On English Classroom Teaching
Abstract: In past half century, the study of English has been beneficial and rewarding and the prospects seem exciting. During the course of today’s English teaching,
teaching includes two aspects: teachers’ teaching and students’ learning. Students should
be taken as a center in English classroom. Teachers only act as the role of guiding the
, students. Drills are quite important .Developing the studentsability should be
emphasized to adapt to new situation, so we must change the old teaching pattern. According to the conditions of different learners, this paper puts forward corresponding teaching approaches in order to arouse their interest and improve their school records.
’In part one, elaborates the three main relations: Student-Teacher, Teachers
’ presentation and studentspractice, Comprehension and Expression. These relations all affect English teaching, so a teacher must know them and then he can improve teaching efficiency.
In an English class, different students have their different ways to study, so the second part, it generalizes three different types of English learners: flexible learners and less-flexible learners, left-brain dominant learners and right-brain dominant learners, field-independent learners and field-dependent learners.
Facing different learners, teacher must exert suitable methods. The third part, puts forward the following approaches:
<1>audio-visual approach and imitation and analogy
<2> situation simulation and visual approach
<3> question and answer practice approach and intuitional approach
Key words: teaching and learning; teaching method; types of English learners
Abstract„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„i Contents„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„iii Introduction„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„1 1. The three relation in English classroom „„„„„„„„„„„„1 1.1 Student—teacher„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„1 1.2 Teacher’s Presentation and Students’ Practice„„„„„„„„2 1.3 Comprehension and Expression„„„„„„„„„„„„„4 2. The different types of English learners in English classroom„„6 2.1 Flexible learners and less-flexible learners „„„„„„„„6 2.2 Left-brain dominant learners and less-flexible dominant
learners„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„8 2.3 Field-independence and Field-dependence„„„„„„„9 3. The Methods in Classroom English Teaching„„„„„„„„10 3.1 Audio—visual approach and imitation and Analogize„„„10
3.1.1 Audio—visual approach„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„10
3.1.2 Imitation and Analogy„„„„„„„„„„„„„„11 3.2 Situation Simulation and the Visual Approach„„„„„„„„12
3.2.1 Situation Simulation„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„12
3.2.2 The visual approach„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„13 3.3 Question and Answer practice approach and Intuitional approach„14
3.3.1 Question and Answer practice„„„„„„„„„„„„14
3.3.2 Intuitional approach„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„16 Conclusion„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„18 Bibliography„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„19 Acknowledgement„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„20
As the development of the technology, the requirements for education become high, there exist some shortcomings in present classroom teaching. So we must change the old teaching patterns. In order to improve the quality of teaching, studying on English classroom teaching is very necessary.
1. The three relations in English classroom
During English teaching process, teaching will be impacted by many equations, such as some relations in English classroom. In the modern classroom teaching, there are important relations: Student-Teacher, Teacher’s presentation and Students’ practice, Comprehension and
In English classroom, whether the teaching and learning task is accomplished or not depends largely on student—teacher relationship. To a
certain degree English teaching is a process of interaction between teacher and student, they influence each other with confidence, accomplishment, success or failure, enjoyment or sorrow both in teaching and learning. The students’ personality factors, such as their varied aptitude, motivation, personal taste or even their choice of learning methods are decisive and
 detrimental to student—teacher relationship.
Interaction means from the point of perceptual projection on which the teacher based his personal experience and what he likes or dislikes. Teachers classify students into groups of promising or non-promising, emotional or indifferent and non-enthusiastic. On the other hand students group the teacher into respected, beloved, or detested. Practically English teaching requires the teacher to observe the principle of less teacher-centered to manipulative classroom. Teachers are mere medium of the teaching. By contrast, students are viewed as a subject of our teaching who plays a reactive role. The teacher has students learning in line with his individual experience while the students obtain knowledge depending on their interest and aptitude, thus creating a problem of each going his own way.
The resolution to solve the problem lies in our efforts. We must be aware of the fact that the students play the main role in learning. Success or failure in teaching is only determined by the students’ language proficiency.
We only care about the students’ needs, learning goals, motivation, personal
factors and their roles in learning. Can we manage the teaching work successfully. Then we should focus on the training of students’ learning
strategy, having them assimilate the material more consciously so as to learn something through practice. Thirdly we should also show our confidence in them and place high hope on them rather than find fault with them. 1.2 Teacher’s Presentation and Students’ Practice
We can divide classroom activities into two main categories: teacher’s
presentation and students’ practice. Since practice of English is more
essential than impartment of knowledge in this course, acquisition of language competence and performance depends for the most part on a number of drills or a large amount of practice with less explanation on the teacher’s part. Practice, as a main activity in classroom procedure does include language input such as vocabulary, set patterns. Proper explanation and presentation, however, are also required to help the students in their practice and performance of language items. The relationships of presentation and practice are determined by the teaching principle of laying emphasis on key points and much practice. The significance of carefully designed modes and methods is to cope with the issues of how teaching
 directs practice and practice promotes teaching.
