The British educational system is a complicated one, compared with the Chinese educational system. Generally speaking, there are two systems of primary and secondary education in Britain- the state school and “public school”.
Over hundred years old, the UK education system is basically structured in different levels. They are:
Pre-school or pre-preparatory education
Primary education or Preparatory education
1. Elementary Education(pre-school or pre-preparatory education
and preparatory education and primary education)
It is kindergarten education for 3-year-old to 5-year-old children. The fee for kindergarten education is high, which is paid by parents and government both. In kindergarten, a child if stay the whole day(a weekly day, every day is usually 8 am to 6 pm) need about 1,200 pounds per month.
The system of state primary education is from the age of five to eleven, while the system of private schools at elementary level is perhaps from three to thirteen including preschool education. Children attend a primary school for 6 years. Primary school may be housed in a single building with two departments: Infant and Junior or in separate schools, Infants (5 to 7) and Junior (7 to 11).
Education is free for all children from 5 to 16. Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16(inclusive) across England. This can be provided by state schools, independent schools, or
home schooling. About 94 per cent of pupils in England, and the rest of the UK, receive free education from public funds, while 6 per cent attend independent fee paying schools or home schooling.
2. Secondary Education
There are at these stage two complete educational systems, the state schools and the independent schools. A comprehensive school offers 5-year courses to pupils of all levels of ability. Promotion to a higher class every year does not depend upon examination results, it is almost automatic. Pupils never repeat the year. British private boarding school has a long history, has a strong teaching staff, high quality teaching resources and a good learning atmosphere, the high rate of students in their studies into the elite percentage of large, mostly to gain admission into graduate schools such as Oxford and Cambridge, and even become political or economic and financial sectors of the elite, so called “elite education”.
British private into mainstream British society of the excellent choices and opportunities. Boarding school students from around the world, most of them came from celebrities, aristocrats, many politicians celebrities children in boarding school in boarding school. Students from around the whole elite, access to university study and future success in social work skills.
British private boarding schools can be divided into boys, girls only or coeducational school. Great emphasis on personal attention to students. Typically, each class is only eight students, subjects the teachers are able to understand the students the situation very much. Class the teacher will encourage students to express their views freely. Each student is equipped with a personal tutor in particular. In addition, the daily routine of the school students have very strict requirements from the up and goes to sleep, have a strict timetable. And other private schools
compared to English boarding schools are more security, allowing parents to rest assured.
The campus facilities, covers an area of the UK boarding schools are generally large, well-equipped, there is usually heated indoor swimming pool, tennis courts, golf courses tennis courts and other facilities, there are individual schools and ever its own race track and stables for the students to provide a more thoughtful and comprehensive development of a rich environment for personal development.
3. Higher Education
There are about 90 universities, including the Open University,
thOxford, and Cambridge, that were established in the 13 century. The 15
city technology colleges in England teach the national curriculum but with an emphasis on science, technology, and mathematics. After completing secondary education, the student heads for higher education. Two basic levels of higher education exist in the UK. They are classified as:
Non-university level post-secondary studies—further education
University level studies.
Chapter 2 The Media of UK
1. The Press
In the United Kingdom, there are currently 12 national daily newspapers, nine Sunday newspapers, more than 100 regional morning, evening and Sunday newspapers and nearly1600 weekly paid-for and free distribution newspapers. The British press is now divided into two different types of national newspapers: the quality newspapers (“quality” or “broadsheets”) and popular newspapers (“popular” or
The British press has a long history. The earliest known printed newspaper in Britain was published in 1513. It was called Trewe Encoutre.
A general distinction between national papers and local papers is obvious. The former contain news of national interest and are sold nationwide. The latter contain news of interest to a particular region or town and sold in that locality. All of the national newspapers have moved their quarters to other parts of London or away from the capital.
There is no censorship of the British press although it is unable to publish what the government term classified information. The national newspapers and Sunday newspapers are owned either by big industrial groups with many business interests, or by specialist newspaper companies run on an industrial basis.
In short, the British press has a rich variety. Newspapers have an important effect on public opinion, even the government has sometimes paid money to newspaper owners to buy their support. British newspaper culture is unusual in the extent to which class and educational differences are reflected in the newspaper people read. Until the 1980s, almost all the national newspaper had their headquarters on or around Fleet Street in London. Now the newspapers are available internationally.
2. Radio and Television
British radio and television play an important part in daily life, social activities, cultural and educational causes. They are chiefly run by three companies: the British Broadcasting Corporation (B.B.C), the Independent Television Commission (I.T.C.), and the Radio Authority, though there are many commercial companies.
Television is a news medium for entertainment, for information and for intellectual appeal and it has a vast effect on national habits. It was in part a disaster, inpart a boon. Some people blame television for the increase in crime and anti-social behavior over the last two decades. Television has caused a serious decline in the cinema and affected many other sources of entertainment outside the home.
3. News Agencies
There are several news agencies in Britain. Reuters, and Press Association Ltd. and Extel financial are the main ones.
Chapter 3 Sports
England was the first home of many of the modern world’s most popular
sports. The English people are great lovers of competitive sports. It is natural for them to begin talking with a sports discussion even when they are neither playing nor watching games. They still have an admiration for sportsmanship, for playing with respect for the rules and the opponents and for winning with modesty and losing with good temper, such as cricket, association football (or soccer) and rugby football (or Rugger).
School boys usually play rugger or soccer in winter, cricket in summer; school girls play tennis and rounders ( a short of baseball) in summer and netball (a kind of basketball ) and hockey in winter, though hockey is becoming more and more popular at boys’ schools.
