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Key Reform Principles of WIA

By Pamela Gibson,2014-12-07 02:37
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Key Reform Principles of WIA

    The New WIB Director’s

    Handbook:

    A Practical Guide to Navigating the Workforce Development System in

    New York State

Table of Contents

    Introduction Pg 4 Acknowledgements Pg 5

PART 1: Workforce Investment Act Basics

    1. The History of Federal Job Training Pg 7

    2. Key Reform Principles of WIA Pg 9

    3. What’s Different About WIA Pg 11

    4. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 Legislation and Regulations Pg 13 5. The Titles of the Workforce Investment Act Pg 14 6. The National WIA Programs and National Emergency Grants Pg 23

    PART 2: Workforce Investment Boards 7. Roles and Responsibilities of the Local Workforce Investment Board Pg 29 8. Membership of the Local WIB Pg 32 9. The Youth Council Pg 33

    10. WIA Implications for Business Pg 35

    11. Governance of WIA: Federal, State, and Local Roles Pg 36 12. Labor Market Information Pg 38

    13. Funding Issues Pg 40

    14. Other Funding Sources Pg 47

    15. Local Area Policies Pg 56 16. Performance Measures Pg 58

    17. Capacity Building, Technical Assistance and Professional Development Pg 60 18. How USDOL Promulgates Policy Pg 66

    19. How NYSDOL Promulgates Policy Pg 66

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    PART 3: One-Stop Career Centers 20. The Role of One Stop Career Centers Pg 68

    21. Designating the One Stop Operator Pg 70

    22. What Is Functional Alignment Pg 71

    23. Understanding OSOS and the WIASRD Pg 73

    24. Training Services Pg 74

    PART 4: Other Topics of Importance 25. State Agencies and Their Roles in WIA Pg 79

    26. Working With the Media Pg 83

    27. Regional Considerations Under WIA Pg 84

PART 5: Appendices

    Appendix 1: NY State’s Ten NYSDOL, SUNY, and ESD Regions Pg 86 Appendix 2: Key State Agency Contact Information Pg 87

    Appendix 3: Key Committees in Congress Pg 89

    Appendix 4: Key Committees in the NY State Legislature Pg 94 Appendix 5: NYSDOL Commissioner’s Regional Representatives Pg 95 Appendix 6: Foundation Funding for Workforce Development by Region Pg 97 Appendix 7: Job Corps Centers in NYS Pg 98

    Appendix 8: Indian and Native American Programs in NYS Pg 100 Appendix 9: Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker Programs in NYS Pg 102 Appendix 10: Technical Advisories Related to Functional Alignment Pg 103

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Introduction

    Welcome to your new job as a Workforce Investment Board Director. In this position you can be a tremendous force for good in your community.

    stThe challenges all New Yorkers face in this 21 Century global economy are serious ones, and

    we have no choice but to meet them head on and to overcome them. Through successful administration of the federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA) programs you are a critical part of the State‘s overall strategy.

    This handbook is designed to provide a jumpstart in your understanding of your role as it relates to local implementation of the Workforce Investment Act.

    We have attempted to write this guide using plain English to make your transition into your new job as easy as possible.

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Acknowledgements

    Almost 20 years ago, NYATEP authored a Guide to the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) with funding from the New York State Department of Labor.

    Faced with large scale generational turnover in New York State‘s Workforce Investment Board leadership, NYSDOL again asked NYATEP to write a plain English New WIB Director’s

    Handbook.

    What a difference twenty years make in assembling a handbook of this type. In researching this work, we benefitted greatly from today‘s internet search technologies which enabled us to examine many policies from other States, and USDOL workforce documents. In areas such as listing the Roles and Responsibilities of the Local Workforce Investment Board, existing State policies, informed this work.

    We thank the dedicated workforce employees, both State and Local, whose work contributed to this Handbook, and hope that this handbook can now be adapted to other workforce communities across the country.

Any mistakes are mine, not the New York State Department of Labor‘s.

    Please point out any inaccuracies, as NYSDOL intends to update this Handbook several times a year; such information can be sent to NYSDOL at mailto:sharon.ferris@labor.ny.gov or

    mailto:jhennessy@nyatep.org

     John Twomey

     Executive Director

     NYATEP, Inc.

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    PART 1:

    WORKFORCE

    INVESTMENT ACT

    BASICS

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Chapter 1: The History of Federal Job Training

    Federal involvement in the administration of job training programs has spanned the past 90 years. Some of the more significant pieces of legislation include the following, which all have contributed to today‘s Workforce Investment Act.

    The Smith Hughes Act of 1917 prescribed a federal role in vocational education.

    The Wagner Peyser Act of 1933, in the depths of the Great Depression, this legislation brought the Employment Service into existence.

    The Civilian Conservation Corps of 1933 was quickly followed by the well known Works

    Project Administration (WPA) of 1935. These programs put thousands of unemployed

    individuals to work on publicly funded projects.

    The G. I. Bill, officially titled the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944, provided for college

    or vocational education to returning World War II veterans, as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It also provided many types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes or start businesses.

    The Employment Act of 1946 provided government funded job search assistance to returning World War II veterans.

    The National Defense Education Act of 1958, enacted in response to the Soviet launching of

    the Sputnik satellite, provided funding to promote study in the science and engineering fields in the United States and to boost national defense.

