Write the word or phrase which has the same meaning as the underlined part.
1. If they are poor and also meek, they eventually will inherit the earth. submissive
2. By the principle of utility, is meant the principle which approves or disapproves of every action
whatsoever according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of
the party…. increase
3. Rich and poor have lived together, always uncomfortably and sometimes perilously. dangerously 4. The poverty of the poor was the fault of the poor because it was the product of their fecundity.
5. He urged that the marriage ceremony contain a warning against undue and irresponsible sexual
intercourse…. Too many; excessive
6. The overriding rule was survival of the fittest. prevailing
7. …the rich were not responsible for its creation and amelioration. Provement; betterment
8. …that such assistance was inconsistent with the effective operation of the economic system.
9. We have great corporate bureaucracies replete with corporate bureaucrats…. Full of; filled with 10. Since the government is inherently incompetent, it should not be asked to help the poor. Incapable;
11. It will only louse things up or make things worse. Make a mess of sth; ruin; spoil 12. We have nearly abolished poverty among the old… wipe out; bring …to an end
13. None, certainly, that compares that damage with the damage that would be inflicted by the loss of
public assistance. imposed
14. They transfer income from the diligent to the idle and feckless. Irresponsible; weak
15. By the same process, we decline to think of the poor. refuse
16. Finally;when all else fails, we resort to simple psychological denial.
17. This is a psychic tendency that in various manifestations is common to us all. In different forms 18. … argument that public-assistance measures have an adverse effect on incentive. Negative; bad;
19. I would like to reflect on one of the oldest of human exercises…. Discuss; think carefully
1. My father decided to take his family through the wilds of the Everglades and stake a claim on an
2. His father’s carriage house in Charleston, South Carolina, and his nearby plantation were in line of
3. When Papa finished school at the academy there, he worked as a cowboy on a ranch in Myakka for a
friend of his dead father’s. By age 30, he was a county sheriff, no mean job in those days. 4. We had made our home in Palmetto for a year or so where my mother’s gentle folks, the Harrisons, had
settled following the Civil War.
5. We had been keyed up for this adventure for weeks of planning. 6. In this deep and roomy box were packed our camping equipment and food supplies. 7. We looked forward to plentiful game and wild fruits on the road, but took ample provisions….
8. On our way we would stop to replenish our food stock from time to time. 9. Occasionally a blacksmith’s shed would adjoin the store….
10. Sometimes we would strike camp early enough for papa and the boys to shoot fox squirrels or quail for
11. Watson was an infamous outlaw.
12. Papa pitched camp and went on into town on horseback and brought a doctor back with him.
13. Then we drove on to a small crossroads and stopped at a hotel,… until I was strong enough to resume
14. …but the Indians and black people were susceptible to his manipulations.
15. Every lawman in southern Florida was acquainted with his treachery and cunning.
16. This merciless man had an invalid wife whom he adored.
17. King Richard in his gluttony never sat at a table more sumptuous than ours….
18. My big brothers, aged eight and eleven, were crack shots with a riffle….
19. Despite the unrelenting heat, we were happy to be let off from our hours of school indoors….
20. Papa was unrelenting, he demanded his money, and Watson’s arm rose toward his wall of guns. 21. What he saw were two nonchalant little boys sitting with their guns beside them, slapping mosquitoes.
1. Its storms, droughts and floods are “acts of God,” free of human control and exempt from our
2. With the appearance of a continent-sized hole in the Earth’s protective ozone layer and the threat of
3. …even droughts, floods and hear waves may become unwitting acts of man.
4. Like the Creation, the portending global events are cosmic.
5. We have been tampering with this powerful force, unaware, like the Sorcerer’s Apprentice, of the
potentially disastrous consequences of our actions. 6. We have become accustomed to the now mundane image of the Earth as seen from the first expedition to
7. Even if the global warning catastrophe never materializes, and the ozone layer remains an esoteric polar
8. …noxious flames of smog blanket over major cities….
9. …carcinogenic synthetic pesticides have been detected in mother’s milk all over the world….
10. …great forests have been cut down, destroying ecological niches and their resident species. 11. The human attack on the ecosphere has instigated an ecological counterattack. 12. “Everything is connected to everything else.” This expresses the fact that the ecosphere is an elaborate
13. Defined so narrowly, it is no surprise that cars have properties that are hostile to their environment. 14. Guided by that purpose, after the World War II, agronomists urged the increasingly heavy application of
chemical nitrogen fertilizer.
