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Cognitive

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Cognitive

    Cognitive

Cognitiveaccountofgrammatical

    ;mistakesinoralEnglish

    ;???’??(?????G??????????)

    ;AbstractThisarticleaimsatexploringtherootwhyChinesestudentstendtomakegrammaticalmistakeswhentheyspeakEnglish

    ;fromtheperspectiveoftheircognitivemode,landhopestoshedlightontheteachingandlearningofEnglishgrammar.

    ;KeywordsTeachingandlearningEnglishgrammar;Root;Cognitivemodel ;Introduction:Justificationforemphasizingornotem

    ;phasizinggrammar

    ;Grammarteachinghaslongbeenthehottopicamongthelinguis ;ticandEnglishteachingfieldinChina.Therearemainlytwostances ;ofEnglishteachers,researchers,parentsandstudents.Onegrouppro ;posesthatgrammarteachingistheprerequisiteoflearningandmaste ;ringEnglish.Tonameafew,(XUYan:2006),(LIUZhi-yong: ;2006),(WANGYan-heng:2006),(YUANDong-sheng:2006), ;(LIJun-feng:2006).Whiletheothervoiceisthatweneednotpay ;toomuchattentiontogrammaraslongaswecancommunicatefluently ;andunderstandeachothercorrectlywiththehelpofbodylanguage,

    ;gesturesandfacialexpressions,etc.Theyholdthatweshouldteach ;grammarwithnewapproachesandlearngrammarinnewwaysand. ;Forexample,WANGQing&WANGWei-ping(2006),ZHANGDao ;-jun(2006).Especiallyteacherswhoteachinhighmiddlesschool ;wouldstronglyarguethatgrammarisratherimportantinEnglish ;teachingandlearning.Mostoftheseteachersthinkthatmiddleschool ;Englishistolearninggrammarandvocabulary.Withthesolidfoun ;dationofgrammarandvocabulary,studentsthenareabletolearn ;reading,writingandspeaking.Basedonsuchathought,studentsare ;taughtinaratherpassiveway.Whentheyentercollege,English ;teachersthereoftenfeelfrustratedandhelplessbecausemoststudents ;learnEnglishinadumbway-dogrammarexercisesandvocabulary ;memorizing.Collegestudentscouldnevergetoutoftheabnormalcir ;cleoflearningEnglish.Nomatterwhichapproachisbetterandhow ;importantgrammarisinteachingandlearningEnglish,weshouldfind ;outtherootofbadgrammarofChinesestudents’English.Onlyinthis

    ;waycanwesolvetheproblemfromthedeeproot.

    ;Chineseisconsideredasanagglutinatinglanguageasitis.Thus ;ittendstohavelessinflectionalandderivationalvariationsinitsnum ;ber,vocabulary,tenses,voicesandaspects.

    ;Astonumber,Chinesedoesnt’havemorphemessuchas-es,-

    ;ies,-s,-en,etc,itexpressesallkindsofpluralfromwiththeonly

    ;onemorpheme??invariably.So??isarathermorefunctional ;yfxf

    ;Oyf

    ;fxx’,

    ;ceptanothermode.lWechooseoralEnglishasbecausewrittenEng ;lishisfarbetterconceivedandorganizedinthatwritershavemore ;timetothinkofandcanrefertotoolsasdictionaries,books,etc. ;GrammarandCognition:Dodifferentlanguageshave

    ;thesamecognitivemodelorprocess?

    ;Studentsarealwaysblamedfortheirmakinggrammaticalmis ;takeswhentheyspeakEnglish,mainlythedisagreementbetweensub ;jectsandverbs,andthedisagreementonthetensesinthewholecon ;text.TheyareblamesandcorrectedinrotelearningofEnglishgram ;mar.Fewteachersthinkaboutwhystudentstendtomakesuchkind ;ofmistakesintheaboveaspects.

    ;Incognitivelinguistics,itisinevitabletomentiontermssuchas ;category,conceptualmetaphor,metonymy,culturalmode,lfamilyre ;semblance,basiclevelcategoryandperipherallevelcategory.When ;onecategoryisconcerned,theremustbebasicandperipherallevel ;categories.Whenbirdismentioned,Chinesewillfirstthinkof ;sparrowormagpie,whileforeignerswillassociateitwithrobinimme ;diately.Thisdifferencecanbeexplainedbyprototype.Thebird

    ;kindsabove-mentionedaretheprototypesinChinaandwestern ;worldrespectively.Anotherexamplecanbethedifferentassociation ;withbreakfast.TousChinese,traditionallyitisporridge,bun,twisted ;cruller,andsoon.However,inwesterncountries,bread,milkand ;coffeearethemainchoice.Thisisspecificallywhatwecallcultural ;models.Withthetwoexamples,letusthinkaboutthegrammatical ;mistakesinoralEnglishmadebylearnersinChina.Englishhasdif ;ferentverbsincollocationwithdifferentsubjectsorpronouns,anddif ;ferenttenseswithdifferentverbs.WhileinChinese,allthepronouns ;andtenseshavethesameoneversionofaverb.Chinesestudents ;havetheirownuniquecognitivemode.lChinesesentencesaresimpler ;butmoremeaning-containedthanEnglishsentences.Itdoesnotde ;pendonvariationsofverbstoshowtheagreementbetweendifferent ;subjectsandtenses.

    ;ComparisonbetweenChineseandEnglish

    ;LetusfirstlookatasetofChinesesentencemodelswhichall ;?a

    ;S

    ;???a??????Lo?????a??????Lo

    ;2007??11?e?????????????t??

