Stage one: Ancient Times
- People make up their own stories and mythologies to explain things happening
- They transfer the uncertainty elsewhere instead of using their own reasoning - Philosophical questions cannot be escaped through easy answers
Stage two: Natural Philosophers
； Four elements system
； Everything is composed of small and inseparable particles called atoms - Fate
； Ancient Greek was fatalist and believes that everything is predetermined.
Stage three: Classics Era
； Spent his life conversing with people
； He asks questions to teach people to come to philosophical conclusions on
； He believed he did not know very much, which made him smarter than any.
； Believed in human reason and people can only be happy if they act
according to their reason
； People would not act in a way to make themselves unhappy - Plato
； Everything in nature changes
； There is an eternal world of ideas outside of the natural world
； Each thing we see is an idea that exists somewhere else
； We cannot have true knowledge about things that change, but we can have
knowledge of things we perceive through reason
； People are made of body from the natural world and soul from the world if
； Women are just as capable of reasoning as men
； Study the changes within the nature
； World of ideas does not exist
； The ideas are a concept we develop after experiencing
； Nothing exists beyond our perception
； Everything happening in nature has a purpose
； He categorized nature and founded logic
； Women are unfinished men
Stage four: Middle Ages
- People focus on Religion and Death
- Indo European Culture
； Sight is the most important sense
- Semitic Culture
； Monotheism, the belief in one God
？ Spread across Indo European Cultures and incorporated those cultures
？ Jesus showed that one could not earn salvation but God will forgive all
who ask for forgiveness
- Middle Ages / Dark Ages
； Universities and schools were established
； Nation-states become established with their major cities
； Cultural and population decline,
； Feudalism set in
； Pope was set up as head of the Church
； Monarchs gain power
； Greek-Roman cultures split up and came back again in the Renaissance - St. Augustine
； Salvation came only through the Church
- St. Aquinas
； Brought Aristotle into Christian religion and tried to show that reason and
faith complement each other
Stage five: Renaissance
- People’s attention shifts from God to humanity, with a focus on individuals
- Cultural lives flourished
- God was present throughout nature, pantheism returned
- Empirical methods were used, with focus on investigation and experimentation. - Science becomes important
- Innovations were good and bad and irreversible
Stage six: Baroque
； People believed life was like a theater.
； Philosophy was characterized by conflict between idealism and materialism - Descartes
； Descartes decided he did not know very much.
； He doubted philosophical works that had been handed through the Middle
Ages and he set out to build his own philosophical system.
； He concerns with certain knowledge and the mind/body relationship.
； Descartes doubted everything that was not certain and then realized that
the very fact of his doubting meant he must be thinking.
； He decided that the existence of God is also certain, and went on to define
the world in terms of thought and matter, which he called extension.
； The mind and body interact, but the goal is to get the mind to operate solely
according to reason.
； Spinoza was heavily influenced by Descartes
； Suggested that Bible should be carefully read
； Suggested that all is God and God is all
； God controlled all through natural laws
； Divided the world into two qualities
？ Primary qualities can be accurately perceived
？ Secondary qualities vary from person to person
； Support division of power within government
； Greatest of the empiricists
； He believed that perception was made up of "impressions" and "ideas".
； Impressions are how we experience the world, and ideas are what we recall
of our impressions.
； He pointed out that we have no unchanging ego, since what we perceive as
ourselves is in reality a huge number of perceptions that change rapidly.
； Hume was an agnostic—he felt the question of God's existence was beyond
； Just because every time we have seen a stone dropped it has fallen to the
ground does not mean that it has to do so. We simply expect it to fall
； We impose our idea of cause and effect on the world.
； We act in accord with our feelings, not our reason.
； Berkeley questioned even more than the other empiricists.
； Berkeley felt that all of our feelings and ideas can stem from our souls—just
like when we are dreaming.
； Berkeley believed that we exist only in God's mind.
； It we don’t think about it, it doesn’t exist.
Stage seven: Enlightenment
- Characterized by much "opposition to authority", politically as well as
- People had tremendous faith in reason.
- They wanted the people to be enlightened.
- They felt that we must return to a better, more natural way of living. - They felt that people had fundamental natural rights and they fought to see
those rights upheld.
； Kant worked from the views of the empiricists and the rationalists.
； He believed that certain factors in our mind influence our experience of the
； We innately perceive everything as occurring in time and space ； Kant divides the world into things as they are in themselves and as we
； We cannot know things as they are in themselves, but we can know how we
； Kant felt that we cannot know the answers to certain questions because
they lie beyond human reason. He believed that these questions are
answerable only through faith.
； Kant also believed that everyone has innate moral reason,
Stage eight: Romanticism
- Universal Romanticism
； The Romantic period was characterized by a worship of the individual and
； Romantics felt that art was humanity's greatest expression of freedom. ； Schelling
？ Saw nature as a world spirit
？ Believed the world spirit was just the sum of human interactions.
？ He thought truth was subjective and that human reason changed each
generation. Thoughts must be judged in their contexts and right and
wrong change accordingly.
？ Human knowledge is always increasing through history, so history is
？ Language forms people, rather than vice versa.
？ The world spirit realizes itself in three increasing stages
; In the individual it is the subjective spirit
; In the community the objective spirit
; In art, religion, and philosophy it is the absolute spirit.
- National Romanticism,
； Concerned with history, language, and culture of the people. ； Fairy tales and folk songs became important.
Stage nine: Contemporary
- Individualism and Romantic World Spirit are both right
； Kierkegaard felt that the Romantics neglect a person's responsibility for their
； He was angered by people's ambivalence about religion.
； He founded existentialism, the philosophy that is concerned with the
existence of each individual.
； He felt objective truths were useless and th at each person could only
attempt to discern what is true for himself.
； Reason is not that important, since we worry about things that it cannot
； Life consists of an aesthetic stage, an ethical stage, and a religious stage, and
we must decide to move between them.
； Marx was a historical materialist.
； He wanted philosophy to be practical.
； Marx believed that economic forces caused change in society. ； He defined society in terms of material bases and a superstructure of
； He pointed out that the natural resources of a society determine what the
society will produce and what type of society it will be. ； Those who have control of the means of production determine societal
norms, and this is usually the ruling class.
； Marx felt there was always conflict between two classes in society
； Darwin became well known as a natural scientist
； All plants and animals had evolved from earlier forms and that this process
occurs through natural selection.
； We are all part of a system of revolution
； Freud pointed out that we have unconscious drives that can affect our
； Freud found that people had often repressed certain events in their life in
； Freud felt that our minds are made up of three parts.
？ The id is our desire for pleasure.
？ The ego takes reality into account and regulates the id.
？ And the superego is the societal morality that regulates everything we
； Superego constantly comes into conflict with our desires
； He suggested that dreams are a way of fulfilling our wishes.
Stage ten: Modern
； Felt that existentialists have nothing but humanity to go on. ； Sartre thought that there is no general human nature but rather that we
must create our own.
； He viewed our freedom as a burden, since we must assume complete
responsibility for our actions and find our own meaning in life through the
use of our consciousness.