大学英语 Book Three
Unit One A Brush with the Law
Time Allotment: (4.5 Periods)
1. Text Structure analysis and new words and phrases (3 periods)
2. Exercises and reading & writing skills (1.5 periods)
Teaching Aims: The teaching of this text aims to enable students
1. to master the new words and useful phrases: arbitrary, award, belief, brilliant, employment, fate, given, guilty,
presumably, subsequent, temporary , trial, wander, witness, a couple of, call on , revolve around, save up, stand a chance , take one's time , turn against
2. to learn about the author‘s brush with the law and his feeling towards it.
3. to get acquainted with reading skills –---how to use a dictionary.
4. to learn and practice some writing skills: arrange the sentences in logical order.
I. Background information
1. Magistrates and the magistrates‟ court
In England, a magistrate is a person appointed to try minor offences. He is either an unpaid layman or, in London and some other large cities, a paid judicial officer.
In England, every district has a magistrates' court. It is the lowest court of law. The magistrates' court can only try people for minor, i.e. not very serious, offences. It cannot give prison sentences totaling more than 12 months, nor can it order fines of more than~400 for one offence.
2. Layer, solicitor, barrister
Lawyer is the general term for anyone whose work it is to advise his clients about the law and represent them in court.
A solicitor (初级律师) is a lawyer who gives advice, appears in lower courts, and prepares cases for a barrister to argue in a higher court.
A barrister(出庭律师) is a lawyer who has the right of speaking and arguing in the higher courts of law.
If a person gets into trouble with the police, he will probably ask a solicitor to help prepare his defence and, if the offence is to be heard in a Magistrates' Court, he can ask a solicitor to appear for him and argue his case. If the case goes to a higher court, the solicitor still advises him, but he must get a barrister to appear for him. 3. The Sixties‟ “youth counterculture”.
The word "counterculture" was coined in the 1960's for the attitude and life style of many young people who rejected conventional social values and demanded more personal freedom. The counterculture first arose in the U.S. during the 1960's and soon spread to Britain, France and other western countries. These young people were opposed to the Vietnam War and dissatisfied with the existing state of affairs in their society. Yet, unable to find a more constructive way of struggling against these, they indulged themselves in sex, drugs, alcohol and rock music and took great pride in wearing long hair and unusual clothes and in taking up anything that was unconventional.
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The counterculture declined in the late.1970's.
4. Middle class
In Britain, the middle class refers to the class of people between the nobility and the working class. It includes professional men (such as doctors, lawyers and architects), bankers, owners of business and small gentry. In the United States, however, the middle class refers to the class of people between the very wealthy class and the class of unskilled labourers and unemployed people. It includes businessmen, professional people, office workers, and many skilled workers.
Apart from occupations and economic status, the term "middle class" can also be used to describe values and attitudes.
5. Hippy / Hippie
1. Time: the late 1960s
2. Countries: U.S., Canada, U.K., some other countries
3. Behavior: nonviolent anarchy; concern for the environment; rejection of Western materialism; being dressed in unusual clothes; living in group together; taking drugs
Hippie, member of a youth movement of the late 1960s, was characterized by nonviolent anarchy, concern for the environment, and rejection of Western materialism. The hippie movement started in the United States and then spread to Canada, the United Kingdom, and many other countries. The hippies formed a politically outspoken, antiwar, artistically prolific counterculture in North America and Europe. The hippies were usually dressed in unusual clothes and lived in group together and took drugs.
6. Richmond upon Thames
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Richmond upon Thames is a borough of Greater London in southwestern England. Richmond upon Thames is an attractive residential district that borders both sides of the River Thames for about 19 km (about 12 miles). Its population is over 160,000. Among the borough’s historical sites are Hampton Court Palace, the former home
of King Henry VIII; and the remains of Richmond Palace, which was used by Queen Elizabeth I. The Royal Botanical Gardens in nearby Kew are also a popular attraction.
London is the capital of the United Kingdom. It is situated in southeastern England along the Thames River. With a population of about 7 million, this vast metropolis is by far the largest city in Europe, a distinction it has maintained since the 17th century. In the 19th century it was the largest and most influential city in the world, the center of a large and prosperous overseas empire. Today although it no longer ranks among the world‘s most
populous cities, London is still one of the world‘s major financial and cultural centers.
