1. Although 90 percent of the population believes itself to be well informed about health care, only 20 percent knows enough about DNA. So apparently at least 80 percent of the population does not know enough about medical concepts to make well-informed personal medical choices or to make good public policy decisions about health care.
The argument’s reasoning is questionable because the argument fails to demonstrate that
(A) those people who can understand news stories about DNA are able to make well-informed personal medical choices
(B) more than 20 percent of the population needs to be well informed about health care for good public policy decisions about health care to be made
(C) one’s being able to make well-informed personal medical choices ensures that one makes good
public policy decisions about health care
(D) an understanding of DNA is essential to making well-informed personal medical choices or to making good public policy decisions about health care
(E) since 90 percent of the population believes itself to be well informed about health care, at least 70 percent of the population is mistaken in that belief.
2. During the 1980’s, Japanese collectors were very active in the market for European art, especially as purchasers of nineteenth-century Impressionist paintings. This striking pattern surely reflects a specific preference on the part of many Japanese collectors for certain aesthetic 审美的
attributes they found in nineteenth-century Impressionist paintings.
Which one of the following, if true, most strongly supports the explanation above? (A) Impressionist paintings first became popular among art collectors in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century.
(B) During the 1980’s, the Japanese economy underwent a sustained expansion that was unprecedented in the country’s recent history.
(C) Several nineteenth-century Impressionist painters adopted certain techniques and visual effects found in Japanese prints that are highly esteemed in Japan.
(D) During the 1960s and the 1970s, the prices of nineteenth-century Impressionist paintings often exceeded the prices of paintings by older European masters.
(E) During the 1980’s, collectors from Japan and around the world purchased many paintings and
prints by well-known twentieth-century Japanese artists.
3. Because of the recent recession in Country A most magazines published there have experienced decreases in advertising revenue, so much so that the survival of the most widely read magazines is in grave doubt. At the same time, however, more people in Country A are reading more magazines than ever before, and the number of financially successful magazines in Country A is greater than ever.
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resole the apparent discrepancy矛盾之处 in the
(A) Most magazines reduce the amount they charge for advertisement’s during a recession.
(B) The audience for a successful television show far exceeds the readership of even the most widely read magazine.
(C) Advertising is the main source of revenue only for the most widely read magazines; other magazines rely on circulation for their revenue.
(D) Because of the recession, people in Country A have cut back on magazine subscriptions and are reading borrowed magazines.
(E) More of the new general interest magazines that were launched this year in Country A have survived than survived in previous years.
4. The gray squirrel, introduced into local woodlands ten years ago, threatens the indigenous population of an endangered owl species, because the squirrels’ habitual stripping of tree bark destroys the trees in which the owls nest. Some local officials have advocated setting out poison for the gray squirrels. The officials argue that this measure, while eliminating the squirrels, would pose no threat to the owl population, since the poison would be placed in containers accessible only to squirrels and other rodents.
Which one of the following, if true, most calls into question the officials’ argument?
(A) One of the species whose members are likely to eat the poison is the red squirrel, a species on which owls do not prey.
(B) The owls whose nesting sites are currently being destroyed by the gray squirrels feed primarily on rodents.
(C) No indigenous population of any other bind species apart from the endangered owls is threatened by the gray squirrels.
(D) The owls that tare threatened build their nests in the tops of trees, but the gray squirrels strip away back from the trunks.
(E) The officials’ plan entails adding the poison to food sources that are usually eaten by rodents but not by other animals.
Sales manager: Last year the total number of meals sold in our company restaurants was much higher than it was the year before. Obviously consumers find our meals desirable. Accountant: If you look at individual restaurants, however, you find that the number of meals sold actually decreased substantially at every one of our restaurants that was in operation both last year and the year before. The desirability of our meals to consumers has clearly decreased, given that this group of restaurants---the only ones for which we have sales figures that permit a comparison between last year and the year before---demonstrates a trend toward fewer sales. 5. If the sales figures cited by the accountant and the sales manager are both accurate, which one of the following must be true?
