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Application

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Application

    Application

    Mar.2008,Volume6,No.3(SerialNo.54)US-ChinaForeignLanguage,ISSN1539-8080,USA

    ;Applicationofauthenticmaterialsinextensive

    ;readingclassinChineseuniversities

    ;LANGFei,J1ANGYu-feng

    ;(ForeignLanguagesDepartment,HarbinUniversityofScience&chnology‟Harbin150080,China)

    ;Abstract:Thepurposeofthisarticleistoexplorewhethertouseauthenticmaterialsinextensivereading

    ;classinChineseuniversities.Basedonthedefinitionofauthenticmaterialsandtheoriesofmotivation,itanalyzes

    ;therelationshipbetweenlearningmotivationandauthenticmaterials.BycarryingoutanexperimentalExtensive

    ;Reading(ER)programmewithusingauthenticmaterials,itdrawstheconclusionthatusingauthenticmaterials

    ;appropriatelycanmotivatestudentsinERclassinChineseuniversities. ;Keywords:authenticmaterials;motivation;extensivereadingclass ;1.Introduction

    ;ThepurposeofthisarticleistoexplorewhethertouseauthenticmaterialsinExt

ensiveReadingClassin

    ;Chineseuniversities.Therearefoursections.Itbeginswithdefinitionofauthenticmaterials.Insectiontwo.it

    ;discussescriteriaofselectingreadingtexts.SectionthreeintroducestheChinesebackgroundofextensivereading

    ;classandtheapplicationofauthenticmaterialsofit.Insectionfour,itmainlytalksaboutmotivationandauthentic

    ;materials.Finally,resultswillbeseentosupporttheconclusionthatauthenticmaterialsshouldbeused

    ;appropriatelyinERreadingclassinChineseuniversities.

    ;2.Sectionone:Definitionofauthenticmaterials

    ;Anderson(1999)claimsthatauthentictextsarethetextswhichhavebeenwrittenfornativespeakerofthe

    ;languageandnotforsecondlanguagereaders.Little,DevittandSingleton(1994,P.23)define”authentictexts”

    ;as”atextthatwascreatedtofulfillsomesocialpurposeinthelanguagecommunityinwhichitwasproduced.‟‟

    ;Usingauthenticmaterialscanprovidestudentswithopportunitiestoexposetoauthenticlanguageofthereal

    ;worldintheclassroom.

    ;3.Sectiontwo:Criteriaofselectingreadingtexts

    ;BasedonKrashen‟sinputhypothesis,thefirstcriterionisreadability,whichre

ferstothecombinationof

    ;structuralandlexicaldifficulty.Thisisespeciallyintheselectionofreadingmaterialsforpedagogicpurposes.

    ;“Readabilityof‟textdifficulty‟hasbeen,andremains,anareaofconcernforallthosewhoneedtoestablishthe

    ;„isresearchisfinancedbytheProjectofPhilosophyandSocialSciencesinHenanProvince(No.2005CYYoo4)andbythe

    ;ProjectofSoftScienceinHenanProvince(No.07240O430Il01.

    ;JIANGYufeng.dean&professorofForeignLanguagesDepartment.HarbinUniversityofScienceandTechnology;researchfield:

    ;crossculturecommunication.

    ;LANGFei,M.A.,lecturerofForeignLanguagesDepartment,HarbinUniversityofScienceandTechnology;researchfields:

    ;appliedlinguistics,corpus,teachingmethodology.

    ;

    ;ApplicationofauthenticmaterialsinextensivereadingclassinChineseuniversities

    ;appropriacyofagiventextforapedagogicpurpose‟‟(Fulche~1997,P.497).Inrecentyears,teachersrecognize

    ;thatifstudentsaregiventoodifficultreadingmaterialsthelearningprocesswillbedamagedandstudentswillbe

    ;demotivated.Findingsuitableauthentictextsismoredifficultfor1ow.1eve1s

tudents.Non.modifiedmaterialsare

    ;usuallytoodifficultforthemtocomprehend.

