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Benefits of Distributed Generation on Power delivery system

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Benefits of Distributed Generation on Power delivery system

Benefits of Distributed Generation on Power Delivery System

    Distribution Engineering

    EE 5250

    Rakesh Prasad

    thDate: April 14 2006

     1

Contents

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 Distributed Generation………………………………..3

    1.2 Why Distributed Generation……………………........4 Chapter 2 Advantages of Distributed Generation

    2.1 Reliability…………………………………………....... 5-8

    2.2 Power Quality……………………………………...…..8-12

    2.3 Transmission Benefits.............................................….. 13

    2.4 Environmental Benefits……………………………….14-15 Chapter 3 Conclusion………………………………………........16 References……………………………………………………….. 17

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Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Distributed Generation:

    Distributed Generations are parallel and stand-alone electric generation units located within the electric distribution system at or near the end user.

    [6]

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1.2 WHY Distributed Generation?

    For the past 60 years, electricity production and supply has been performed by centralized, regulated electric utilities that owned and operated power generation facilities as well as the transmission and distribution lines.

    Investor-owned utilities are regulated by state public utility commissions (PUCs), while cooperative and municipal utilities are governed by local jurisdictions. Since the 1970s, federal and state public policy has encouraged the opening of the electric power system to entities other than the electric utilities. This has created a competitive landscape for power generation and has opened the transmission system to access. A significant shift in the U.S. regulatory system began with the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, which requires interstate transmission line owners to allow all electric generators access to their lines. Many states today are at various stages of electric utility deregulation.

    Utility deregulation is one reason for the high level of interest in Distributed Generation. Other benefits associated with distributed generation

    ; Reliability

    ; Power Quality

    ; Transmission Benefits

    ; Environmental Benefits

    Some well known types of Distributed Generation

    ; Fuel Cells

    ; Micro turbines

    ; Wind farm

    ; Photovoltaic Cells

    ; Internal Combustion Engine

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Chapter 2 Advantages of Distributed Generation

2.1 Reliability:

    Power reliability is required for

     Life-safety systems, such as emergency lighting or ventilation, which must

    operate properly to prevent the loss of human life.

     Systems that prevent damage to plant infrastructure (e.g., sump pumps at a

    wastewater treatment plant), allow monitoring of other systems (e.g., supervisory

    control and data acquisition, or SCADA, systems), or prevent the loss of vital data

    during power failures (e.g., at bank data centers) or whose failure to operate could

    significantly impact public health.

     Processes that would cause sizeable financial losses if power outages occurred.

    Power outages cause loss of quality control in batch processesfound at

    microelectronic component manufacturing, food processing, chemical processing,

    and oil refining facilitiesand force owners to discard entire batches. In addition,

    power losses to processes that operate 24 hours per day, seven days per week

    with no openings to recover lost production timecan lead to cancelled orders.

     Equipment and processes for which operation is not time-critical. Operating this

    type of equipment, such as a cooling system with a large, cool storage tank, can

    be deferred to off-peak times; switched to an alternate source, such as an engine

    generator; or switched to an alternate fuel, such as an electric heating system with

    fuel-oil backup.

    There are many ways to increase the reliability of power. Redundant power supplies do not always improve reliability. If two redundant feeders supply power to an industrial facility but originate at the same utility substation and are carried on the same set of power poles, reliability will be lower than if they originate at separate substations and travel to the site on different sets of power poles. The problem with redundant feeders carried on the same set of poles is that a single-point failure (e.g., a weather-related event, pole fire, or traffic accident) could cause simultaneous outages on both sources.

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To improve power reliability by installing standby generation, uninterruptible power

    supplies (UPS), flywheels, or fuel cells.

    Reliability is the most important feature of electric power distribution system.

    Quantification of distribution system indices is the best indices of whether the system with distributed generation has increased reliability or not. The following indices are generally used by utilities (IEEE standard 1366, 2001) to

    measure the reliability.

