be used to introduce the example to allow, as is done here?it would be proper to use the comparative preposition like when making a comparison between two nouns

    D Such as to be allowing is not a correct idiomatic expression?

    E Wordy, incorrect construction results in a sentence fragment

    The correct answer is A

11 It is well known in the supermarket industry that how items are placed on shelves and the frequency of inventory

    turnovers can be crucial to profits

    (A) the frequency of inventory turnovers can be

    (B) the frequency of inventory turnovers is often

    (C) the frequency with which the inventory turns over is often

    (D) how frequently is the inventory turned over are often

    (E) how frequently the inventory turns over can be

    Parallelism

    Two activities are considered crucial, and those two activities should appear as grammatically parallel elements in the

    sentenceThe first is how items are placed on shelves, so the second should be how frequently the inventory turns over

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