Words or Phrases Related to the Topic
1. 律师 a lawyer 2. 法官 a law-officer
3. 立法者 a lawmaker 4. 执法官 a lawman
5. 犯法者 a lawbreaker 6. 原告 an accuser / a plaintiff
7. 被告 a defendant 8. 罪犯 an offender
9. 法庭 a law court 10. 案件 a law case
11. 律师事务所 a law office 12. 办案 handle a case
13. 贿赂 bribery 14. 指控 accusation
15. 打官司 initiate legal proceeding 16. 控告某人 have / take the law against
17. 遵纪守法 abide by the law 18. 犯法 break the law
19. 驳回上诉 reject an appeal 20. 免予起诉 release from charge
21. 释放某人 set sb. free / release sb. from prison
We all know that the chief purposes of law are to maintain peace and order, to protect the rights of citizens, to secure justice and to punish wrong-doers. Good laws are those that are considered to serve the cause of justice for the society to which they apply. But even good laws may be unjustly applied or may be unjust in certain situations. In the story we're going to study today, the author tells us about what happened to him more than a decade ago. It was really a very unpleasant experience, yet it provides us with much food for thought.
II. Warm-up Questions and Oral Practice
1. Are you more suspicious of some strangers than others? What influences you when judging whether a
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stranger can be trusted?
2. Do you think that everyone is equal in the eyes of the law? Explain.
1. Why does the author think of the circumstances of his arrest and his release form the charge as arbitrary? 2. Did the policemen think they were to blame for the arrest of the youngster? Why or why not? 3. What does the author‘s brush with the law tell us about his society?
III. Text Structure Analysis
1. Outline of the text
Part I. (Para.1) The narrator has once been in trouble with the law, which was rather an unpleasant experience.
Question: 1. How did the author feel about the incident at the time it occurred? What does he think of it now?
Part II. (Para. 2--20) The narrator was arbitrarily arrested and released.
Question: 1. Why did he go to Richmond?
2. What did the author think got him into trouble with the law?
3. What did he see when walking out of the local library?
4. What did the man say to him? Did he take the man's words seriously at first?
5. When and how did the author come to see the man was being serious?
6. What grounds did the policemen have for suspecting that the young man was wandering with
intent to steal milk bottles?
7. What does the author mean by his "big mistake"?
8. How did he behave when he was questioned at the police station? What did the police decide to
do with him?
9. What did his father do when he learned about the incident?
10 What were the things his release from the charge depended on?
Part III. (Para. 21-22) The narrator believed that if he had come from a different background, he would have been found guilty.
Question: 1. What did the policeman probably mean by saying "You could have been a bit more helpful when we arrested you"?
2. Summary of the text
. The author narrates his unpleasant experience of being arrested and taken to court twelve years ago. The policemen arrested him simply because they found him wearing ling untidy hair and wandering aimlessly in the street and they thought he might have the intent to steal milk bottle from doorsteps. Finally he was released from the charge because of his “right” accent, his respectable middle-class parents, his reliable witnesses and his very good solicitor. But the author feels sure that if he had come from a different background and had really been out of work, the magistrate would most probably have found him guilty.
IV. Language Points
1. A Brush with the Law. (title)
; brush : n. a brief fight or encounter; a time when you only just avoid an unpleasant situation or argument
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His first brush with the law came when he was 16.
A brush with death can make you appreciate life more.
These freshmen once had a brush with the Customs man.
Our football players had a brush with the referee in the last game.
2. The whole process of being arrested and taken to court was a rather unpleasant experience at the time, but it makes a good story now. (Para1)
; take sb. to court: take legal action against sb. 对某人提出起诉
lf you go on ill-treating your wife like this, you will be taken to court.
She threatened to take the magazine to court if they didn't publish an immediate apology. COLLOCATIONS:
court of law 法院?法庭
appear in court?出庭
bring a case to court?上庭受审
settle something out of court (=reach an agreement about a dispute without using the court) 庭外解决
the court (=the judge, the jury, and the other people in a court) 全体法官或审判人员
criminal court (=a court where cases about crimes are heard) 刑事法庭
civil court (=a court where cases about civil disagreements are heard) 民事法庭
; it makes a good story now.: ... it provides material for a good story now.
Here the verb "to make" means "to have the qualities needed for (sth. good)".
Iced tea makes an excellent drink in summer.
he wall calendar makes a nice new year gift.
2. What makes it rather disturbing was the arbitrary circumstances both of my arrest and my subsequent fate
in court. (Para1)
The author was arrested simply because the policemen thought he intended to steal milk bottles and later
in court he was released from the charge just because he had the "right" accent, respectable middle-class
parents, reliable witnesses and so on. That is to say, he was arrested arbitrarily and released arbitrarily. And it
is this arbitrariness of both his arrest and his release that the author thinks rather disturbing.
; arbitrary: adj. decided by or based on personal opinion only rather than on reason 人意的?武断的
The arbitrary decisions of the management caused anger among the workers.
His arbitrary decision resulted in the failure of the project.
I knew little about medical books so my choice was quite arbitrary.
arbitrary boss 独断专行的老板
arbitrary punishment 肆意的惩罚
; circumstance?n. facts; conditions connected with an event or a person
Good weather and other favorable circumstances made our picnic a success.
