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Revision Exercises

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Exercises

    Revision Exercises

    Division One: Greek Culture and Roman Culture

     Greek Culture

    I. 填空

    1. European culture is made up of many elements, two of these elements are considered to be

    more enduring and they are the Greco-Roman element and the Judeo-Christian element.

    th2. Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5 century.

    th3. In the second half of the 4 century B. C., all Greece was brought under the rule of Alexander,

    king of Macedon.

    4. In 146 B. C. the Romans conquered Greece.

    th5. Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5 century.

    6. Revived in 1896, the Olympic Games have become the world’s foremost amateur sports competition.

    7. Ancient Greeks considered Homer to be the author of their epics.

    8. The Iliad deals with the alliance of the states of the southern mainland of Greece, led by Agamemnon in their war against the city of Troy.

    9. The Odyssey deals with the return of Odysseus after the Trojan war to his home, island of Ithaca.

    10. Of the many lyric poets of ancient Greece, two are still admired by readers today: Sappho

    and Pindar.

    11. Sappho was considered the most important lyric poet of ancient Greece. 12. Pindar is best known for his odes celebrating the victories at the athletic games, such as the

    14 Olympic odes.

    13. The three great tragic dramatists of ancient Greece are Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.

    14. Aeschylus wrote such plays as Prometheus Bound, Persians and Agamemnon.

    15. Sophocles wrote such tragic plays as Oedipus the King, Electra, and Antigone.

    16. Euripides wrote mainly about women in such plays as Andromache, Medea, and Trojan

    Women.

    th17. Comedy also flourished in the 5 century B. C.. Its best writer was Aristophanes, who has left eleven plays, including Frogs, Clouds, Wasps and Birds.

    18. Herodotus is often called ―Father of History‖. He wrote about the wars between Greeks and

    Persians.

    19. Thucydides described the war between Athens and Sparta and between Athens and Syracuse, a Greek state on the Island of Sicily.

    20. Pythagoras was a bold thinker who had the idea that all things were numbers. 21. Pythagoras was the founder of scientific mathematics.

    22. Heracleitue believed fire to the primary element of the universe, out of which everything else had arisen.

    23. The greatest names in European philosophy are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.

    24. Democritus was one of the earliest philosophical materialists and speculated about the atomic

    structure of matter.

    th25. In the 4 century B. C., four schools of philosophers often argued with each other, they are

    the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, and the Stoics.

    26. Euclid is well-known for his Elements, a textbook of geometry.

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27. To illustrate the principle of the level, Archimedes is said to have told the king: ―Give me a

    place to stand, and I will move the world.‖

    28. Greek architecture can be grouped into three styles: the Doric style which is also called the

    masculine style; the Ionic style which is also called the feminine style; and a later style that is called the Corinthian style.

    29. The Acropolis at Athens and the Parthenon are the finest monument of Greek architecture and

    sculpture in more than 2000 years.

    th30. In the 20 century, there are Homeric parallels in the Irishman James Joyce’s modernist masterpiece Ulysses.

II. 选择

    th1. Which culture reached a high point of development in the 5 century B. C.?

    A. Greek Culture B. Roman Culture C. Egyptian Culture D. Chinese Culture 2. In ___________ the Roman conquered Greece.

    thA. 1200 B. C. B. 700 B. C. C. 146 B. C. D. The 5 century

    3. Which of the following works described the war led by Agamemnon against the city of Troy? A. Oedipus the King B. Iliad C. Odyssey D. Antigone

    4. Which of the following is NOT the plays written by Aeschylus?

    A. Antigone B. Agamemnon C. Persians D. Prometheus Bound

    5. Which of the following is NOT the plays written by Sophocles?

    A. Electra B. Antigone C. Trojan Woman D. Oedipus the King

    6. Which of the following is the play written by Euripides?

    A. Antigone B. Persians C. Electra D. Medea

    7. Which of the following is NOT the greatest tragic dramatist of ancient Greece? A. Aristophanes B. Euripides C. Sophocles D. Aeschylus