     System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI):

     Customer interruption durationSAIDI

    Total no of customer served

    Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI):

     customer interruption durationCAIDI

    Total no of customer interruption

    System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI

     Total no of customer interruption

    SAIFI

    Total no of customer served

    Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index (CAIFI)

    Total no of customer interruptions

    CAIFI

     Total no of customer interrupted

     6

    The following is a short example taken from [7]. The system is a two 22 KV feeders as the main incoming feeders in the station, followed by two 10 MVA, 22KV/11KV transformers. Both the transformers share the total load of about 2 MW with around15000 customers 22 KV Incoming

    22 KV Incoming

     TR 2 10 MVA,22/11KVTR 1 10MVA 22/11KV

     TR 2 10 MVA,22/11KVTR 1 10MVA 22/11KV

     11 KV Bus BarFeeder 1Feeder 211 KV Bus BarFeeder 1Feeder 2

    Rest of NetworkRest of Network

    Rest of NetworkRest of Network

    Society 2Society 1

    Society 2Society 1

    Customer 327 Customer 220 Customer 327 Customer 220

    System without DG System with DG If there is a fault on feeder 1 all 327 customer of society 1 attached to it get affected, if

    the fault leads to sustained interruption then there is no alternate feed is for these customers. In such situations a strategically placed DG will be able to take care of all these 327 customers of society 1 in the event of fault in feeder 1, the same will be true in the event of fault in feeder 2 catering to 220 customers of society 2.

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The following are data’s obtained from TATA POWER COMPANY.

    Total no of Sum of No of affected customers Total no of customers served interruption customer duration in interruption minutes Without Without With With DG DG DG DG

    Feb-03 2020 74537 2018 1691 12336 12663

    Aug-03 6106 241012 4334 4007 15101 15428

    Dec-03 5012 66983 4916 4589 15497 15824

    CAIFI SAIFI SAIDI

     Without Without Without With With DG With DG DG DG DG DG

    Feb-03 1 1.194 0.163 0.159 6.042 5.886

    Aug-03 1.409 1.523 0.404 0.396 15.96 15.62

    Dec-03 1.02 1.09 0.323 0.316 4.322 4.233

    The above results show that by optimally placing DG, the reliability indices have improved. The improvement may have been significant in the case of DG supplying a larger part of the network.

    2.2) Power Quality Power Quality of any power system can be judged by the voltage profile and line losses. The index VPII and LLRI gives the result of benefits of the system with DG in comparison to system without DG.

    [4]

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    The above fig shows the single line diagram of 12 bus system used to obtain VPII and LLRI. The system consists of three conventional generators at bus 1, bus 5 and bus12 with ratings of 1.0, 0.75 and 0.625 respectively. Total load of 2.013 pu located unevenly on every bus is assumed. The resistance and reactance of all the distribution and transmission lines are assumed to be 0.000625 pu/km and 0.000375 pu/km. The lengths of the distribution lines are as below

     [4]

    Simulations of following four cases were done

    Case (1): D.G located at bus 9.

    Case (2): D.G located at bus 10.

    Case (3): 50% DG located at Bus 9 and 50% DG located at Bus 4.

    Case (4): 50% DG located at Bus 9 and remaining 50% located at Bus 10.

VPII: Voltage Profile Improvement Index

    It is defined as the voltage profile index of the system with DG to the voltage profile of the system without DG

    VPw/DGVPII VPwo/DG

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     Is voltage profile of the system with DG VPw/DG

     Is the voltage profile of the system without DG VPwo/DG

    NN

    VPVLk With k1iiiii11i

     Is the voltage magnitude at bus i in per unit. Vi

     Is the load at bus i in per unit. Li

     Is the weighting factor for load bus i. ki

    Is total number of Load bus. N

    The weighting factors are chosen based on the importance and criticality of different

    Loads

    [4]

    To study the impact four sets of bus weighing factor set 1 through 4 as listed above were

    selected. The results thus obtained are shown below.

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