Unit One Fighting with the Forces of Nature
Part I Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2
long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one
or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both
the conversation and the questions will be spoken only
once. After each question there will be a pause. During the
pause, you must read the four choices marked A, B, C and
D, and decide which is the best answer.
1. A. There is something wrong with the tape recorder.
B. He wants to repair the machine.
C. He wants to return the tape recorder because of its poor quality.
D. This is the sixth time for him to fix the tape recorder in cash. 2. A. $9.8 B. $14 C. $30 D. $70
3. A. Kate’s baby is the youngest. B. The man’s baby is the
C. The woman’s baby is the youngest. D. The man’s
sister’s baby is the youngest.
4. A. She receives pressure form college life.
B. Her classmates are very intelligent students.
C. She feels pressure from her classmates as well her own.
D. She gives herself more pressure than she can endure. 5. A. They made something at school. B. They gave a
C. They played games at the park. D. They
competed in a sports event.
6. A. He thinks it’s too heavy a load.
B. He hates working overtime.
C. He minds all the overtime.
D. He doesn’t care about working overtime.
7. A. She will go through the physics test with the man.
B. She will help the man to do some physical exercises.
C. She will help the man to solve these physics problems.
D. She will go over the physics problems with the man. 8. A. In an office. B. In a restaurant.
C. At a railway station. D. At the
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 9. A. Record companies should pay attention not to offend people.
B. Record companies should be very careful with their CDs.
C. People should be very careful with their new CDs.
D. Parents should forbid children to buy new CDs.
10. A. Put a warning label on albums. B. Not describe
C. Never use strong language. D. Be encouraged to put violence into CDs.
11. A. He thinks it a good idea to prevent children from violence.
B. He thinks the children have the right to buy any CD.
C. He thinks the musicians should use the strong language.
D. He doesn’t think the violence and the strong language should
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 12. A. How to increase one’s speed in a bicycle race.
B. Major Canadian bicycle races.
C. The contributions of cycling to health.
D. An annual cycling event.
13. A. The length of the course. B. The route the cyclists take.
C. The number of the participants. D. The month in which the tour is held.
14. A. They are not competing with each other. B. They have to
pay a high fee.
C. They tend to be beginning cyclists. D. Most of them fail to finish the route.
15. A. 45,000 B. More than 45,000. C. Less than
45,000. D. Not mentioned.
Directions: In this section, you will hear three short passages. At the
. Both end of each passage, you will hear some questions
the passages and questions will be spoken only once.
After you hear a question, you must choose the best
answer from the four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Passage One
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard. 16. A. A sailor. B. A captain. C. An enterpriser. D. A trader. 17. A. In Asia. B. In India. C. In America. D. In Lisbon. 18. A. To make charts. B. To make long
C. To reach “The Indian” by sailing west. D. To discover a
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard. 19. A. Only one thousand years. B. Only a few thousand years.
C. More than three hundred years. D. More than ten thousand years.
20. A. Oral speech. B. Drawing. C. Hard labor. D. Storytelling. 21. A. In Asia. B. In Europe. C. All over the world. D. In South
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard. 22. A. It’s a way to measure changes of numbers. B. It’s a way to
measure changes of time.
C. It’s a way to measure changes of weather. D. It’s a way to
measure changes of economics.
23. A. Twenty-one. B. Twenty-seven. C. Seventy-one.
24. A. One. B. Four. C. Six. D. Ten.
25. A. It provides information about current conditions.
B. It helps confirm economic changes that appear to be taking
C. It provides information about interest rates.
D. It helps confirm employment rates.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When
the passage is read for the first time, you should listen
carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for
the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks
numbered from 26 to 33 with the exact words you have
just heard. For blanks numbered from 34 to 36, you are
required to fill in the missing information. You can either
use the exact words you have just heard or write down the
main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage
is read for the third time, you should check what you have
As we know, one of the most (26)__________ postwar inventions of the technological revolution is the electronic computer. In the late 1940’s, the first modern computers were developed, and by the 1960’s there were about 5,000 computers in use in the United States. Nevertheless, what was to become a (27)_________ society was still in its infancy. (28)_________, thousands of computers would be installed in schools, banks, business offices, government agencies, laboratories, and increasingly in (29)_________ homes.
Computers can carry out calculation in a (30)_________ of a second that even the most efficient person could not complete in a lifetime. Computers available by the 1960’s could carry out in one second 357,000 (31)_________ or subtractions, or 178,000 multiplications, or 102,000 divisions. They were being used by governments to check income tax returns and to record data on births, marriages, public health, car (32)_________ and criminal records. They were being used by industries to (33)_________ economic trends and control assembly lines in automated factories.