    8. Who ever said that ―You can not step twice into the same river‖?

    A. Pythagoras B. Heracleitus C. Aristotle D. Socrates

    9. Who was the founder of scientific mathematics?

    A. Heracleitus B. Socrates C. Aristotle D. Pythagoras

    10. Who is chiefly noted for his doctrine that ―man is the measure of all things‖?

    A. Protagoras B. Pythagoras C. Pyrrhon D. Epicurus

III. 名词解释

    1. Iliad:《伊利亚特》;: 1) It is one of the two great ancient Greek epics by Homer. 2) It deals with the alliance of the states of the southern mainland of Greece, led by Agamemnon in their war against the city of Troy probably in the period 1200-1100 B. C. 3) The heroes are Hector on the Trojan side and Achilles and Odysseus on the Greek. 4) In the final battle, Hector was killed by Achilles and Troy was sacked and burned by the Greeks.

    2?Herodotus:希罗多德;: 1) He is one of great ancient Greek historians. 2) He is often called ― Father of History. 3) He wrote about the wars between Greeks and Persians. 4) His history, full of anecdotes and digressions and lively dialogue, is wonderfully readable.5) His object in writing was ― that the great and wonderful deeds done by Greeks and Persians should not lack renown.‖

    3?Socrates: 1) He was the philosopher of ancient Greece in the 5th and 4th century. 2) He was considered one of the three greatest names in European philosophy. 3) He holds that philosophy

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    took the aim to reach the conclusion of oneself and virtue was knowledge. 4) His thoughts were recorded in Dialogues by Plato. 5) He devised the dialectical method.

    4. Dialectical method:辩证法;: 1) It was devised by ancient Greek philosopher Socrates. 2) It is a method of argument, by questions and answers.

    5. Plato: 1) He was the greatest philosopher of ancient Greece, pupil of Socrates. 2) His Dialogues are important not only as philosophical writing but also as imaginative literature. Of the Dialogues he wrote, 27 have survived, including: the Apology, Symposium and the Republic. 3) Plato built up a comprehensive system of philosophy. 4) His philosophy is called idealism. 6. Diogenes:狄奥艮尼;: He was one of the Cynic’s leaders in ancient Greece, who decided to live like a dog. 2) The word ―cynic‖ means ―dog‖ in Greek. 3) He rejected all conventions, advocated self-sufficiency and extreme simplicity in life.

    7?Stoics:斯多咯派;: 1) It was one of four ancient Greek schools of philosophers in the 4th century B. C. 2) To them , the most important thing in life was ―duty‖. 3) It developed into the theory that one should endure hardship and misfortune with courage. 4) The chief Stoic was Zeno. 8?Doric Style:陶立克柱;: 1) It is one of three ancient Greek architecture styles. 2) It is also called the masculine style. 3) It is sturdy, powerful, severe-looking and showing a good sense of proportions and numbers. 4) The Doric style. is monotonous and unadorned.

IV. 简答与问答

     Roman Culture

    I. 填空

    1. The burning of Corinth in 146 B. C. marked Roman conquest of Greece, which was then

    reduced to a province of the Roman Empire.

    2. The Roman writer Horace said: ―Captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive‖.

    3. In 27 B. C. Octavius took supreme power as emperor with the title of Augustus.

    4. The Romans enjoyed a long period of peace lasting two hundred years, a remarkable

    phenomenon in history known as the Pax Romana.

    th5. In the 4 century, the emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium,

    renamed it Constantinople ( modern Istanbul ).

    6. In 476 the last emperor of the west was deposed by the Coths and marked the end of the West

    Roman Empire.

    7. The East Roman Empire collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453.

    8. Julius Caesar recorded what he did and saw in the various military campaigns he took part in

    and these writings, collected in his Commentaries, are models of succinct Latin.

    9. Virgil was the greatest of Latin poets and wrote the great epic, the Aeneid.

    10. The Pantheon is the greatest and the best preserved Roman temple, which was built in 27 B. C.

    And reconstructed in the 2th century A. D..

    11. She-wolf is the statue which illustrates the legend of creation of Roman.

II. 选择

    1. Who wrote, ―I came, I saw, I conquered‖?

    A. Horace B. Julius Caesar C. Virgil D. Marcus Tullius Cicero

    2. The author of the philosophical poem On the Nature of things is ___________.

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A. Virgil B. Julius Caesar C. Horace D. Lucretius

    3. Which of the following is not Roman architecture?

    A. The Colosseum B. The Panthenon C. The Parthenon D. Pont du Gard 4. Who wrote, ―Captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive‖?