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Under these circumstances I have to do it.
In no circumstances can a soldier leave his post.
economic/financial/personal etc circumstances
Whether or not you qualify for a loan will depend on your financial circumstances.
exceptional / special circumstances 特殊情况
favorable circumstances 有利条件
tragic circumstances 悲惨境况
under / in the circumstances 在这种情况下, 既然如此
under / in no circumstances 在任何情况下都不
; subsequent?adj. later; coming after, following
Subsequent research has produced even better results
Subsequent events proved me wrong. 后来发生的事证明我错了。
These skills were passed on to subsequent generations.
subsequent pages of the book
subsequent to something “ 在„„之后”?
In the week subsequent to her marriage, she didn‘t go to work. 她婚后一周没去上班。
His illness was subsequent to his father‘s death. 他爸去世后?他病了。
events that happened subsequent to the accident subsequently : adv
The book was subsequently translated into 15 languages.
3. …… and was not due to go to university until the following October. (Para2) ; due : adj. expected to happen or arrive at a particular time; supposed (to)
due to do something 应该做某事
The manager is due to set out on his journey this evening.
Your report is due tomorrow. 你的报告应该明天交。
due for 应得到?某物?
The car is due for its annual service again.
due to sth. / sb 因为?某人、某事?
She has been absent from work due to illness.
The restaurant's success was due largely to its new manager.
due consideration 适当的考虑
in due time 在适当的时候
undertake one‘s due obligations 承担应尽的义务
5. I was looking for a temporary job so that I could save up some money to go travelling. (Para 3)
; save up: .keep money for future use
I‘m saving up $5 a week to buy a Christmas present for my mother.
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He is saving up to buy/for a small house for his family.
6. I was taking my time, looking in shop windows, strolling in the park, and sometimes just stopping and looking
(Para 3) around me.
; take one‟s time: not hurry; do sth. in an unhurried way
Just take your time and tell me clearly what has happened in the building.
You should take your time and check your test paper once more before handing it in.
7. It must have been this obvious aimlessness that led to my downfall. (Para 3)
I'm sure my arrest was the result of my wandering in the streets without any definite purpose.
; downfall: n. ruin 垮台?毁灭
An addiction to gambling was her downfall. 沉迷于赌博是她惠民的原因。
the scandal that led to the president's downfall 导致总统垮台的丑闻
8. „when I saw a man walking across the road with the obvious intention of talking to me. (Para 4) ; intention?n. a plan or desire to do sth.
If I‘ve hurt your feelings, it was quite without intention.
Jenny came with the intention of settling the dispute.珍妮是抱着解决纠纷的目的来的。
They went into town with the intention of visiting the library.
have no/every intention of doing something
I have no intention of retiring just yet.
She felt offended at my remarks, but it wasn‘t my intention to hurt her.
intention & intent这两个名词均有“意图?企图”之意。
intention 普通用词?指某人内心产生的想做某事的想法?强调内心活动。 例如?
He went to the boss with the intention of asking for a pay rise. 他到老板那里去?想请求增加工资。
He broke into the house with intent to steal.他破门而入想偷东西。
He is charged with possession of a gun with intent to commit a robbery.
by intention 故意
have no intention of 无意
with good intentions 好心好意地
-intentioned?having or showing intentions of the stated type 有?某种?意向的?由某种用意的
a well-intentioned effort 好心的努力
intentional: adj. deliberate 有意的? 故意的
an intentional insult 有意的侮辱
9. “Wandering with intent to commit an arrestable offence,” he said. (Para 6)
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; wander: v. 1) walk about in a casual way or without a fixed purpose
After supper he would go out and wander alone in the streets for about an hour.
They wandered through the forests and fields.他们漫步穿过森林与田野。
2) if your mind, thoughts, etc. wander, you no longer pay attention to sth., especially because
you are bored or worried
I‘m sorry that my mind was wandering. What did you say just now? ; commit: v. 1) do sth. wrong or illegal
The woman has committed murder and must be punished.
They have committed many horrible crimes against the people.
commit suicide: to kill yourself deliberately
2) to say that someone will definitely do something or must do something 事?尤指自己?承担义
commit somebody to doing something
He has clearly committed his government to continuing down the path of economic reform.
The government has committed itself to improving health education.
The government has committed considerable resources to improving the rail system.
The director has been asked to state the company‘s position, but so far he has refused/declined to commit himself (on this issue).
commitment: n. 1?a promise to do something or to behave in a particular way: 承诺?诺言?承担的义务
Are you ready to make a long-term commitment? 你愿意作出长期承诺吗，
2?the hard work and loyalty that someone gives to an organization, activity etc: 忠诚：信奉：
I was impressed by the energy and commitment shown by the players.