(A) The company opened at least one new restaurant in the last two years.
(B) The company’s meals are less competitive than they once were.
(C) The quality of the company’s meals has not improved over the last two years.
(D) The prices of the company’s meals have changed over the past two years.
(E) The market share captured by the company’s restaurants fell last year.
6. Which one of the following, if true, most seriously calls into question the accountant’s argument?
(A) The company’s restaurants last year dropped from their menus most of the new dishes that had
been introduced the year before.
(B) Prior to last year there was an overall downward trend in the company’s sales.
(C) Those of the company’s restaurants that did increase their sales last year did not offer large discounts on prices to attract customers.
(D) Sales of the company’s most expensive meal contributed little to the overall two-year sales
(E) Most of the company’s restaurants that were in operation throughout both last year and the year before are located in areas where residents experienced a severe overall decline in income last year.
7. Problems caused by the leaching of pollutants from dumps and landfills are worst in countries with an annual per capita economic output of $4,000 to $5,000, and less severe for considerably poorer and considerably richer countries. This is so because pollution problems increase during the early stages of a country’s industrial development but then diminish as increasing industrial development generates adequate resources to tackle such problems. Therefore, problems caused by such leaching in Country X, where the annual per capita economic output is now $5,000, should begin to diminish in the next few years.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) Within the next few years, Country X will impose a system of fines for illegal waste disposal by its industrial companies.
(B) Countries surrounding Country X will reduce the amount of pollution that their factories release into the air and water.
(C) Industrial development in Country X will increase in the next few years.
(D) Country X will begin the process of industrialization in the next few years. (E) No other country with a similar amount of industrial development has pollution problems that are as severe as those in Country X.
8. The stable functioning of a society depends upon the relatively long-term stability of the goals of its citizens. This is clear from the fact that unless the majority of individuals have a predictable and enduring set of aspirations, it will be impossible for a legislature to craft laws that will augment增
加 the satisfaction of the citizenry, and it should be obvious that a society is stable only if its laws tend to increase the happiness of its citizens.
The claim that a society is stable only if its laws tend to increase the happiness of its citizens plays which one of the following roles in the argument?
(A) It is the conclusion of the argument.
(B) It helps to support the conclusion of the argument.
(C) It is a claim that must be refuted if the conclusion is to be established.
(D) It is a consequence of the argument.
(E) It is used to illustrate the general principle that the argument presupposes.
9. Astronauts who experience weightlessness frequently get motion sickness. The astronauts see their own motion relative to passing objects, but while the astronauts are weightless their inner ears indicate that their bodies are not moving. The astronauts’ experience is best explained by the hypothesis that conflicting information received by the brain about the body’s motion causes motion sickness.
Which one of the following, if true, provides the strongest additional support for the hypothesis
(A) During rough voyages ship passengers in cabins providing a view of the water are less likely to get motion sickness than are passengers in cabins providing no view.
(B) Many people who are experienced airplane passengers occasionally get motion sickness. (C) Some automobile passengers whose inner ears indicate that they are moving and who have a clear view of the objects they are passing get motion sickness.
(D) People who have aisle seats in trains or airplanes are as likely to get motion sickness as are people who have window seats.
(E) Some astronauts do not get motion sickness even after being in orbit for several days.
10. In order to pressure the government of Country S to become less repressive, some legislators in Country R want to ban all exports from R to S. Companies in R that manufacture telecommunication equipment such as telephones and fax machines have argued that exports of their products should be exempted from the ban, on the ground that it is impossible for a country to remain repressive when telecommunication equipment is widely available to the population of that country.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument given by the manufacturers depends?
(A) The government of S has recently increased the amount of telecommunication equipment it allows to be imported into the country.
(B) The telecommunication equipment that would be imported into S if the exemption were to be granted would not be available solely to top development officials in S.
(C) A majority of the members of R’s legislature do not favor exempting telecommunication
equipment from the ban on exports to Country S.