    A. Sappho B. Plato C. Virgil D. Horace

III. 名词解释

    1?Pax Romana: 1In the year 27 B.C. Octavius took supreme power as emperor with the tile of Augustus. 2) Two centuries later, the Roman empire reached its greatest extent in the North and East. 3) The emperors mainly relied on a strong army-the famous Roman Legions and an influential bureaucracy to exert their rules. 4) Thus the Roman enjoyed a long period of peace lasting 200 years. This remarkable phenomenon in the history is know as Pax Romana. 2. Virgil:维吉尔;: 1) He was the greatest of Latin poets. 2) He wrote the great epic, the Aeneid. 3) The poem opened out to the future, for Aeneas stood at the head of a rce of people who were to found the first the Roman republic and then the Roman Empire.

IV. 简答与问答

    Division Two: The Bible and Christianity

     The Old Testament

    ? 填空题

    1. Among all the religions by which people seek to worship, Christianity is by far the most

    influential in the West.

    2. Both Judaism and Christianity originated in Palestine the hub of migration and trade routes,

    which led to exchange of ideas over wide areas.

    3. Some 3800 years ago the ancestors of the Jews the Hebrews wandered through the deserts

    of the Middle East.

    4. About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle in Palestine, known as Canaan at that time, and

    formed small kingdoms.

    5. The king of the Hebrews was handed down orally from one generation to another in the form

    of folktales and stories, which were recorded later in the Old Testament.

    6. The Bible is a collection of religious writings comprising two parts: the Old Testament and the

    New Testament.

    7. The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are first five

    books, called Pentateuch.

    8. When the Hebrews left the desert and entered the mountainous Sinai, Moses climbed to the

    top of the mountain to receive from God message, which came to be known as the Ten

    Commandments.

    9. Chronologically Amos is the earliest prophet in the Old Testament.

    th10. In Babylon in the 6 century B.C., the Hebrews, now known as Jews, formed synagogues to

    practise their religion.

II 选择题

    1. Which of the following is by far the most influential in the West?_______

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    A. Buddism B. Islamism C. Christianity D. Judaism

    2. The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first

    five books, called __________.

    A. Exodus B. Commandments C. Amos D. Pentaeuch

    3. Which of the following is NOT the content of the Ten Commandments?_______

    A. Honour your father and your mother

    B. Do not commit suicide

    C. Do not desire your neighbour’s wife

    D. Do not take the name of God in vain

    4. When in Babylon the Hebrews formed synagogues to practise their religion? ______

    thA. in 169 B.C. B. in the 4 century

    thC. in 76 B.C. D. in the 6 century

? 名词解释

    1. The Bible: 1) The Bible is a collection of religious writings comprising two parts: the Old Testament and the New Testament. 2) The former is about God and the laws of God; the latter, the doctrine of Jesus Christ.

    2. The Old Testament: 1)The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. 2) The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. 3)The word ―Testament‖ means ―agreement‖, the agreement between God and Man.

    4. Pentateuch:摩西五经;: 1) In the Old Testament, the oldest and most important are the first five books, called Pentateuch.2) Pentateuch contains five books: Genesis (创世记), Exodus (出埃

    及记), Leviticus(利未记), Numbers (民数记), Deuteronomy (申命记).

    5?Genesis? 1 Genesis is the first one of the five books in Pentateuch in Old Testament. 2) It tells about a religious account of the origin of the Hebrews people, including the origin of the world and of man, the career of Issac and the life of Jacob and his son Joseph. 6. Exodus: 1) Exodus is the second one of the five books in Pentateuch in the Old Testament. 2) It tells about a religious history of the Hebrews during their flight from Egypt Led by Moses. 3) During the period they began to receive God’s Law.

