Module 1.1 Ways of working
Different ways of working
Freelance (自由职业): Working independently and on temporary contracts rather than for a long-term employer.
Teleworking (远程办公/居家办公): A catch-all term describing any way of working at a distance using a combination of
computers and telecommunications. It is often associated with home-based working, but includes mobile working,
Telecommuting (远程办公/居家办班): This term is used interchangeably with teleworking, and is the more common term
in the US. The conceptual emphasis is on replacing the commute journey through electronic access to the workplace. word extension : telecommuter/home-based worker
Shift Work (轮班工作): Work that is broken into chunks of time
Related Term: OT (overtime pay)
Temping (做临时工): Working short employment tasks with a variety of clients, usually through a temping agency or staffing firm. Previously temps were mostly administrative, but job-seekers can now find temping agencies covering most professions.
Temping is great for building resume, learning skills, networking - and job flexibility and variety.
Flextime (弹性工作时间): Flextime (flexible work time) is the most popular flexible work arrangement that requires employees to work a standard number of hours each week but allows them to choose their own starting and quitting times.
However, a portion of each day is designated as "core time/hours" when all employees must be present.
Consultancy (顾问工作): The act of an individual or organization providing professional advice to others for a fee. A wide variety of consultants exist for many areas of organizational concerns, including management, accounting, finance, and legal and technical matters.
Hotdesking (办公桌轮用): .It is a method of sharing desks, with workers who are usually working elsewhere booking space to work.
Freelance You choose the job No job security
Teleworking Organise your work time You need to be good at
Job-sharing More free time Need to coordinate
Shift work Gives you your days free Tiring
Part-time More free time Less money
Temping Lots of variety Hard to progress your career
Consultancy Well paid No job security
Flexitime Good for work-life balance Not good for people who like routine
Hot-desking Saves the company money Disruptive to employees
• Share Credit & Blame (荣辱与同)
Share Honor & Disgrace
• Flexible working consultancy (弹性工作顾问公司，
• Delegate the workload (分配工作)
Divide the workload/job responsibilities
• Parental Leave (育儿假:包括分娩假和领养假): leave includes maternity (分娩假), paternity？父亲育婴假，, and
• Job-sharing (工作分担/輪班做事): a kind of flexible work arrangement
Alternative work schedule in which two employees voluntarily share the responsibilities of one full time job, and receive
salary and benefits on pro-rata basis (按比例均摊).
• It is aimed at the small number of employees in the work force who do not have a problem with earning less
money if it offers them the opportunity to pursue the other interests in life that are important to them.
Benefits for the company
• Acts as an attraction and retention mechanism.
• Enables the new employee to get "up to speed" quicker.
• Acts as an incentive for many professionals since time has become as important as money.
• Helps to maintain "diversity" in the workplace.
• Rewards talent and increases job satisfaction.
• Increases morale and productivity. When an employee has created a more balanced life through job sharing, their
anxiety and stress levels are greatly reduced.
Managers may fear that it could lead to confusion, more paperwork, and a host of other hassles. benefits for the employee
• Spend more time with their families
• Attend school
• pursue other personal interests.
A. Flexibility in Work Scheduling
1. Alternative Work Schedules:
a) Flextime: Schedules based on worker needs within set parameters approved by a supervisor.
b) Compressed Workweeks: Workers work full time hours in less than the traditional 5-day workweek by increasing daily hours worked.
2. Arrangements Regarding Shifts and Breaks
a) Shift Arrangements: Workers who are assigned shifts by their employers enter into arrangements with their employers giving them more flexibility regarding the shifts they are assigned.
B) Flexibility in the Amount of Hours Worked
1. Part Time Work/Reduced Hours Schedule: Workers who usually work less than 35 hours per week.
2. Transition Period Part Time: Workers gradually return to work after a major life event (e.g., birth or adoption of a child) by working part time for a set period and eventually returning to full time work. 3. Job Shares: Two or more workers share the duties of one full time job, with each person working on a part time basis. 4. Part-year Work: Workers work only a certain number of months per year.
C. Flexibility in the Place of Work
1. Telework/Home Work: Workers work remotely from their own homes, using a telecommunications connection to the workplace if necessary.
2. Telework/Satellite Location: Workers work remotely from a designated satellite work center.
3. Alternating Location: Workers work part-year in one location and part-year in a second location. Working from home
Adv Dis -- you spend more time with the children -- sometimes you work in the evening -- more flexibility -- you miss pepole and the office news -- the company saves money on office space
-- no commuting
Module 1.2 making contacts
“making contacts” or “networking” mean?
• networking n. (建立人际关系网)
• Network v. / n.