(34)______________________________________________________________. They were being used in business and banks for accounting, bookkeeping and billing.
(35)_____________________________________________________________. In fact, any information that can be measured or counted can be managed more efficiently by computers than by human beings. So (36)___________________________________________________. Part II Vocabulary and Structure
Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this part. For each
sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.
Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence.
1. She saved him from drowning, but only _____ her own life.
A. at the cost of B. on account of C. as a result
of D. for the sake of
2. People _____ that vertical flight transports would carry millions of
passengers as do the airliners of today.
A. convinced B. anticipated C. resolved D. assured 3. In meetings she always takes the _____ before she can be
A. defensive B. plunge C. offensive D. lead
4. Sound is the _____ material of music.
A. crude B. raw C. original D. fresh
5. They threatened to cancel the whole project at a _____.
A. stroke B. stretch C. strike D. halt
6. They _____ the money to send him to school.
A. lacked in B. lacked of C. lacked D. lacked on
7. The sorority _____ an anti-smoking campaign in the wake of the
fire that burnt the oldest building on campus.
A. suspended B. launched C. concluded D. presented 8. The future of this firm will be very _____ indeed if they can’t devise
new models of products.
A. bleak B. chilly C. bitter D. prosperous
9. The professor gave us an assignment which _____ on impossible.
A. bordered B. caught C. dawned D. elaborated
10. Don’t expose the product to the sun. You should follow the _____
in the manual.
A. constructions B. Indications C. Instructions
11. I kept my word, but your action _____ our contract invalid.
A. regarded B. related C. revised D. rendered
12. As the Spring Festival drew near, almost every housewife _____
herself in preparing the traditional food.
A. participated B. engaged C. undertook D. ventured 13. Chinese herbal medicine can be _____ with western medicine to
play a more important role in medical science.
A. equaled B. paralleled C. integrated D. reckoned 14. Improved consumer confidence is _____ to an economic recovery.
A. subordinate B. compelling C. superficial D. crucial 15. They found it impossible to initiate a(n) _____ against strict
censorship in this country.
A. interference B. campaign C. liberation
16. The opening speech sounded more like a(n)_____ of war than
offering of peace.
A. demonstration B. claim C. provocation
17. A five-day _____ of the church cut off the rebels’ food supply and
forced them to open talks with the government.
A. siege B. battle C. occupation D. offence
18. We should concentrate on sharply reducing interest rates to pull
the economy out of _____.
A. retreat B. rejection C. recession D. restriction 19. It is in China’s best interests to forge a(n) _____ with neighboring
countries to maintain peace across the border.
A. alliance B. association C. organization D. cooperation 20. We must press ahead _____ the project without wasting time.
A. on B. with C. to D. about
Part III Reading Comprehension
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are
required to select one word for each blank from a list of
choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read
the passage through carefully before making your choices.
Each choice in the blank is identified by a letter. You may
not use any of the words in the blank more than once.
Questions 1 to 10 are based on the following passage.
Earthquakes may rightly be 1 as one of the most devastating
forces known to man: since records began to be written down, it has been estimated that earthquake-related fatalities have numbered in millions, and that earthquake-related destruction has been 2
calculation. The greater part of such damage and loss of life has been due to 3 of buildings and the effects of rockslides, floods, fir, disease, sea waves, and other phenomena 4 from earthquakes,
rather than from the quakes themselves.
The great majority of all earthquakes occur in two 5
geographic areas. One such area encompasses (包围) Pacific Ocean
and its contiguous land masses. The other extends from the East Indies to the Atlas Mountains. It is in these great belts or zones that ninety percent of all earthquakes take place; they may, however, happen anywhere at any time.
This element of the unknown has for centuries 6 greatly to the
dread and horror surrounding earthquakes, but in 7 times there
have been indications that earthquake prediction may be possible. By analyzing changes in animal behavior, patterns of movements in the earth’s crust, variations in the force of gravity and the earth’s magnetic field, and the 8 with which minor earth tremors are
observed, scientists have shown 9 success in 10 when and
where earthquakes will strike.
A. ancient B. increasing C. frequency D.
proving E. added
F. anticipating G. locality H. specific I. ranked
K. recent L. collapse M. beyond N. resulting
Directions: There are 3 passages in this section. Each passage is
statements. For followed by some questions or unfinished
each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D.