    7. Noah’s Ark:挪亚方舟;: 1) For many hundred years after Adam and Eve were driven out of Eden, the family of man multiplied and spread over the earth, but they became more and more corrupt 2) Thus God decided to destroy all life on earth in a great flood. 3) Because Noah always kept his faith in God, God spoke to him about His intention and told him to build an ark to protect him and his kin from the waters. 4) .Noah followed God’s instructions. 5) For 40 days it rained, the whole earth was covered with water, those sheltered in the ark being the only survivals. 8. The Prophets (先知)?1For more than a thousand years in the Middle East there had been a class of people known as ―Prophets‖ or the spokesmen of God.2 Earlier prophets lived in groups

    as temple officials. Later on there appeared in dependent prophet. 3The Prophets can be grouped

    into the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets.:分为大小先知;

    9?The Book of Daniel:《但以理书》;? 1The Book of Daniel belongs to The Old Testament

    of the Bible. 2)The book appeared in the early days of Jews’ revolt against the Syrian King Antiochus IV. 3) It is a story mixed with vision, describing how Daniel and his friends were taken prisoner to Babylon after the fall of Jerusalem and how they refused to compromise their faith. ? 简答与问答

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     Rise of Christianity

    ? 填空题

    1. At the age of 30, Jesus received the baptism at the hands of John Baptist.

    2. Jesus spent most of his life in Galilee, where he apparently made a sensation.

    3. Jesus of Nazareth lived in Palestine during the reign of the first Roman Emperor Augustus.

    4. Jesus went with his disciples to Jerusalem for the Passover, but was betrayed by Juda.

    5. In 313 the Edict of Milan was issued by Constantine I and granted religious freedom to all and

    made Christianity legal.

    6. In 392 A.D, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religions of the empire and

    outlawed all other religions.

    7. After Jesus died, St. Peter and St. Paul led the disciples of Jesus to spread gospel in the

    Mediterranean regions.

? 选择题

    1. After the _______ century Nestorianism reached China.

    A. sixth B. fifth C. second D. third 2. Which of the following emperors made Christianity the official religion of the empire and

    outlawed all other religions? __________

    A. Theodosius B. Augustus C. Constantine I D. Nero Caesar 3. Which of the following emperors issued the Edict of Milan and made Christianity legal in 313?

    __________

    A. Augustus B. Thedosius C. Nero D. Constantine I 4. At the age of 30, Jesus Christ received the baptism at the hands of _________.

    A. St. Peter B. St. Paul C. John Baptist D. John Wycliff

? 名词解释

    1?The Edict of Milan:米兰赦令;: 1) Roman emperor Constantine believed that God had helped him in winning the battle for the throne, so he issued the Edict of Milan in 313. 2) It granted religious freedom to all, made Christianity legal.

? 简答与问答

     The New Testament

    ? 填空题

    1. By 300 A.D. each local church was called a parish and had a full time leader known as priest.

    2. Towards the end of he fourth century four accounts were accepted as part of the New

    Testament, which tells the beginning of Christianity.

    3. When as Jesus’ mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was

    found with child of the Holy Ghost

    4. Jesus went with his disciples to Jerusalem for the Passover, but was betrayed by Juda and

    caught at the Last Supper.

    II 名词解释

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    1. The New Testament: 1) The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. 2) The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ. 3)The word

    ―Testament‖ means ―agreement‖, the agreement between God and Man.

    2? The four accounts in the New Testament:四福音书;: 1) The four accounts are the first four books in the New Testament. 2) They were believed to have been written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, four of Jesus’ early followers. 3) They tell of the birth, teaching, death and

    Resurrection of Jesus.

     Translations of the Bible

    ? 填空题

    1. Except a few passages in the related Armaic dialect the Old Testament was originally written

    in Hebrew. And the New Testament was originally written in a popular form of Greek.

    2. The oldest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as the Septuagint, as

    according the fictional letter of Aristeas, it was translated by 72 translators in 72 days. 3. The most ancient extant Latin version of the whole Bible is the Vulgate edition, which was

    done in 384 405 A.D. by St. Jerome in common people’s language.

    4. The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and

    was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers led by John Wycliff.

    5. The most important and influential of English Bible is the ―Authorized‖ or King James’

    version, first published in 1611.

? 选择题

    1. By 1693, the whole of the Bible had been translated in _________languages.

    A. 228 B. 974 C. 1202 D. 154 2. The oldest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as ________.

    A. the Latin Vulgate B. the Aristeas

    C. the ―Authorized‖ D. the Septuagint

    3. When printing was invented in the 1500’s, the _______ Bible was the first complete work

    printed.