• the practice of meeting other people involved in the same kind of work, to share information, support each other
• Business networking: a marketing method by which business opportunities are created through networks of
like-minded business people.
Where do people network?
• Trade fair event
• Coffee break
• Formal networking events: drinking event, coaching event, club activity, socializing party…
• Online networking: facebook, linkedin, 开心网…
Networking is the skill of making contacts and can help people progress in their career through knowing the “right”
The skill is important in areas such as sales where you need to develop relationships with potential customers.
The reason and benefits:
• Develop business relationship
• Generate business opportunities
More cost-effective method than ads and public relations •
• Help people maximise their potential
• Get to know other people
• Share ideas, good for people with no experience
Module 2.1Company benefits
Benefits and incentives
； Benefits (福利): the advantages that you get from your company in addition to the money you earn
； Incentives？激励/奖励，: something that encourages people to do sth, especially to work harder, spend more
money, etc. It is an expectation that encourages people to behave in a certain way.
； Incentives usually fall into three broad classes: 1. Remunerative incentives (or financial incentives/material
reward); 2. Moral incentives; 3. Coercive incentives (punishment, imprisonment, confiscation of properties, etc.)
； Incentive: n., adj.
； big/generous/powerful/real/strong incentives
； create/offer/provide incentives
； an incentive package/payment/plan/system 一揽子激励措施、激励工资、激励计划、激励系统
； Benefit package 一揽子福利措施
Financial rewards: base pay (salaries or wages) /premium payments / bonuses / long-term income payments / paid leave /
employee benefits, etc
Non-financial rewards: recognition / responsibility / meaningful work / autonomy / opportunity to use& develop skills / career opportunities / quality of working life / work-life balances
Annual leave年假, company car, accommodation subsidy房补, meal allowance, 13th month pay, Bonus奖金！红利, stock
options优先认股权, Childcare /retail vouchers子女抚养补助券, relocation Allowance外派津贴, etc. + 20% base pay
； a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life.
； The common use of the term is to describe the payments a person receives upon retirement, usually under
pre-determined, legal and/or contractual terms.
； Pensions have traditionally been payments made in the form of a guaranteed annuity [年金/养老金] to a retired
or disabled employee, or to a deceased employee's spouse, children or other beneficiaries.
； A pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee is commonly referred to as an occupational or
Labor unions, the government, or other organizations may also sponsor pension provision Forms of benefits or incentives
； Health care coverage
； Dental / vision / Disability-income coverage
； Retail voucher
； Wellness program: benefits, activities or training that a company offers to improve and develop the physical and
mental health of its employees
； Life insurance
； Paid holidays / vacations
Tuition reimbursement 学费报销
； Also called cafeteria plan, a benefit program that allows employees to choose between taxable benefits (including
cash) and nontaxable health and welfare benefits (such as life and health insurance, child care, retirement plans
and vacation pay)
； The allocation of the benefits is determined by the employee from the total amount provided by the employer. Language and terms
； can’t say enough nice things about (赞不绝口): full of praises for
； Take sth. With a pinch of salt(有所保留): not completely believe something is true or likely
； Established: adj. known to do a particular job well, because you have done it for a long time
established company / professor 老牌公司！有名望的教授
； Resources director:人力资源总监
； Vice-president Incumbent Programme (副总裁任职资格培训计划)
； Promoting from within: internal promotion 内部晋升
； amazement at her colleagues’ longevity: astonishment at her colleagues’ long duration or continuance of service
in the company
； Take on: employ 雇佣
； Intake 1. 新进的人 2. 新进的数量 an intake of …
； Acquire work experience 获得工作经验
； Sb. Is based at…某人被安置在某个地方工作
； In terms of 从某方面来讲
； Brainstorming is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a
； There are four basic rules in brainstorming intended to reduce social inhibitions among groups members,
stimulate idea generation, and increase overall creativity of the group. 1. Focus on quantity 2. Withhold criticism
3. Welcome unusual ideas 4. Combine and improve ideas
； Brainstorming room: a place where you and your colleagues sit together and generate ideas. Breakout Area (休息区) : The breakout area is to provide a space that staffcan visit to grab a coffee or have an informal
meeting. Common uses for breakout areas include: Casual Meetings •Relaxation •Private Time •One-To-One Meetings
•Informal Discussions •Visitor Waiting Areas
； In addition to company benefits, many employers also offer "perks " to their employees.
； Typically limited to employees in management positions, these perks include such benefits as country club or
health club memberships, a company car, special parking privileges at work, tickets for sporting events, first-class
travel accommodations, and generous expense accounts.