(D) Of all exports that could be sent to Country S, telecommunication equipment would be the most effective in helping citizens of S oppose that country’s repressive government.
(E) Without pressure from Country R, the government of S would be able to continue repressing its citizens indefinitely.
11. The average cable television company offers its customers 50 channels, but new fiber-optic lines will enable telephone companies to provide 100 to 150 television channels to their customers for the same price as cable companies charge for 50. Therefore, cable companies will be displaced by the new companies within a few years.
Which of the following, if true, most helps to strengthen the argument?
(A) The initial cost per household of installing new fiber-optic television service will exceed the current cost of installing cable television service.
(B) The most popular movies and programs on channels carried by cable companies will also be offered on channels carried by the fiber-optic lines owned by the telephone companies. (C) Cable television companies will respond to competition from the telephone companies by increasing the number of channels they offer.
(D) Some telephone companies own cable companies in areas other than those in which they provide telephone services.
(E) The new fiber-optic services offered by telephone companies will be subject to more stringent governmental programming regulations than those to which cable companies are now subject.
12. The only physical factor preventing a human journey to Mars has been weight. Carrying enough fuel to propel a conventional spacecraft to Mars and back would make even the lightest craft too heavy to be launched from Earth. A device has recently been invented, however, that allows an otherwise conventional spacecraft to refill the craft’s fuel tanks with fuel manufactured from the Martian atmosphere for the return trip. Therefore, it is possible for people to go to Mars in a spacecraft that carries this device and then return.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The amount of fuel needed for a spacecraft to return from Mars is the same as the amount of fuel needed to travel from Earth to Mars.
(B) The fuel manufactured from the Martian atmosphere would not differ in composition from the fuel used to travel to Mars.
(C) The device for manufacturing fuel from the Martian atmosphere would not take up any of the spaceship crew’s living space.
(D) A conventional spacecraft equipped with the device would not be appreciably more expensive to construct than current spacecraft typically are.
(E) The device for manufacturing fuel for the return to Earth weighs less than the tanks of fuel that a conventional spacecraft would otherwise need to carry from Earth for the return trip.
13. In 1712 the government of Country Y appointed a censor to prohibit the publication of any book critical of Country Y’s government; all new books legally published in the country after 1712 were
approved by a censor. Under the first censor, one half of the book manuscripts submitted to the censor were not approved for publication. Under the next censor, only one quarter of the book manuscripts submitted were not approved, but the number of book manuscripts that were approved was the same under both censors. If the statements in the passage are true, which one of the following can be properly concluded from them?
(A) More books critical of Country Y’s governments were published before the appointment of the
first censor than after it.
(B) The first censor and the second censor prohibited the publication of the same number of book manuscripts.
(C) More book manuscripts were submitted for approval to the first censor than to the second. (D) The second censor allowed some book manuscripts to the published that the first censor would have considered critical of Country Y’s government.
(E) The number of writers who wrote unpublished manuscripts was greater under the first censor than under the second.
14. If the government increases its funding for civilian scientific research, private patrons and industries will believe that such research has become primarily the government’s responsibility. When they believe that research is no longer primarily their responsibility, private patrons and industries will decrease their contributions toward research. Therefore, in order to keep from depressing the overall level of funding for civilian scientific research, the government should not increase its own funding.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument relies?
(A) Governments should bear the majority of the financial burden of funding for civilian scientific research.
(B) Any increase in government funding would displace more private funding for civilian scientific research than it would provide.
(C) Private donations toward research are no longer welcomed by researchers whose work receives government funding.
(D) Civilian scientific research cannot be conducted efficiently with more than one source of funding.
(E) funding for civilian scientific research is currently at the highest possible level.
15. Dental researcher: Filling a cavity in a tooth is not a harmless procedure: it inevitably damages some of the healthy parts of the tooth. Cavities are harmful only if the decay reaches the nerves inside the tooth, and many cavities, if left untreated, never progress to that point. Therefore, dentists should not fill a cavity unless the nerves inside the tooth are in imminent danger from that cavity. Which one of the following principles, if valid, most strongly supports the researcher’s reasoning?