    A. English B. Latin C. Aramaic D. Hebrew 4. When did the standard American edition of the Revised Version appear? _______

    A. 1885 B. 1611 C. 1901 D. 1979 ? 名词解释

    1?King James’ version of Bible:钦定版本圣经;: 1As the most important and influential of

    English Bible, it is also called the ―Authorized‖ version. 2) It was produced by 54 biblical scholars

    at the command of King James, and was published in 1611. 3) With its simple, majestic Anglo-Saxon tongue, it is know as the greatest book in the English language.

    Division Three: The Middle Ages

     Manor and Church

    ? 填空题

    1. In European history, the thousand year period following the fall of the West Roman Empire in

    the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.

    2. Between the fifth and eleventh centuries, West Europe was the scene of frequent wars and

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    invasions.

    3. The Middle Age is a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritage merged.

    4. Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding a system of holding land in

    exchange for military service.

    5. In 732 Charles Martel, a Frankish ruler gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs as a reward for

    their service.

    6. The center of medieval life under feudalism was the manor.

    th7. By the 12 century manor houses came to be called castle, which were made of stone and

    designed as fortress.

    8. As a knight, he was pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord

    and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which

    the western idea of good manners developed.

    9. In the medieval days a knight was trained for war by fighting each other in mock batters

    called tournaments.

    10. After 1054, the Church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern

    Orthodox Church.

    11. The most important of all the leaders of Christian thought was Augustine of Hippo who lived

    in North Africa in the fifth century.

    12. Under feudalism, people of western Europe were mainly divided into three classes: clergy,

    lords and peasants.

    13. The Pope not only ruled Roman and parts of Italy as a king, he was also the head of all

    Christian churches in western Europe.

    14. In the Medieval times the Church set up a church court the Inquisition to stamp out

    so-called heresy.

    15. One of the most important sacraments was Holy Communion, which was to remind people

    that Christ had died to redeem man.

    16. To express their religious feelings, many people in the Middle Ages went on journeys to

    sacred places where early Christian leaders had lived. The most important of all was

    Jerusalem.

    17. With a return attack against the Moslems, the Western Christians launched a series of holy

    wars called the Crusades.

? 选择题

    th1. In the later part of the 4 century, which of the following tribes swept into Europe from

    central Asia, robbing and killing a large numbers of the half civilized Germanic tribes?

    ________

    A. the Mongolians B. the Huns

    C. the Turkish D. the Syrians

    2. The Middle Ages is also called the _________.

    A. ―Age of Christianity‖ B. ―Age of Literature‖

    C. ―Age of Holy Spirit‖ D. ―Age of Faith‖

    3. According to the code of chivalry, which of the following is not pledged to do for a knight?

    _______

    A. To be loyal to his lord B. To fight for the church

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    C. To obey without question the orders of the abbot

    D. To respect women of noble birth

    4. In 732, who gave his soldiers estates known as fiefs as a reward for their service? _________

    A. Charles Martel, a Frankish ruler B. Charles I, a Turkish ruler

    C. Constantine I, a Frankish ruler D. St. Benedict, a Italian ruler 5. When was the Church divided into the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox

    Church?_________

    A. after 1066 B. after 1296 C. after 1054 D. after 476 6. Which of the following about the knight or noble in the Middle Ages in Western Europe is

    NOT true?____________

    A. Almost all nobles were knights in the Medieval days.

    B. A noble began his education as a page at the age of seven.

    C. As a knight, he was pledged to fight for the church.

    D. At about fourteen, the page became a knight.

    7. When was a noble crowned as a knight in the Middle Ages in Western Europe? _______

    A. At the age of 14.

    B. When he was taught to say his prayers, learned good manners and ran errands for the

    ladies.

    C. At a special ceremony known as dubbing.

    D. When he was pledged to fight for the church.

    8. Which of the following is NOT true about what the monks must do before entering the

    monastery according to the Benedictine Rule?