There are horse racing, golf, fishing and shooting and hunting. There are many others sports which are too numerous to mention in this section. Boxing and athletics attract great public interest, particularly through television and newspapers or journals. Billiards and snooker are indoor games, which are popular with ordinary people because they are cheaper and can be played in artificial light. Both are played on a large table, on which an ivory ball is given a pushing stroke with a long stick so as to make it knock another ball or table. Motorcycling, dog-racing, rock-climbing, boat-racing and gliding are enjoyed by smaller numbers of people.
The British people show more interest in Olympic Games, and they have made great success in the Game. However, the most exciting thing that arouses the whole nation’s enthusiasm is the successful application of
hosting the Olympic Game.
Chapter 4 Science
Britain has played an important part in science the world over, both in theory and practice. Scientific advances in Britain have often been made by individuals and by private and industrial groups.
There is the steam turbine which works on a completely different principle, and was developed many years later, largely through the work of Sir Charles Parsons. So the steam engine is not a thing invented by one scientist at one time. It is the work of many scientists over a long period of time.
Another important discovery in the eighteenth century was made by Edward Jenner ( 1749-1823 ), who was an English physician. He discovered the vaccine for preventing smallpox and pioneered the sciences of immunology and virology.
The best-known scientific achievement in the nineteenth century was Charles Robert Darwin’s (1809-1882) development of a theory of evolution. Darwin’s theory of evolution advanced the idea of change with time. This
ubsequently spread into all branches of human thought. idea s
In the twentieth century, several scientific discoveries of vast significance were in Britain. A turning point in the change from classical physics to the “new physics” was marked by Sir J. J. Thomson’s discovery
of the electron in 1897,
Today scientific development is quicker and more complicated, demanding teams instead of individuals, and large sums of government money. So, vast and richly funded countries like the U.S.A. and the former U.S.S.R are obviously at an advantage. Though Britain is very far behind them in the development of space rockets and satellites, she produced the world’s
first turbo-jet airliner, the world’s first nuclear power station, the
world’s first large radio telescope and the world’s first hovercraft
in 1950’s. One of the problems of science in Britain is that British
achievements in scientific research have not been turned into productive forces so far as most of the industries are concerned. Therefore the scientific discoveries and research do not guarantee technical innovation and prosperity: for example, though Britain took the lead in many aspects of theoretical research into the Robot, she did not turn her discoveries into saleable commodities. Britain makes only 3.2 percent of the total number of Robots used in Western countries. Another problem may be the conservative attitude towards the import of advanced technology and equipment. Businesses, as well as research institutions react slowly to foreign technology and the directions of the latest developments outside Britain so that British goods are not competitive in the internal and external markets, which affects the development of the economy of Britain.
In short, British science is advanced. The number of the British Nobel Prize winners in science before World War ? is the largest in the world.
After the war it is next only to the United States. But it does not apply its theoretical discoveries to practical ends.
Chapter 5 Art, Music and Film
?. British Art
1. An Over-view of British Art
thThe English artists before 18 century were most immigrants or artists
with continental characteristic. The first important English painter, Nicholas Hilliard was a prolific painter of the queen, of the nobility and of anyone else willing to commission him. Hilliard pioneers a new tradition—that of the full-length miniature.
thIn the 18 century native British artists at last make their mark. The first to do so is William Hogarth, but he is quirky and untypical, standing outside any school. Portrait painting is the more characteristic theme of British art, in England and also in Scotland. Meanwhile another
thvery British theme develops, from the second half of the 18 century, in
the tradition of landscape watercolors. The first English painter on a grand scale is also the most English of painters. Then watercolour is the natural medium for sketches of nature.
thIn the 19 century a group of young artists sprang up and they founded “The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood” which showed great interest in nature,
bright colors, and high degree of finish. These artists gradually moved towards symbolism. The exhibition celebrating the centenary of the birth of Burne Jones was not particularly well-attended, and attracted some hostile reviews.
2. Art Institutions
In Britain there are many art institutions, such as “Allied Artists’
Association”, “Royal College of Art”, “Artists’ Rifles”, “Royal
Society of Arts”, “New English Art Club”, “Slade School of Art”,
“Royal Academy”, “Tate Gallery”.
The Royal Academy was founded in 1768 by a group of leading artists.
The Royal College of Art was originally founded in 1837 as a school
of industrial design.
The Royal Society of Arts was founded in 1754 and started out in Covent Garden and then moved to premises off the strand.
The Tate Galley, designed by Sidney Smith, was opened at Millbank in 1897.
?. Music in Britain
1. Over-view of British Music
The British people is a nation of loving music, though there are few renowned British composers. There are also important music festivals in towns such as Aldeburgh, Bath, and Cheltenham.
Britain has produced many important composers through the ages, among them William Byrd, John Downland, Henry Purcell, Edward Elgar, Vanghan Williams, Benjamin Britten and more recently Oliver Knussen, Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies and Thomas Ades. German-British composer Georg Friedrich Handel.
There are also well-known British conductors, such as Sir Adrian Bolt, Sir Thomas Beecham, Sir John Barbirolli, Sir Colin Davisfomer music director of the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, and honoranry conductor of the Sachsische Staatskapelle Dresden since 1990—and Sir
Simon Rattle, musical director and chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic since 2002.
The British jazz scene holds an important place in the world, and there are several large festivals all over the country, for example in Cheltenham and Brecon in Wales.
British pop and rock stars like Eric Clapton, David Bowie, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones made music history, and pop and rock music is an essential part of British culture.