However, certain types of perks are also being extended to employees in many different types of positions. One type of perk that is common in many retail stores is an employee discount on merchandise bought from the place of employment
Final-salary pension scheme最终薪酬退休金计划，especially in the UK, an arrangement in which employees receive a
pension when they retire based on how long they have worked for the company and the amount of money they were earning when they stopped
For the long haul: for the long and difficult activity 长期艰苦奋斗
； Recognition is the act of acknowledging someone for great work or accomplishments. Being recognized builds the
morale and self-worth of a person.
； Recognition programs at workplaces are important because they encourage employees to work harder and build
up appreciation for the company from workers.
； A recognition program might include rewards and prizes, a day off, additional pay or even just a mention of the
person's good work in a public forum/gathering.
Module 2.2 Presenting your company
Call Center (客户服务呼叫中心)
； A physical place where customer and other telephone calls are handled by an organization, usually with some
amount of computer automation.
； Typically, a call center has the ability to handle a considerable volume of calls at the same time, to screen calls and
forward them to someone qualified to handle them, and to log calls.
Used by mail-order catalog organizations, telemarketing companies, computer product help desks, and any large
organization that uses the telephone to sell or service products and services
Distribution Center (配送中心): A distribution center is a warehouse or other specialized building, often with refrigeration or air conditioning, which is stocked with products (goods) to be re-distributed to retailers, to wholesalers or directly to consumers.
Corporation (股份有限公司/企业): A corporation is created (incorporated) by a group of shareholders who have
ownership of the corporation, represented by their holding of common stock. Shareholders elect a board of directors who appoint and oversee management of the corporation. Although a corporation does not necessarily have to be for profit, the vast majority of corporations are set up with the goal of providing a return for its shareholders. When you purchase stock you are becoming part owner in a corporation.
Holding Company (控股公司): A company that owns enough voting stock (有表决权的股票) in another firm to control
management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors. Also called parent company
Research and Development/R&D (研究与开发)
； In industry, two closely related processes by which new products and new forms of old products are created
through technological innovation.
； Once a new product has been created in a laboratory or other research setting, marketing specialists attempt to
define the market for the product.
Then, steps are taken to manufacture the product to meet the needs of the market. In industries such as hi-tech and pharmaceuticals, R&D spending is quite high (>5%), since products are outdated or attract competition quickly Subsidiary (子公司/附属公司)
； A subsidiary corporation or company is one in which another, generally larger, corporation, known as the parent
corporation, owns all or at least a majority of the shares.
； As the owner of the subsidiary, the parent corporation may control the activities of the subsidiary.
； This arrangement differs from an acquisition, in which a corporation purchases another company and dissolves the
purchased company's organizational structure and identity.
； Self-sufficient unit within a company.
； A division contains all of the departments necessary to operate independently from the parent company. An
example is the Chevrolet Division of the General Motors Corporation. (美国通用汽车公司雪佛兰汽车部)
1. Turnover is sometimes a synonym for revenue, especially in European and South African usage. Great Britain:
annual sales volume (annual sales turnover).(销售量/营业额)
2. Turnover (employment): relative rate at which an employer gains and loses staff, especially in North American
3.1 Starting a business
Sole trader (全东！独资经营商) Sometimes called sole proprietor /prəˋpraɪətɚ /
； Set up and owned by one person
； Easier type of business to set up
； Owner arranges own capital
； Total responsibility for success
； Total control of their business
； Lower start-up cost
； Satisfaction – make their own decision
； Variety of tasks
； High motivation
； They gain all the rewards
； All decision falls on one person
； You need a lot of skills
； Work longer hours
； Take all the risks
； Solely responsible for debts
； Difficult to raise capitals, to expand the business, to enjoy economies of scale
unlimited liability ？无限责任，
Liability (责任) Liability = the extent to which owners are liable to (对……负有法律责任) pay business debts out of their
； between 2 and 20 people
； Can usually raise more capital
； Laws make no distinction between debts of partnership and individuals
； Partners have unlimited liability
； Shared responsibility
； Allow for specialization
； More money, more flexibility
； Less time pressure on individual partners
； Consult over business decisions
Franchise n. 特许经销权(特许经销店
； a right to buy a license from the franchisor
； benefit from the franchisor’s expertise
； starting up quickly based on a proven trademark and a successful business model.
； businesses with a good track record of profitability.
； businesses which are easily duplicated
； to buy/have/hold/lose/own/win a franchise
； ? to award/give sb/grant sb/sell a franchise 授予特许经销权
； ? a catering/fast food/rail/television franchise
； ? a franchise business/company/operation
； ? a franchise agreement/holder/owner
； ? to run a business under franchise 以特许经销权形式经营企业
； franchise V. To give or sell a franchise 授予或出售特许经销权
； Franchise one’s business
； Franchising N. 特许经销形式
； The one who sells the right to another business to operate a franchise
； may provide training, management expertise and national marketing campaigns
； may also supply the raw materials and equipment.