(A) Dentists should perform any procedure that is likely to be beneficial in the long term, but only if the procedure does not cause immediate damage.
(B) Dentists should help their patients to prevent cavities rather than waiting until cavities are present to begin treatment.
(C) A condition that is only potentially harmful should not be treated using a method that is definitely harmful.
(D) A condition that is typically progressive should not be treated using methods that provide only temporary relief.
(E) A condition that is potentially harmful should not be left untreated unless it can be kept under constant surveillance监视?看守.
16. The axis of Earth’s daily rotation is tilted with respect to the plane of its orbit at an angle of roughly 23 degrees. That angle can be kept fairly stable only by the gravitational influence of Earth’s large, nearby Moon. Without such a stable and moderate axis tilt, a planet’s climate is too extreme and unstable to support life. Mars, for example, has only very small moons, tilts at wildly fluctuating angles, and cannot support life.
If the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true on the basis of them? (A) If Mars had a sufficiently large nearby moon, Mars would be able to support life. (B) If Earth’s Moon were to leave Earth’s orbit, Earth’s climate would be unable to support life.
(C) Any planet with a stable, moderate axis tilt can support life.
(D) Gravitational influences other than moons have little or no effect on the magnitude of the tilt angle of either Earth’s or Mars’s axis.
(E) No planet that has more than one moon can support life.
17. Psychologist: Some astrologers claim that our horoscopes占星术 completely determine our
personalities, but this claim is false, I concede that identical twins---who are, of course, born at practically the same time---often do have similar personalities. However, birth records were examined to find two individuals who were born 40 years ago on the same day and at exactly the same time---one in a hospital in Toronto and one in a hospital in New York. Personalities of these two individuals are in fact different.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the psychologist’s argument depends?
(A) Astrologers have not subjected their claims to rigorous experimentation.
(B) The personality differences between the two individuals cannot be explained by the cultural difference between Toronto and New York.
(C) The geographical difference between Toronto and New York did not result in the two individuals having different horoscopes. 原题的前提是星座相同?性格相同
(D) Complete birth records for the past 40 years were kept at both hospitals.
(E) Identical twins have identical genetic structures and usually have similar home environments.
18. Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the plane to the runway. Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its dials dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop computers.
Which one of the following, if true, LEAST strengthens the argument above?
(A) After the laptop computer was turned off, the plane regained course and its navigation instruments and dials returned to normal.
(B) When in use all electronic devices emit electromagnetic radiation, which is known to interfere with circuitry.
(C) No problems with navigational equipment or instrument dials have been reported on flights with no passenger-owned electronic devices on board. 与E相比 勉强支持：
(D) Significant electromagnetic radiation from portable electronic devices can travel up to eight meters, and some passenger seats on modern aircraft are located within four meters of the navigation systems.
(E) Planes were first equipped with low-power circuitry at about the same time portable electronic devices became popular. BE CAREFUL!!!
19. Jane: Television programs and movies that depict violence among teenagers are extremely popular. Given how influential these media are, we have good reason to believe that these depictions cause young people to engage in violent behavior. Hence, depictions of violence among teenagers should be prohibited from movies and television programs, if only in those programs and movies promoted to young audiences.
Maurice: But you are recommending nothing short of censorship! Besides which, your claim that television and movie depictions of violence cause violence is mistaken: violence among young people predates movies and television by centuries.
Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens Jane’s argument?
(A) The most violent characters depicted in movies and on television programs are adult characters who are portrayed by adult actors.
(B) The movies that have been shown to have the most influence on young people’s behavior are those that are promoted to young audiences.
(C) The people who make the most profits in the movie and television industry are those who can successfully promote their work to both young and old audiences.
(D) Many adolescents who engage in violent behavior had already displayed such behavior before they were exposed violence in movies.
