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_Writing_Reference_Lists

By Howard Greene,2014-08-27 19:07
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_Writing_Reference_Lists

Writing Reference Lists

Why do we need reference lists?

    References show our readers what sources we have used in our writing. They can quickly see how widely we have read. It is also a vital way of acknowledging the work of others. In addition, references allow our readers to find and read our sources in the original, if they wish. What‟s the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?

    Strictly speaking, a reference list gives only the details of all sources you have referred to in your work, while a bibliography gives the details of all sources you have consulted, whether referred to in your work or not. (However, it is common for reference lists to be called bibliographies.)

    During your time here, your tutors will want to see a reference list (even if you or they call it a bibliography!). Don‟t write long bibliographies of material you haven‟t actually used in your essays.

    What style of reference list should I write and where does it go? There are several commonly used systems of referencing. This unit will focus on the Harvard referencing system as it is commonly used at Essex. However, you should always check with individual tutors so that you know which system they find most acceptable. The reference list should be at the end of your work (on a separate page) and be clearly labelled ‘References’

Exercise 1:

    Look below at the order of elements when referencing common sources. Then look at the examples and state what you think each element refers to.

For a book, the following elements should be presented in this order:

    • surname and initials of author(s)

    • year of publication

    • title of book (in italics)

    • the edition, for example, 4th edn, if not the original publication

    • publisher

    • place of publication.

A Book

    Shearman, D. & Sauer-Thompson, G. (1997). Green or gone, Wakefield Press, Kent Town.

For a chapter in an edited book, the following elements should be presented in this order:

    ; Surname and initials of author(s)

    ; Year of publication

    ; Title of article or chapter (in inverted commas “”)

    ; in + title of book ( in italics)

    ; editor‟s initials and surname +ed.

    ; publisher

    ; place of publication

    ; inclusive page numbers (p. or pp. for several pages)

A chapter in an edited book

    Blaxter, M. (1976). “Social Class and health inequalities”, in Equalities and Inequalities in Health, C. Carter & J. Peel eds. Academic Press, London, pp.61-89.

A Journal article

    For a journal article, the following elements should be presented in this order:

    ; Surname and initials of author(s)

    ; Year of publication

    ; Title of article (in inverted commas “”)

    ; Title of journal (in italics)

    ; Volume number (in bold)

    ; Issue number (in brackets, if relevant)

    ; Inclusive page numbers (p. or pp. for several pages)

A Journal article

    Wysocki, A. (1999). “Monitoring Order”, Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments, 3, (2)

An article sourced from the internet

    For an article sourced from the internet, the following elements should be presented in this

    order:

    ; Surname and initials of author(s) or name of sponsor

    ; Date (if given, otherwise n.d.)

    ; Title of web page

    ; „online at:‟

    ; Full URL address

    ; „Accessed‟ + date you found it

An article sourced from the internet

    Hart M & Friesner T (2004) Plagiarism and Poor Academic Practice - A Threat to

    the Extension of e-Learning in Higher Education? Online at:

    http://ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art25-hart-friesner.pdf Accessed 2

    July 2006

Compiling a reference list

    Look at the example of a partial reference list below. What do you notice about the order of

    items in the list?

References

    Andrews, J., Garrison, D.R. & Magnusson, K. (1996) The teaching and learning transaction in

     higher education: a study of excellent professors and their students, Teaching in Higher

     Education, 1, pp. 81103.

Ayers, W. (1986) About teaching and teachers, Harvard Educational Review, 56, pp. 4951.

    Biggs, J. (1979) Individual differences in study processes and the quality of learning outcomes,

     Higher Education, 8, pp. 381394.

    Biggs, J. (1987) Student Approaches to Learning and Studying (Melbourne, Australian Council for

     Educational Research).

    Boelen, C., Bandaranayake, R., Bouhuws, P.A.J., Page, G.G. & Rothman, A.I. (1992) Towards

     the Assessment of Quality in Medical Education (Geneva, World Health Organisation).

    Chambers, E. (1992) Workload and the quality of student learning, Studies in Higher Education,

     17, pp. 141153.

    Colburn, R.P. (1995) Affirmative action and academic support: African medical students at the

     University of Cape Town, Medical Education, 29, pp. 110118.

    Notice that there are no numbers, letters or bullet points separating the items.

Exercise 2:

    Your tutor will give you a selection of sources for a hypothetical essay.

Write the reference list that would appear at the end of your essay, if you were to use all of

    these sources.

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