    A. They had to attend service 6 times during the day and once at midnight.

    B. They could promise to give up all their possession before entering the monastery.

    C. They were expected to work 5 hours a day in the fields surrounding the monastery.

    D. They had to obey without question the orders of the abbot.

    9. Under feudalism, what were the three classes of people of western Europe?________

    A. clergy, knights and serfs B. Pope, bishop and peasants

    C. clergy, lords and peasants D. knights, nobles and serfs

    10. By which year the Moslems had taken over the last Christian stronghold and won the crusades

    and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the crusaders had fought to control? ________

    A. 1270 B. 1254 C. 1096 D. 1291

? 名词解释

    1?the Middle ages:中世纪;: 1) In European history, the thousand-year period from the 5th century to 15th century following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.2)The middle ages is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. 3) During the Medieval times there was no central government to keep the order. The only organization that seemed to unite Europe was the Christian church.4) Christianity took the lead in politics, law, art, and learning for hundreds of years. It shaped people’s lives. That is why the Middle Ages is also called the ―Age of Faith‖.

    2?Feudalism:封建主义;?1Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding a

    system of holding land in exchange for military service. 2The word ―feudalism‖ was derived

    from the Latin ―feudum‖, a grant of land.

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    3?Fiefs:封地~采邑;?1In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors or soldiers as a reward for their service. 2The

    subdivisions were called fiefs.

    4. vassals:诸侯;: 1)In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors or soldiers as a reward for their service. 2)The subdivisions were called fiefs.3) The owners of the fiefs w call vassals.

    5. Code of Chivalry (骑士制度): 1) In the Middle Ages of western Europe, as a knight, he were

    pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. 2) These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

    6. dubbing (骑士头衔加冕仪式) : After a knight was successful in his trails and tournaments,

    there was always a special ceremony to award him with a title, knight. This special ceremony is called dubbing.

    7. The Manor (庄园)? 1 The centre of medieval life under feudalism was the manor. 2Manors

    were founded on the fiefs of the lords. 3By the twelfth century manor houses were made of stone

    and designed as fortresses. They came to be called castles.

    8?The Catholic Church(天主教): 1) In the medieval ―age of faith‖, almost all Europeans

    belonged to the Catholic Church. 2) The word ―catholic‖ meant ―universal‖ 3) The Catholic

    Church was highly centralized and disciplined international organization and the Pope was the head of the Church. He not only ruled Rome and parts of Italy as a king, he was also the head of all Christian churches in western Europe. Those who opposed the Pope lost their membership and their political right. 4) The Church even set up a church court-the Inquisition to stamp out so-called heresy. 5) Latin was the accepted official language in the Roman Catholic Church. 6) This Church had great influence on people’s daily life and the western thinking.

    9?Monasticism (修道院制度): 1Heeding the spiritual message of Christianity, between 300 and 500 A.D., many men withdrew from worldly contacts to deserts and lonely places. 2) This movement developed into the establishment of monasteries:修道院;and convents (女修道院) for

    monks and nuns. 3Some of the hermits were great scholars known as ―Father of the Church‖, whose work is generally considered orthodox.. 4) Three representatives were St. Jerome, Augustine of Hippo and St. Benedict.

    10.Benedictine Rule(本尼迪克特教团)? 1) It was founded by St. Benedict, a great monk in 529

    A. D. 2) The monks who followed Benedict’s rule promised to give up all their possession before entering the monastery. 3) wore simple clothes and ate only certain simple foods. 4) They could not marry and had to obey without question the orders of the abbot. 5) They had to attend service seven times during the day and once at midnight.6) In addition, they were expected to work five hours a day in the fields surrounding the monastery.

    11. holy communion:圣餐;: 1) It is one of most important sacraments. 2) It helps to remind people that Christ has died to redeem man.

    12?The Crusades:十字军东征;: 1) In 1071 Palestine fell to the armies of the Turkish Moslems who attacked the Christian pilgrims, killing many of them and sold many others as slaves. 2) News of this kink roused great indignation among Christians in western Europe. 3) The result was a series of holy wars called the Crusades which went on about 200 years. 4) All the soldiers going to Palestine wore a red cross on the tunics as a symbol of obedience to God. 5) There were altogether eight chief Crusades from 1096 to 1291. 6) Although the Crusades did not achieve their

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