15. …year by year, less and less of the applied fertilizer was taken up by the crop and progressively more
drained through the soil into groundwater, in the form of nitrates that contaminated rivers, lakes, and
16. As they respire, fish produce carbon dioxide, which in turn is absorbed by aquatic plants and is used,
photosynthetically, to produce oxygen—which the fish respire.
17. When the waste is metabolized by aquatic bacteria and molds, the organic nitrogen is converted into
nitrate, this, in turn, is an essential nutrient for the aquatic algae….
18. The energy sources that now power the technosphere are mostly fossil fuels, stores that, once depleted,
will never be renewed.
19. The ecosystem is consistent with itself….
20. …its numerous components are compatible with each other and with the whole. 21. In contrast to the ecosphere, the technosphere is composed of objects and materials that reflect a rapid
and relentless process of change and variation.
22. Synthetic organic chemistry began innocuously enough about 150 years ago with the laboratory
production of a common natural substance—urea—but soon departed from this imitative approach….
23. They therefore can play an insidious destructive role in living things.
24. What we call the “environmental crisis” is a product of the drastic mismatch between the cyclical,
conservative, and self-consistent processes of the ecosphere and the linear, innovative, but ecologically
disharmonious processes of the technosphere.
25. Since the environmental crisis has been generated by the war between the two worlds that human
society occupies, it can be properly understood only in term of their interplay.
26. Of course, as in a conventional war, the issues can be simplified by taking sides: ignoring the interests
of one combatant or the other.
27. But this is done only at the cost of understanding.
28. The extreme interpretations of the relationship between the two sphere that human society occupies are
29. The purpose is less lament over the war’s numerous casualties than an inquiry into how future
casualties can be prevented.
1. Our well was deeper than most, but we needed a good supply of water for our penned animals.
2. Mike McCallum had a son who lived with him in hotel rooms or boarding houses….
3. The smell of men—their work clothes and tools and tobacco and mucky boots and sour-cheese socks.
4. …so that she could drag him away and dress his wounds as quickly as possible.
5. There was a keen alarm when the cry came, a wire zinging through your whole body, a fanatic feeling of
6. Nobody won. The game disintegrated, after a long while, in arguments and mass resurrection.
7. One morning, of course, the job was finished, the well capped, the pump reinstalled, the fresh water
8. His father talked to my father, and the talk was mostly about wells, accidents, water tables.
9. The laugh had a lonely boom in it, as if he were still down the well.
10. Then the dog threw up on the kitchen step.
11. Our pregnancies had dovetailed, so that we had managed with one set of maternity clothes. 12. And I had moved for the newfangled reason that was proved of only in some special circles….
13. …leaving husband and house and all the things acquired during the marriage (except, of course, the
children, who were to be parceled about)….
14. At last a blowup. Accusations, confessions of misery….
15. Outside the windows, as it got dark, the back-yard parties would begin, with music and shouting and
provocations that later might develop into fights, and I would be frightened, not of any hostility but of a
kind of nonexistence.
16. I had the feeling, however, that he was a scrupulous man, he would refrain.
17. It would be a sleazy thing to do, in the house of his friends.
18. My sleep was shallow, my dreams monotonously lustful, with irritating and unpleasant subplots.
19. “Still you could come and caddy for me.”
20. Johnston warned us before we left that there was a prediction of rain. Mike said that we’d take our
21. The notion of wife beguiled me, just as if I had never been one.
22. …and I had an idea that some of the clubs were called irons and that the course itself was called the
23. He began methodically to pack up and fasten his bag.
24. It looked as if a large portion of the sky had detached itself and was bearing down, bustling and resolute,
taking a not quite recognizable but animate shape.
25. This was more of a ritual, a recognition of survival rather than of our bodies’ inclinations.
1. In the epoch dominated by the aspirations of new states for national development, it is instructive to
recall that the United States itself began as an underdeveloped country. 2. The country was blessed by notable advantages---above all, by the fact that population was scarce in
relation to available resources.
3. But the favorable ratio between population and resources was obviously not the only factor in American
4. What mattered equally was the spirit in which these settlers approached the economic and social
challenges offered by the environment.
5. Several elements seemed fundamental to the philosophy which facilitated the rapid social and economic
development of the American continent.