    ;Thesecondcriterionistoselecttextswhichmeet1earners‟needs.Inextensive

    readingclass.studentsare

    ;readingEnglishforacademicpurposes.Theappropriatetextswillbewellseveredforstudentslearningin

    ;vocabulary,grammarandreadingskills.Authenticmaterialshavebeenwrittenfornativespeakersbutnotfor

    ;secondlanguagelearners.Comparetothem,modificationshavetheiradvantagesforlanguagelearning.

    ;Thethirdcriterionis1earners‟interestsforselectingtexts.Tofindwhatthestudents1ikethrough

    ;questionnaire,andofferthemthematerialstheyfavoured.Authenticmaterialsarecontinuallythoughttostimulate

    ;students‟moreintereststhanmOdincatiOnones.

    ;4.Sectionthree:ExtensiveReading(ER)classinChineseuniversities ;IntensiveReading(IR)islimitedintheclassroomwhereteachersaskalargenumberofquestionsabouta

    ;textrUrquhart&Weir,2002).However,ERmeans”silentreading”intheclassroomoratanyplacesstudentslike

    ;forpleasure,curiosityorprofessionalinterests.TheaimofER,whichis”to‟flood‟learnerswithlargequantities

    ;ofL2inputwithfeworpossiblynospecifictaskstoperformonthismaterial(Hafize&Tudor,1989,P.5)”,

    ;makesauthenticmaterialslessdifficulttocomprehend.Readingforpleasuredeterminesthatstudentscanreadany

    ;materialsthey1ikeincludingtheauthenticmaterials.Furthermore.aneasilyachievedextensivecollectionof

    ;authenticmaterialssuchastravelbrochures,maps,newspapersandsoonofferabundantresourcesofL2inputfor

    ;FR.

    ;5.Sectionfour:Authenticmaterialsandmotivation

    ;5.1Introductiontomotivationinforeignlanguagelearning

    ;CrookesandSchmidt(1991)definemotivationas”interestinandenthusiasmforthematerialsusedinclass;

    ;persistencewiththelearningtask,asindicatedbylevelsofattentionoractionforanextendedduration;andlevels

    ;ofconcentrationandenjoyment.‟‟Motivationinlanguagelearningwhichreferstothedirectedeffortindividual

    ;learnersmaketolearnthelanguage(Ellis,1994)canbeclassifiedasintegrativemotivationandinstrumental

    ;motivation.Theconceptoftheformeristhatindividuallearnerswanttoidentifywiththetargetlanguage

    ;communitywhilethelatterinwhichindividuallearnersholdistolearnanL2fo

rpracticalgoals,suchasjob

    ;seeking,buildingupareputationorenteringintoidealeducation.Inaddition,Skehan(1989)mentionedfour

    ;hypothesesonmotivation,oneofwhicharetheResultativeHypothesisinwhichitissaidthatlearnerswholearn

    ;wellwillkeepworkinghard,thosewhodonotlearnwellwillbedemotivated.Inshort,Learners‟achievement

    ;influencestheirmotivationtoagreatextent.

    ;5.2Therelationshipbetweenauthenticmaterialsandmotivation ;Manyauthorshaveclaimedthatauthenticmaterialsbring1earnermotivationanactiveeffectinFLclassroom.

    ;Learnersaremotivatedbytheauthenticmaterialswhichareconsideredtobemoreinterestingorstimulatingthan

    ;inventedones(Peacock,1997).

    ;5.3Study

    ;5.3.1Aims

    ;12

    ;

    ;ApplicationofauthenticmaterialsinextensivereadingclassinChineseuniversities

    ;Toexaminetheeffectofanexperimentalprogrammeofteachingextensivereadingonstudents‟attitudes,

;motivationandachievement.

    ;5.3.2Participants

    ;ThirtyfreshmeninthesameEnglishlearningclassfromHarbinUniversityofScienceandTechnology.They

    ;averagelymaster1500Englishwordsandtheirsightwordscanreachnearly2000.

    ;5.3.3Instrumentsfmotivationrelated)

    ;Thestudentquestionnaire(10four-choicesquestions;2openendedquesti

    ons;2selectionandrankordering

    ;items)focusonattitudestowardstheEnglishlanguageanditsculture,appraisaloftheimportanceofEnglish

    ;readinginChina,satisfactionofthestudentswithERclasses,andmotivationtouseauthenticreadingmaterialsin

    ;class.