You should decide on the best choice.
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
Most of people who appear most often and most gloriously on the history books are great conquerors and generals and soldiers, whereas the people who really helped civilization forward are often never mentioned at all. We do not know who first set a broken leg, or launched a seaworthy boat, or calculated the length of the year, or manured a field; but we know all about the killers and destroyers. People think a great deal of them, so much so that on all the highest pillars in the great cities of the world, you will find the figure of a conqueror or a general or a soldier. And I think most people believe that the greatest countries are those that have beaten in the battle the greatest number of other countries and ruled over them as conquerors. It is just possible they are, but they are not the most civilized. Animals fight; so do savages; hence to be good at fighting is to be good in the way in which an animal or a savage is good, but it is not civilized. Even being good at getting other people to fight for you and telling them how to do it most efficiently—this, after all, is what
conquerors and generals have done—is not being civilized. People
fight to settle quarrels. Fighting means killing, and civilized people ought to be able to find some ways of settling their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side, and then saying that side which has killed most has won. And not only it has won, but because it has won, has been in the right. For that is what going to war mean; it means that might is right. 11. According to the author, which of the following did not help
A. farmers B. scientists C. conquerors D. doctors
12. Where will you most often find the figures of conquerors?
A. In a temple. B. In a cemetery. C. On a memorial.
D. On a pillow.
13. What does “going to war” mean according to the passage?
A. Justice. B. Injustice. C. Cruelty. D. Power is
14. This passage is mainly about _____.
A. how history goes forward B. how rulers conquer a nation
C. how a war broke out D. the roles of
conquerors and destroyers
15. The author’s attitudes towards conquerors and destroyers are
A. approval B. disapproval C. partly approval D.
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
Climate is the kind of weather an area has over a long period of time. Climate is not the same as weather. The weather can change from one day to the next. To study the climate of a place, you have to look at the weather over many years.
The people who study climate look mainly at two important things. They look at the monthly temperature (how hot or cold the weather gets). They also look at moisture (how much rain and snow fall each year).
What makes some places warmer than others? In general, the warmest parts of the world are near the equator. This is because the sun’s rays are concentrated in these areas. The farther you go from the equator, the cooler it feels because the sun’s rays are not as concentrated.
Warm places tend to get the most rain. Warm air can absorb more moisture from the ocean and other bodies of water. When the air cools, the moisture falls again as rain. In very cold places such as the North and South poles, very little rain (or snow) ever falls. The air is too cold to absorb much moisture.
The wind also affects the climate of a certain place. Wind is caused by the differences in air temperature from one place to another. Wind can cool a place. It can also bring rain.
Mountains can affect climate too. For example, they can control the amount of rain an area gets. If the wind comes to a high mountain range, rain clouds are pushed up higher and higher. As the clouds rise, the air becomes cooler. The clouds cannot hold as much moisture. They drop the rain before they can get high enough to cross the mountains. So the areas on the other side of the mountain range never get much rain.
The oceans also influence climate. In the summer, the heat from the sun doesn’t heat the ocean as quickly as it heats the land. The land near the ocean stays cooler than land farther away. In the winter, the ocean doesn’t cool as quickly as the land. It holds more of the summer’s heat. So the areas near the ocean stay warmer.
The climate of a place is very important. It has a great deal to do with what kinds of plants and animals will be found there. It also shapes the lives of the people who live there. The people of an area
eat the kinds of foods that grow best in their climate. They wear the kinds of clothes and live in the kinds of houses that protect them from their climate. Everything they do—from the kinds of work they do to
the way they travel from place to place—is shaped, in some degree,
16. The two most important things that affect climate are _____.
A. wind and moisture B. wind and
C. moisture and temperature D. moisture and rain
17. The areas that get the most rain every year are generally _____.
A. cold B. warm
C. near a mountain range D. in the oceans
18. The poles are cold because _____.
A. the sun never shines there B. they get very little rain or snow
C. there is very little wind there D. the sun’s rays are less
19. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Climate is not the same as weather. B. Climate is
influenced by the oceans.
C. Very little snow falls at the poles. D. The poles
receive the most snow.