The company‘s success this year wouldn‘t have been possible without the commitment and dedication of the staff. 如果没有员工的奉献精神?公司今年的成功是不可能的。
10. It turned out there had been a lot of petty thefts in the area, ……(Para 12)
; turn out: v. be found or discovered (to be); prove to be
turn out (to be) + n. / adj.
turn out + (that)-clause
It turned out (to be) a fine day.
The person I spoke to turned out to be an English student 和我说话的人原来是个英国学生。
It turned out that the experiment was much more difficult than they had expected. turn out & prove它们均有“?结果?证明是„„”的意思。
turn out 往往表示事情的结果变得与原来不同或令人惊异。例如?
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The concert turned out a success. 音乐会结果很成功。
prove 强调结果并强调需要一段时间的实践证明或根据经验得出某种结论。 例如:
The concert proved a success. 事实证明音乐会很成功。
11. … and regarded myself as part of the sixties‘“youth counterculture”. (Para. 13)
; counter--: prefix 1) the opposite of something: 与)))相反
a counterproductive thing to do (=producing results opposite to what you wanted)
2) done or given as a reaction to something, especially to oppose it: 反?逆
proposal and counterproposal 建议与反建议
3) matching something: 对应?对等
my counterpart in the American system (=someone who has the same job that I have)
12. “How long have you been following me?” in the most casual and conversational tone I could manage. I thus appeared to them to be quite familiar with this sort of situation, and it confirmed them in their belief that I was a
thoroughly disreputable character. (Para. 13)
; casual: adj. (of manners) not caring or seeming not to care about sth. that is happening or what one is doing;
(of clothes) comfortable and informal
He prefers casual clothes except on special or formal occasions.
The retired worker is casual about his appearance.
Because of his casual attitude toward work, he was fired. 13. … it confirmed them in their belief that I was a thoroughly disreputable character. (Para. 13)
; confirm: v. prove to be true or correct
The expression on his face confirmed (me in) my suspicions. 他的表情证实了我的怀疑。
Please write to confirm your reservations. 请来信确认一下您所预订的项目。
The result of my experiments has confirmed my belief/confirmed me in my belief that your
theory is correct.
14. Eventually, I was officially charged and told to report to Richmond Magistrates‘ Court the following Monday. (Para 18)
; charge: v. blame (sb.) officially for having broken the law
The police charged the driver with drunken driving. = The police accused the driver of drunken
be charged with murder/stealing/theft/neglecting one's duty (渎职)
15. I wanted to conduct my own defence in court. (Para 19)
; conduct: v. 1) manage; direct; carry out
The manager conducted his business efficiently.
conduct a survey/investigation/review etc
We are conducting a survey of consumer attitudes towards organic food.
conduct an experiment/a test
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Is it really necessary to conduct experiments on animals?
conduct an interview
The interview was conducted in English.
2) stand in front of a group of musicians or singers and direct their playing or singing指挥
The orchestra is conducted by a famous conductor. 管弦乐队由一位著名的指挥家指挥。
3) allow (heat or electricity) to travel along or through 传导
Plastic and rubber don‘t conduct electricity, but copper does.
4) conduct yourself : to behave in a particular way, especially in a situation where people judge you
by the way you behave: 表现?为人
I think he conducted himself admirably, considering the difficult circumstances.
n. the way one behaves, esp. in public, in their jobs, etc.
The children‘s conduct at the meeting was very good.
a prize for good conduct 品行优秀奖
conduct, direct & lead这些动词都含“引导”之意。
The chairperson conducted the hearing. 主席先生主持了这个听证会。
direct 指“为某人指方向” ?但自己不一定亲自引路?也可表示指导一群人的事或活动。例如?
The border guard directed me to hand over my passport.边防战士指引我去交护照。
The horses were led to safety.马匹被带到安全地带。
16. But he was never called on to give evidence. (Para. 19)
; call on: appeal to; require; invite (sb. to do sth. )
call on sb.
call on sb. to do sth.
I‘ll call on Jean for an answer.
He was called on to speak at the banquet. 他被邀请在宴会上发言。
The President called on his people to work hard for national unity. 17. The magistrate dismissed the case after fifteen minutes. (Para 19 ) ; dismiss: v. 1) refuse to consider someone‘s idea, opinion, etc., because you think it is not serious, true, or
important; if a judge dismisses a court case, he or she stops it from continuing 驳回?对……不受理
The case was dismissed owing to lack of evidence. 由于证据不足法官不受理此案。
The government has dismissed criticisms that the country's health policy is a mess.
dismiss something as something
He just laughed and dismissed my suggestion as unrealistic.
2) remove someone from his job