(E) Among the producers who make both movies and television programs, many voluntarily restrict the subject matter of films directed toward young audiences.
20. A rise in the percentage of all 18-year-olds who were recruited by the armed services of a small republic between 1980 and 1986 correlates with a rise in the percentage of young people who dropped out of high school in that republic. Since 18-year-olds in the republic are generally either high school graduates or high school dropouts, the correlation leads to the conclusion that the republic’s recruitment rates for 18-year-olds depend substantially on recruitment rates for high
Which one of the following statements, if true, most weakens the argument?
(A) A large number of 18-year-old high school graduates were recruited for the republic’s armed services in 1986 than in 1980.
(B) Many of the high-technology systems used by the republic’s armed services can be operated only by individuals who have completed a high school education.
(C) Between 1980 and 1986 the percentage of high school graduates among 18-year-olds recruited in the republic rose sharply.
(D) Personnel of the republic’s armed services are strongly encouraged to finish their high school
(E) The proportion of recruits who had completed at least two years of college education was greater in 1986 than in 1980.
21. Historian: We can learn about the medical history of individuals through chemical analysis of their hair. It is likely, for example, that Isaac Newton’s psychological problems were due to mercury poisoning; traces of mercury were found in his hair. Analysis is now being done on a lock of Beethoven’s hair. Although no convincing argument has shown that Beethoven ever had a
venereal disease, some people hypothesize that venereal disease caused his deafness. Since mercury
was commonly ingested in Beethoven’s time to treat venereal disease, if researchers find a trace of mercury in his hair, we can conclude that this hypothesis is correct.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the historian’s argument depends?
(A) None of the mercury introduced into the body can be eliminated.
(B) Some people in Beethoven’s time did not ingest mercury.
(C) Mercury is an effective treatment for venereal disease.
(D) Mercury poisoning can cause deafness in people with venereal disease.
(E) Beethoven suffered from psychological problems of the same severity as Newton’s.
22. In 1992, a major newspaper circulated throughout North American paid its reporters an average salary paid by its principle competitors to their reporters. An executive of the newspaper argued that this practice was justified, since any shortfall that might exist in the reporters’ salaries is fully
compensated by the valuable training they receive through their assignments.
Which one of the following, if true about the newspaper in 1992, most seriously undermines the justification offered by the executive?
(A) Senior reporters at the newspaper earned as much as reporters of similar stature who worked for the newspaper’s principle competitors.
(B) Most of the newspaper’s reporters had worked there for more than ten years.
(C) The circulation of the newspaper had recently reached a plateau, after it had increased steadily throughout the 1980s.
(D) The union that represented reporters at the newspaper was different from the union that represented reporters at the newspaper’s competitors.
(E) The newspaper was widely read throughout continental Europe and Great Britain as well as North America.
23. On a certain day, nine scheduled flights on Swift Airlines were canceled. Ordinarily, a cancellation is due to mechanical problems with the airplane scheduled for a certain flight. However, since it is unlikely that Swift would have the mechanical problems with more than one or two scheduled flights on a single day, some of the nine cancellations were probably due to something else.
(A) More than one or two airplanes were scheduled for the nine canceled flights. (B) Swift Airlines has fewer mechanical problems than do other airlines of the same size. (C) Each of the canceled flights would have been longer than the average flight on Swift Airlines. (D) Swift Airlines had never before canceled more than one or two scheduled flights on a single day. (E) All of the airplanes scheduled for the canceled flights are based at the same airport.
24. The interstitial空隙的?狭缝的 nucleus, a subregion亚区 of the brain’s hypothalamus丘脑
下部, is typically smaller for male cats than for female cats. A neurobiologist performed autopsies尸体解剖 on male cats who died from disease X, a disease affecting no more than .05 percent of male cats, and found that these male cats had interstitial nuclei that were as large as those generally found in female cats. Thus, the size of the interstitial nucleus determines whether or not male cats can contract disease X.
Which one of the following statements, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?