20. Mountains can prevent rainfall in certain areas because _____.
A. the wind cannot blow over the mountains
B. it doesn’t rain in cold places.
C. as the clouds rise, they drop their rain before crossing the mountains.
D. the clouds rise, and they disappear into space
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
The question of whether war is inevitable is one which has concerned many of the world’s great writers. Before considering this question, it will be useful to introduce some related concepts. Conflict, defined as opposition among social entities directed against one another, is distinguished from competition, defined as opposition among social entities independently striving for something which is in inadequate supply. Competitors may not be aware of one another, while the parties to a conflict are. Conflict and competition are both categories of opposition, which has been defined as a process by which social entities function in the disservice of one another. Opposition is thus contrasted with cooperation, the process by which social entities function in the service of one another. These definitions are necessary because it is important to emphasize that competition between individuals or groups is inevitable in a world of limited resources, but conflict is not. Conflict, nevertheless, is very likely to occur, and is probably an essential and desirable element of human societies.
Many authors have argued for the inevitability of war from the premise that in the struggle for existence among animal species, only the fittest survive. In general, however, this struggle in nature is competition, not conflict. Social animals, such as monkeys and cattle, fight to win or maintain leadership of the group. The struggle for existence occurs not in such fights, but in the competition for limited feeding areas and for the occupancy of areas free from meat-eating animals. Those who fail in this competition starve to death or become victims to other species. This struggle for existence does not resemble human war, but rather the competition of individuals for jobs, markets, and materials. The essence of the struggle is the competition for the necessities of life that are insufficient to satisfy all.
Among nations there is competition in developing resources, trades, skills, and a satisfactory way of life. The successful nations grow and prosper; the unsuccessful decline. While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, it cannot be said that war—like
conflict among nations is inevitable, although competition is. 21. In the first paragraph, the author gives the definition of some terms
in order to _____.
A. argue for the similarities between animal societies and human societies
B. smooth out the conflicts in human societies
C. distinguish between two kinds of opposition
D. summarize the characteristic features of opposition and cooperation
22. According to the author, competition differs from conflict in that
A. it results in war in most cases
B. it induces efforts to expand territory
C. it is a kind of opposition among social entities
D. it is essentially a struggle for existence
23. The phrase “function in the disservice of one another” (Line 8,
Para 1) most probably means “_____”.
A. betray each other B. harm one
C. help to collaborate with each other D. benefit one
24. The author indicates in the passage that conflict _____.
A. is an inevitable struggle resulting from competition
B. reflects the struggle among social animals
C. is an opposition among individual social entities
D. can be avoided.
25. The passage is probably intended to answer the question “_____”.
A. Is war inevitable? B. Why is there
conflict and competition?
C. Is conflict desirable? D. Can
competition lead to conflict?
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each
four choices marked A, B, C and D. You blank there are
should choose ONE that best fits into the passage.
We all know that it is possible for ordinary people to make their homes on the equator, although often they may feel 1 hot there.
Millions do it. But 2 the North Pole—we know that it is not only a dangerously cold place, but that people like you and me would find it quite 3 to live there. At the present time only the scientists and explorers can do 4 , and they use special equipment. Men 5
their feet or in ships across and around the equator on wheels, 6
for thousands of years; but only 7 men, with great difficulty and in very recent time, have ever crossed the ice to the North Pole. So it
may 8 you to learn that, when travelling 9 , it is really safer to fly over the North Pole 10 over the equator. Of course, this is not true 11 landings in the polar region (which passenger aeroplanes do not make), but the weather, if we are flying at a 12
of 5,000 meters above the Pole, is a delight. At 4,000 meters and more 13 the earth you can always be sure that you will not see a cloud in the sky as 14 as the eye can reach. In the tropics, on the other hand, you are not certain to keep 15 bad weather even at
such heights as 18,000 meters.
Aeroplanes can’t climb as 16 or as quickly in cold air as in warm. 17 can clouds. In practice, this is an advantage 18
the aeroplane, which is already at a good height 19 it reaches
at the same the polar region and so does not need to climb, 20 time cold air keeps the clouds down low.
1. A. comfortably B. uncomfortably C. discomfort
2. A. as far B. as if C. as for D. as against
3. A. Impossible B. likely C. capable D. able
4. A. It B. so C. this D. all
5. A. travelled B. had traveled C. was travelingD. have been
6. A. On B. by C. with D. under
7. A. Many B. much C. a few D. few
8. A. be pleased B. surprise C. please D. be surprised 9. A. in space B. under the sea C. by ship D.
10. A. than B. That C. to D. from
11. A. Over B. for C. of D. to
12. A. Distance B. length C. pace D. height
13. A. over B. Above C. under D. below
14. A. far B. long C. soon D. good
15. A. in touch with B. record of C. clear of D. up with 16. A. Fast B. high C. far D. soon
17. A. Neither B. So C. Either D. Also