； Get part of the franchisee’s profits
The advantages of being a franchisor
； a means of rapid expansion with the franchisee providing most of the finance.
； If the franchise model works, then there are large profits to made from
； - selling franchises
； - royalty payments (专利权使用费;版税)
- selling raw materials and equipment Franchisee特许经营者: pay a proportion of their profits to the franchiser on a regular basis
； Business sense 商业感(商业头脑
； Entrepreneurial spirit 企业家精神(创业精神
； Start up v. ~ a business / company
Start-up company /capital 新公司启动资金
； Set up v. ~ a company found, establish
； Entitle sth. To sb.
； Package: trademark, business model, format….
； Concept 理念
； Charge v. Charge (sb.) Sth. ; charge (sb.) For sth.要价Can I charge it? (pay by credit card) 我能刷卡吗；
charge n. admission charge 入场费 a charge of $10 收费十元
； Solicitor 事务律师
； Profit margin 利润空间(利润率
； Branch out into sth. ， extend or expand one's activities or interests in a new direction 向新的方向扩展自己的
； Growth in sth. 在方面的增长
； Launch v. ~ a company / product /website
• Billboard advertising广告牌
• Large structures/ digital screen located in public places
• Attract pedestrians and motorists
• Located in places with large amounts of viewers Loyalty card积分卡/优惠卡/会员卡
• Used to record information about what the customer buys and to reward them for buying goods or services from
• UK: loyalty card
• USA: discount card, rewards card or club card
• Canada: rewards card, points card
Leaflets / flyer (派街纸)
Word of mouth: the process of people telling each other about sth: Mailshots/ mass mailing; spam
• Mailshots: the posting of advertising or similar material to a lot of people at one time
• Spam (junk mail): advertising material sent by email to large numbers of people who have not asked for it
Brochures: a small magazine or book , contains pictures and information about sth or advertises sth
Newsletter (业务简报/通讯): Regular distributed publication About one main topic of interest to its subscribersNews or
report about an organization, club, etc. Marketing strategy Advantages -- cost-effective -- reach a large audience -- increased the communication between clients and business
-- can be used as a source of income
Disadvantages-- may be considered spam -- may be rejected by some email system -- may not register as subscribe for
fear of information misuse.
The central idea of delegation is that the person who delegates passes authority or responsibility to the person who is delegated to carry out a task or assume a role.
Delegation thus involves the notions of authorization, accountability, and responsibility, but any specific act of delegation will contain particular applications of these ideas. Line manager (直线经理):
The manager, typically of a flat structure, responsible for activities in a specialized department or function (e.g.,
accounting, sales, marketing), so the line manager, also called functional manager, is the most senior manager responsible
for a specific function within the command. In many cases, the functional manager may be a senior manager.
Insurance cover (投保种类):
Insurance "cover" is defined as an operation under which an insurer is required, in return for remuneration in the form
of a premium, to provide the insured party or a third person with a benefit in the event of occurrence of a given risk.
; cubicle desk or office cubicle
; a partially enclosed workspace, separated from neighboring workspaces by partitions that are usually 5–6 feet
(1.5–1.8 m) tall.
; to isolate office workers from the sights and noises of an open workspace,
; to allows workers more privacy and helps them to concentrate without distractions.
; Elements: work surfaces, overhead bins, drawers……
Source: to get materials, parts or products from a particular place:采购
Sourcing: a number of procurement practices, aimed at finding, evaluating and engaging suppliers of goods and services
Sourcing VS purchasing
-- one-off task -- involves inquiry, placing order, payment…
-- aimed at looking for qualified and best suppliers -- daily procurement procedure
-- a procurement strategy
; Commission v. : to officially ask sb to write, make or create sth or to do a task for you:委托
; To commission art: 委托？艺术家，制作艺术作品
; Commissioned art: 特约艺术作品
; commission n. : a formal request to an artist or a writer, for example, to produce a piece of work: 委托任务
; also known as protocols, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing.
; give an overview of the structure of the meeting, starting with a list of those present, a statement of the various
issues before the participants, and each of their responses thereto.
; created at the moment of the hearing by a typist or court recorder at the meeting, who may record the meeting in
shorthand, and then prepare the minutes and issue them to the participants afterwards.
; the meeting may be audiorecorded or notes taken, and the minutes prepared later.
; The minutes of certain entities, such as a corporate board of directors, must be kept and are important legal
; the act of recommending sb or sth; 推荐
; a person or an organization that has been recommended 被推荐的人/公司
? Employee referrals are their most useful recruiting method.