    ;5.3.4Procedure

    ;CarriedoutanexperimentalERprogrammefor12academichours(oneacademichourisequalto4550

    ;minutes).

    ;Usedauthenticmaterialsforextensivereadinginsteadoftraditionaltextbooks.Theyincludelyricofsome

    ;Americanpopsongs;oneinstructionofcamera;threetravelbrochures;somenewspapersfromtheUK;andsome

;poems.

    ;Thestudentscanchoosereadingmate

    ;.

    ;rialsfreelyintheselectiongivenbytheteacher.Thereareno

    questionsaboutmaterials.Butstudentsshoulddiscussthematerialthe;post

    yreadattheendoftheclassina

    ;five—peoplegroup.Duringtheclass,theteachermonitoredstudents‟activitiesandguidedthereadingprocess.

    ;Throughwatchingthestudents‟groupdiscussions,theteacherrecordedeachstudent‟sperformanceandgavethem

    ;marks.

    ;StudentsfilledinthequestionnaireinclassaftertheERprogramme. ;5.3.5Dataanalysis

    ;AsfortheattitudestowardstheEnglishculture.56.7%studentschoosethewordof”interested”.Being

    ;curiousischosenby33.3%students.Only10%respondentsinthegroupofthestudentsthinkofEnglishculture

    ;assomethingboring.Howeve~tothequestionofappraisaloftheimportanceofEnglishreadinginChina,100%

    ;studentsgivetheanswerof”veryimportant”.

    ;IntermsofsatisfactionofthestudentswiththisexperimentalERprogramme,93.3%studentsrank5(the

    ;highestleve1)toshowtheirgreatsatisfaction.Noonefeelsdiscontent. ;Asregardtomotivationtotakethetrainingofextensivereadingwhenusingauthenticreadingmaterialsin

    ;class,100%studentsreportthattheyaremotivatedmorehighlynowthanthatofusingtextbooksinthepast.

    ;Moreover,morethan60%studentsshowthattheywouldliketopracticeextensivereadingafterclassiftheyare

    ;providedwithauthenticreadingmaterials.

    ;5.3.6Results

    ;TheoutcomeindicatesthattheteachingofERbyusingauthenticreadingmaterials:

    ;(1)PositivelyaffectstheattitudestowardsthelanguageofEnglishanditsculture.andincreasesstudents‟

    ;satisfactionwithEnglishextensivereadingclasses;

    ;(2)Improvesthemotivationtostudythelanguageforreadingpurposeandmakesstudentsawareofthe

    ;importanceofEnglishreadingindailylife;

    ;(3)SignificantprogressinEnglishreadingcomprehensionisfoundinmostofthestudents.

    ;ThebestpredictorsoftheintentiontocontinuestudyingEnglishreadingwere: ;13

    ;

    ;ApplicationofauthenticmaterialsinextensivereadingclassinChineseuniversities

    ;(1)Thetypeofmaterialsusedinthereadingprogramme;

    ;(2)Students‟attitudestowardsEnglishanditsculture;

    ;(3)Theconsiderationofstudents‟motivationofEnglishreading.

    ;5.3.7Limitations

    ;Theresultindicatesthatstudentswerehighlymotivatedfromthebeginningofusingauthenticmaterialsin

    ;ERclass.Studentmotivationwasnotmaintainedthesamelevelattheendoftheexperimentbutwasstillhigher

    ;thanthesituationinwhichauthenticmaterialswerenotused.

    ;Inshort,forChineseuniversitystudents,authenticmaterialsinERreadingclassaremotivating.

    ;6.Conclusion

    ;Wallace(1992)suggestedthattheselectionofauthentictextsisvitaltoteachingreading.Thereisnotan

    ;absoluteconclusionthatauthenticmaterialsshouldbeusedornotinEFLreadingclassinChineseuniversities.It

    ;willdependonsomefactorssuchasthenatureofclass.thelevelofreadersandSOon.Themodificationsalsoplay

    ;importantrolesinsecondlanguageacquisitionundersomeconditions.Iftheultimategoalofteachingistoequip

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