    The Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) of 1962 was originally intended to

    assist those workers dislocated because of automation; its scope was expanded in 1965 to help the structurally unemployed as part of President Lyndon Johnson‘s ―War on Poverty‖.

    The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 set up the Office of Economic Opportunity to address

    the problems of poverty in the United States.

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Also in the 1960‘s: Neighborhood Youth Corps, Concentrated Employment Program,

    Older Americans Act, and Model Cities were enacted. Additionally, the Economic

    Opportunity Act of 1964 initiated the Job Corps.

    The Emergency Employment Act of 1971, established under the Nixon Administration, was

    designed to combat record levels of unemployment in the United States by creating thousands of public sector jobs.

    The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) of 1973, also signed into law

    during the Nixon Administration, was established in an attempt to consolidate a number of programs under the Office of Economic Opportunity. It was a ―revenue sharing‖ program. Employment and training programs were administered at the local level through local prime sponsors. Under CETA there was little private sector involvement.

    The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) was enacted in 1982, replacing CETA. JTPA

    eliminated the Public Service Employment Program part of CETA, and increased funding for job training. JTPA was a training program, with a requirement that 70% of funds be spent on training. JTPA‘s local programs were overseen by majority business-led Private Industry

    Councils.

    The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) was signed into law by President William

    Clinton on August 7, 1998, and became effective in New York on July 1, 2000. WIA reformed the structure established by the Job Training Partnership Act. The Act, which was approved with strong bipartisan support, streamlined service delivery through One-Stop Career Centers, strengthened performance accountability, promoted universal access to services, created business-led state and local boards and promoted individual choice in training.

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Chapter 2: Key Reform Principles of WIA

The enactment of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 was based on the following seven key

    principles:

    1. Streamlining services through better integration. In New York alone there are 28 major 1. Streamlining services through better integration. In New York alone there are 28 major programs overseen by 11 separate agencies, all operating with different rules and eligibility. programs overseen by 11 separate agencies, all operating with different rules and eligibility. While there are many excellent programs and program operators, one of WIAs main goals was While there are many excellent programs and program operators, one of WIAs main goals was to better integrate these standalone programs. to better integrate these standalone programs.

    2. Empowering individuals through customer choice. A foundational element of WIA is that 2. Empowering individuals through customer choice. A foundational element of WIA is that jobseeking customers could secure training through Individual Training Accounts (ITAs) by jobseeking customers could secure training through Individual Training Accounts (ITAs) by making informed choices based on public performance of training providers. Information on making informed choices based on public performance of training providers. Information on approved training organizations is available at www.labor.state.ny.us/etp/default.asp which approved training organizations is available at www.labor.state.ny.us/etp/default.asp which displays the Eligible Training Provider list. displays the Eligible Training Provider list.

    3. Universal access. Unlike its predecessor programs, JTPA and CETA, which had strict 3. Universal access. Unlike its predecessor programs, JTPA and CETA, which had strict income eligibility and were targeted largely to low income people, WIAs Core and Intensive income eligibility and were targeted largely to low income people, WIAs Core and Intensive services delivered through New Yorks One Stop Career Centers are universally available to services delivered through New Yorks One Stop Career Centers are universally available to adults and dislocated workers over the age of 18. adults and dislocated workers over the age of 18.

    4. Increased accountability. WIA was designed with performance measures that are stricter 4. Increased accountability. WIA was designed with performance measures that are stricter than its predecessor, the Job Training Partnership Act. After several years of implementation, than its predecessor, the Job Training Partnership Act. After several years of implementation, the original performance measures were replaced in New York by the Common Measures (see the original performance measures were replaced in New York by the Common Measures (see section on Performance Measures in Part 2I below). section on Performance Measures in Part 2I below).

    5. Strong role for Local Workforce Investment Boards. WIA maintained the private sector 5. Strong role for Local Workforce Investment Boards. WIA maintained the private sector majority of JTPAs Private Industry Councils, but greatly expanded the composition and majority of JTPAs Private Industry Councils, but greatly expanded the composition and membership of the Boards. Workforce Investment Boards WIBs are the cornerstone of WIA. membership of the Boards. Workforce Investment Boards WIBs are the cornerstone of WIA. 6. State and local flexibility are basic tenets of the Workforce Investment Act. One 6. State and local flexibility are basic tenets of the Workforce Investment Act. One prominent example of State flexibility is the wide latitude that the Governor has to target WIA prominent example of State flexibility is the wide latitude that the Governor has to target WIA 15% funds to strategic statewide initiatives. An example of flexibility at the local WIB level is the 15% funds to strategic statewide initiatives. An example of flexibility at the local WIB level is the budgetary authority of the WIB to allocate their funds to a locally determined mix of services, for budgetary authority of the WIB to allocate their funds to a locally determined mix of services, for

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example the Local WIB can define how much goes to training and how much to support the One example the Local WIB can define how much goes to training and how much to support the One

    Stop System. Additionally, the WIB has the authority to set many local policies. Stop System. Additionally, the WIB has the authority to set many local policies.

    7. Improved youth programs. Linked more closely to local labor market needs and other 7. Improved youth programs.

    community youth programs and services, WIA youth programs should also have strong connections between academic and occupational learning. Youth programs include activities that promote youth development and citizenship, such as leadership development through voluntary community service opportunities, adult mentoring and follow-up and targeted opportunities for youth living in high poverty areas. WIA youth services are for those aged 14-21, but there is growing interest at the federal level in extending that upper age limit to 24.

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