6. One factor was the deep faith in education.
7. The belief that investment in people is the most essential way for a society to devote its resources existed
from the earliest days of the American colonies.
8. J. K. Galbraith has rightly observed that “a dollar or a rupee invested in the intellectual improvement of
human beings will regularly bring a greater increase in national income than a dollar or a rupee devoted
to railways, dams, machines tools, or other tangible capital goods.
9. A related factor has been the conviction of the importance of personal freedom and personal initiative….
10. We have found no better way than democracy to fulfill man’s talents and release his energy.
11. Another has been the understanding of the role of cooperative activity, public as well as voluntary.
12. In the record of this conflict, ideology has attracted some of the strongest intelligences mankind has
13. Nor can we suggest that Americans have been consistently immune to the ideological temptation….
14. After all, the American mind was conditioned by one of the noblest and most formidable structure of
analysis ever devised.
15. There have been hedgehogs throughout American history who have attempted to endow America with
an all-inclusive creed, to translate Americanism into a set of binding proportions, and to construe the
national tradition in terms of one or another ultimate law.
16. America, in consequence, has been at its most characteristic a nation of innovation and experiment. 17. Pragmatism is no more wholly devoid of abstractions than ideology is wholly devoid of experience. 18. As an expounder of ideals, Jefferson remains a vivid and fertile figure….
19. As an ideologist, he believed, for example, … that the small freehold system was the only foundation
for freedom, that the honest and virtuous cultivator was the only reliable citizen for a democratic state….
20. This was Jefferson’s ideology, and had the United States responded to it, we would be today a feeble
and impotent nation.
21. In case of conflict he chose what helped people rather than what conformed to principles.
22. Indeed, the whole ideological enterprise contradicted Jefferson’s temper, which was basically flexible
23. The ideologist contends that the mysteries of history can be understood in terms of a clear-cut, absolute,
24. The besetting sin of the ideologist, in short, is to confuse his own tidy models with the vast, turbulent,
unpredictable, and untidy reality….
25. The American tradition has found this view of human history repugnant and false.
26. Against the belief in the all-encompassing power of a single explanation….
27. Thus ideology and pragmatism differ radically in their view of history. 28. The history of the twentieth century is a record of the manifold ways in which humanity has been
betrayed by ideology.
29. Indeed, I would suggest that we might well banish some overloaded words from intellectual discourse. 30. …along a single predestined line, toward a single predestined conclusion….
31. …and those who think that humanity in the future, as in the past, will continue to evolve in diverse
directions, toward diverse conclusions….
32. Ideologists are afraid of the free flow of ideas, even of deviant ideas within their own ideology. 33. They are convinced they have a monopoly over the Truth.
34. Therefore they always feel that they are only saving the world when they slaughter the heretics.
35. Their objective remains that of making the world over in the image of their dogmatic ideology. 36. The goal is a monolithic world, organized on the principle of infallibility---but the only certainty in an
system is the certainty of absolute abuse.
37. They believe that there is no greater delusion than for man to mistake himself for God. 38. They accept the limitations of human intellect and the infirmity of the human spirit.
1. We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom….
2. --- symbolizing an end as well as beginning---signifying renewal as well as change.
3. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath of forebears prescribed almost
nearly a century and three quarters ago.
4. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of
5. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue.
6. --- unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nations has
7. United, there is little we can’t do in a host of cooperative ventures.
8. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder.
9. To those peoples in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery,
we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves. 10. …we offer a special pledge to assist free mean and free governments in casting off the chains of
11. Let our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in
12. …to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective….
13. Finally, for those nations who would make themselves our adversary….
14. … that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by
science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction. 15. …we renew our support… and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run.
16. So let us begin anew--- remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity
is always subject to proof.
17. …yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind’s final war. 18. Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us.
19. Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. 20. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and
encourage the arts and commerce.
21. Let both sides unite to heed, in all corners of the earth, that command of Isaiah---“to undo the heavy
burdens…(and) let the oppressed go free”.
22. And if the beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungles of suspicion….
23. Since the country was founded, each generation of Americans ha been summoned to give testimony to
its national loyalty.
24. …not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need---not as a call to battle, though embattled we are…. 25. Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance…?
26. I do not shrink from this responsibility---I welcome it. 27. In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending
freedom in its hour of maximum danger.
28. …year in year out, “rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation”….