By laying emphasis on key points we mean first of all the contents to be presented should be carefully selected including those difficult points which often causes negative influence or confusion by the student’ mother
tongue or the information gap between the students mother tongue and target language. Then the teacher must work on with controlled techniques, taking account of alternate use of different materials. Thirdly presentation should go side by side with practice. The teacher should illustrate grammatical rules with concrete examples avoiding redundant
demonstration in abstract terms for highly—theoretical concept which may
become students’ obstacles. Therefore, the idea of using presentation to
replace practice on the part of students is unacceptable at all.
When it comes to practice, time is the factor for first consideration. It is advisable that two thirds of a class period spent for drills and practice is sufficient according to some experiments by Chinese practitioners in English language teaching. Generally speaking, it is true that students in junior class should concentrate on oral practice, but the focus will eventually shift onto the written part of the language at the senior stage. In order to make practice more efficient, it is necessary that group, pair and individual activities be used in turn and alternatively with more group work involved in mechanical drills and more individuals in meaningful and communicative drills.
In whatever activities, a few words of explanation and a sum-up by the teacher should always be recommended. In addition, out-of-class assignment of this kind should not be neglected. It is necessary for the teacher not only to assign well—selected items to the students after class,
but also to make comments on them after they are brought back to classroom.
1.3 Comprehension and Expression
From the modern linguistic point of view, listening, speaking, reading and writing are four linguistic skills.
The possibility of a gap between productive ability and comprehension ability may come from intrinsic competition of productive skill training or
inefficient teaching on the part of the instructor. Though comprehension (listening and reading) can be equated with competence, while production (speaking and writing) with performance. It is important to recognize that performance is certainly more difficult than comprehension.
An obvious example for reference is the experience of conscious Contrast Method adopted by those scholars in former Soviet Union in the thirties that comprehension competence was defined as grasping of reproduction. Data from those against it showed in nowadays that 85 percent belonged to the former group and 15 percent to the latter among the students that had mastered the language which probably has three points worth mentioning. Firstly, more attention was paid by the teacher and students to grasping. Secondly, production seemed to be more difficult than comprehension. Thirdly, comprehension though equated with production the rate of 85 to 15 might be illustrated as this. One point of production needs the effort of seven and a half points of comprehension.
As regards English learning theory in China, comprehension is described by some of our scholars as consisting of understanding and imitation, while production can be mechanical application, repetition and comprehension. A study of vocabulary learning showed that 70 percent o the vocabulary is required for comprehension and expression and 30 percent can be alternative. There is a distinction between the passive and active contents. This would show that comprehension could promote expression and the
passive materials would be reasonably superior to the active ones. To sum up, there are four modes to deal with the relationships of comprehension and expression according to the methodology at present. <1>These who practice the natural order of listening, speaking, reading and writing believe that comprehension can be equated with the expression that learning order should not be distorted.<2>Those practitioners of giving priority to listening and speaking skills maintain that comprehension runs ahead of expression. <3>Those avoid relationship of comprehension and expression place emphasis on imitation, repetition and performance. <4>Those believe that the ability to produce a new language emerges naturally and needs not to be taught directly.
2. The different types of English learners in English classroom
Every people is different from others, so in English classroom. There must be many types of English learners. For this teacher must know students’ characteristic in order to use the suitable method to teach them. 2.1 Flexible learners and less—flexible learners
In English classroom students usually means using his perceptual strengths to learn. There are four sensory channels: auditory(hearing), Visual (seeing), tactile(hands-on) and whole—body movement. Tactile suggests
learning with ones’ hands through manipulation of resources, such as
writing, drawing, building a model or conducting a lab experiment whole—
body movement implies total physical involvement with a learning environment such as taking a field trip, dramatizing or interviewing. The auditory and visual modalities are also frequently referred to in an
 oversimplified manner.
As a student, flexible learners use visual and auditory organ, teachers succeed when they are presented with substantive verbal information whether in a lecture or while reading and appreciate opportunities to reinforce new material by processing their own reactions and insights through discussion and writing. Teaching-led class discussions and challenging reading and writing assignments require considerable independent analysis, persistence and initiatives, but if students have so little opportunity to participate actively and if students appear to be retaining little of verbal instruction. They can’t understand their teacher, and then do badly
in their knowledge.
Unfortunately less flexible learners are rarely accommodated in traditional classroom area. Students, for example, with a decided auditory orientation often respond poorly to extensive written comments questions and corrections on a composition draft. This nature is more suited to visual and verbal students, strong auditory learners do better with the spoken rather than with the printed word, they would benefit far more in revising their writing, so this kinds of students should take part in all activities and absorb new materials and skills—through their senses.