    ;lpowerulmorphemeinepressingpluralormsthanthosemor ;phemesinEnglish.ncesuchaneasandpowerulcognitivemodel

    ;opluralepressioneistsinlearnersminditissohardathingtoac ;havethewordhaveincontrasttotheChineseword.

    ;et1:

    ;7

    ;Thethirdsentencewillmakepeoplefeelunnatura,lsowemarkit ;withaninterrogatorypoint.However,itdoesnothavegrammatical ;mistakesandwillnotinfluenceouranalysis.

    ;Fromthetensentencesweseethatallthepronounsshareonly ;onevariationofthesameverb?a.Thenletuscomparethisset ;withitsEnglishcorrespondenttoseemoreclearlytheirdifference. ;Set2:

    ;Shehasadog.Theyhaveadog.

    ;Hehasadog.Theyhaveadog.

    ;Ithasadog.Theyhaveadog.

    ;Ihaveadog.Wehaveadog.

    ;You(tu

    ;1

    ;)haveadog.You(yours)haveadog.

    ;WeallknowthatinEnglishsimplepresenttense,oneverboften ;hastwovariations:pluralformandsingularform.Allthepluralpro ;nounssharethesamevariationofoneverbwhilesingularpronouns ;havetwoforms:thethirdsingularandthefirst-secondsingular.

    ;Whyshouldthefirstandthesecondsingularpronounshavethesame ;verbvariationanddifferentiatethemselveswiththethirdsingular ;form?Doesittendtoshowrespecttopeoplepresentattheconversa ;tionordoesithavesomethingtodowithEnglish-speakingpeoples’

    ;cognitivesystem?Havinggrownupandeducatedinone’smother

    ;tongue,itsrulesoressencemustcurvedeeplyinones’cognitivesys

    ;teminthebrain.

    ;Nowwestillinviteyoutolookatanothersetofsentencemodels ;withdifferenttenses.

    ;Set3:

    ;???O?q???????????pLo???O?q???c???????O?????????pLo ;?????q?????????pLo?????O???O?????????pLo

    ;?????????s???]???pLo?L?O?q?j??,?????????s???Y?? ;?pLo

    ;?m?q?????????pLo?m?q???c????,?????????pLo

    ;Anditscounterpartasset4:

    ;Shedidherhomeworkyesterday.Eighto’clockyesterday

    ;morning,shewasdoingherhomework.

    ;Shedoesherhomeworkeveryday.Sheisdoingherhomework ;now.

    ;1

    ;Todistinguishthefirstyouandthesecondyouifsen

    ;tence(5),wemarkthemwiththesecondsingularformandthesec ;ondpluralforminFrenchrespectively.

    ;Shehasdonehalfofherhomework.Shehaddonehalfofher ;homeworktillyesterday.

    ;Tomorrowshewilldoherhomework.Eighto’clocktomorrow

    ;shewillbedoingherhomework.

    ;I,xy????,

    ;?t??,???OW,fff

    ;mainlybyvariationsofmodalverbswiththe-edformand-ing ;formofverbs.Thedifferencebetweenset3andset4ismuchthe ;sameasthedifferencebetweenset1andset2,sowewillchooseset1 ;andset2asourobjectivecomparativesets.

    ;Chinesestudentsoftenmakespeechessuchas:

    ;Yesterday,IhaveehIhad

    ;Yesterdaymorning,Iamdoingmyhomework

    ;Somespeakerswillbeconsciousoftheirmistakesandwillmake ;effortstocorrectthemselves.Orsomerecognizetheirmistakes,but ;theydon’tthinkitisworthwhiletostopandinterrupttheirflowof

    ;mindtocorrectthem,aslongaslistenersgettheirmeaning.Stilloth ;ersmaybetoonervoustobeawareoftheirbeingwrong. ;Tomakeourcomparisonandanalysisevensimpler,twoterms ;aretobedefined:tensedisagreementanddisagreementonperson-

    ;verb,abbreviatedasDTandDPrespectively.Thus,astothethird ;singularpronoun,studentstendtomakethreekindsofmistakes: ;DT:she/hedo

    ;DP:she/hedoesyesterday.

    ;DTDP:she/hedoyesterday.

    ;Thisruleisalsotrueofthefirstandsecondsingularpronouns. ;Theverbsinredareusedwrongly.Entirelythereare16mis ;takesonlyintermsofmalesingular&femalesingularandsimple ;presenttense&simplepasttense,howifwecountallthetensesand ;personsin?

    ;Conclusion

    ;ManylinguistsproposeteachingEnglishinthesimilarwayof ;firstlanguageacquisitionorthewaychildrenlearntheirmother ;tongue.Byemphasizingthispoint,theyhaveconfirmedimplicitlythat ;motherlanguagesrootdeeplyinitsnativespeakers’brain,which

    ;makesESLandEFLaratherhardjobbecausetherehasexisteda ;languagesysteminnativespeakers’cognitivesystemandlargeormost

    ;oftheirmentalspacehasbeentakenupbythesemotherlanguages. ;(?u???Y??)

    ;?????t??????????2007??11?e

    ;nChinesetensesareepressedbadverbssuchas

    ;and.hileinEnglishthisunctionisulilled

;11

    ;8

    ;,

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    ;[1]???????9?j!R?,?i??LCLCLC

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    ;[2]?(?i?O?%???s???o???D???????G??LC?????G??LC?????k???G???a ;?7?G???????????g??,???%?e?Y?;?????g?????f?????C?e???j?.?R. ;[3]????,????.1999,????!R?#???l

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