Division One: Greek Culture and Roman Culture
1. European culture is made up of many elements, two of these elements are considered to be
more enduring and they are the Greco-Roman element and the Judeo-Christian element.
th2. Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5 century.
th3. In the second half of the 4 century B. C., all Greece was brought under the rule of Alexander,
king of Macedon.
4. In 146 B. C. the Romans conquered Greece.
th5. Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5 century.
6. Revived in 1896, the Olympic Games have become the world’s foremost amateur sports competition.
7. Ancient Greeks considered Homer to be the author of their epics.
8. The Iliad deals with the alliance of the states of the southern mainland of Greece, led by Agamemnon in their war against the city of Troy.
9. The Odyssey deals with the return of Odysseus after the Trojan war to his home, island of Ithaca.
10. Of the many lyric poets of ancient Greece, two are still admired by readers today: Sappho
11. Sappho was considered the most important lyric poet of ancient Greece. 12. Pindar is best known for his odes celebrating the victories at the athletic games, such as the
14 Olympic odes.
13. The three great tragic dramatists of ancient Greece are Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
14. Aeschylus wrote such plays as Prometheus Bound, Persians and Agamemnon.
15. Sophocles wrote such tragic plays as Oedipus the King, Electra, and Antigone.
16. Euripides wrote mainly about women in such plays as Andromache, Medea, and Trojan
th17. Comedy also flourished in the 5 century B. C.. Its best writer was Aristophanes, who has left eleven plays, including Frogs, Clouds, Wasps and Birds.
18. Herodotus is often called ―Father of History‖. He wrote about the wars between Greeks and
19. Thucydides described the war between Athens and Sparta and between Athens and Syracuse, a Greek state on the Island of Sicily.
20. Pythagoras was a bold thinker who had the idea that all things were numbers. 21. Pythagoras was the founder of scientific mathematics.
22. Heracleitue believed fire to the primary element of the universe, out of which everything else had arisen.
23. The greatest names in European philosophy are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
24. Democritus was one of the earliest philosophical materialists and speculated about the atomic
structure of matter.
th25. In the 4 century B. C., four schools of philosophers often argued with each other, they are
the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, and the Stoics.
26. Euclid is well-known for his Elements, a textbook of geometry.
27. To illustrate the principle of the level, Archimedes is said to have told the king: ―Give me a
place to stand, and I will move the world.‖
28. Greek architecture can be grouped into three styles: the Doric style which is also called the
masculine style; the Ionic style which is also called the feminine style; and a later style that is called the Corinthian style.
29. The Acropolis at Athens and the Parthenon are the finest monument of Greek architecture and
sculpture in more than 2000 years.
th30. In the 20 century, there are Homeric parallels in the Irishman James Joyce’s modernist masterpiece Ulysses.
th1. Which culture reached a high point of development in the 5 century B. C.?
A. Greek Culture B. Roman Culture C. Egyptian Culture D. Chinese Culture 2. In ___________ the Roman conquered Greece.
thA. 1200 B. C. B. 700 B. C. C. 146 B. C. D. The 5 century
3. Which of the following works described the war led by Agamemnon against the city of Troy? A. Oedipus the King B. Iliad C. Odyssey D. Antigone
4. Which of the following is NOT the plays written by Aeschylus?
A. Antigone B. Agamemnon C. Persians D. Prometheus Bound
5. Which of the following is NOT the plays written by Sophocles?
A. Electra B. Antigone C. Trojan Woman D. Oedipus the King
6. Which of the following is the play written by Euripides?
A. Antigone B. Persians C. Electra D. Medea
7. Which of the following is NOT the greatest tragic dramatist of ancient Greece? A. Aristophanes B. Euripides C. Sophocles D. Aeschylus
8. Who ever said that ―You can not step twice into the same river‖?
A. Pythagoras B. Heracleitus C. Aristotle D. Socrates
9. Who was the founder of scientific mathematics?
A. Heracleitus B. Socrates C. Aristotle D. Pythagoras
10. Who is chiefly noted for his doctrine that ―man is the measure of all things‖?
A. Protagoras B. Pythagoras C. Pyrrhon D. Epicurus
1. Iliad：《伊利亚特》；: 1) It is one of the two great ancient Greek epics by Homer. 2) It deals with the alliance of the states of the southern mainland of Greece, led by Agamemnon in their war against the city of Troy probably in the period 1200-1100 B. C. 3) The heroes are Hector on the Trojan side and Achilles and Odysseus on the Greek. 4) In the final battle, Hector was killed by Achilles and Troy was sacked and burned by the Greeks.
2?Herodotus：希罗多德；: 1) He is one of great ancient Greek historians. 2) He is often called ― Father of History. 3) He wrote about the wars between Greeks and Persians. 4) His history, full of anecdotes and digressions and lively dialogue, is wonderfully readable.5) His object in writing was ― that the great and wonderful deeds done by Greeks and Persians should not lack renown.‖
3?Socrates: 1) He was the philosopher of ancient Greece in the 5th and 4th century. 2) He was considered one of the three greatest names in European philosophy. 3) He holds that philosophy
took the aim to reach the conclusion of oneself and virtue was knowledge. 4) His thoughts were recorded in Dialogues by Plato. 5) He devised the dialectical method.
4. Dialectical method：辩证法；: 1) It was devised by ancient Greek philosopher Socrates. 2) It is a method of argument, by questions and answers.
5. Plato: 1) He was the greatest philosopher of ancient Greece, pupil of Socrates. 2) His Dialogues are important not only as philosophical writing but also as imaginative literature. Of the Dialogues he wrote, 27 have survived, including: the Apology, Symposium and the Republic. 3) Plato built up a comprehensive system of philosophy. 4) His philosophy is called idealism. 6. Diogenes：狄奥艮尼；: He was one of the Cynic’s leaders in ancient Greece, who decided to live like a dog. 2) The word ―cynic‖ means ―dog‖ in Greek. 3) He rejected all conventions, advocated self-sufficiency and extreme simplicity in life.
7?Stoics：斯多咯派；: 1) It was one of four ancient Greek schools of philosophers in the 4th century B. C. 2) To them , the most important thing in life was ―duty‖. 3) It developed into the theory that one should endure hardship and misfortune with courage. 4) The chief Stoic was Zeno. 8?Doric Style：陶立克柱；: 1) It is one of three ancient Greek architecture styles. 2) It is also called the masculine style. 3) It is sturdy, powerful, severe-looking and showing a good sense of proportions and numbers. 4) The Doric style. is monotonous and unadorned.
1. The burning of Corinth in 146 B. C. marked Roman conquest of Greece, which was then
reduced to a province of the Roman Empire.
2. The Roman writer Horace said: ―Captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive‖.
3. In 27 B. C. Octavius took supreme power as emperor with the title of Augustus.
4. The Romans enjoyed a long period of peace lasting two hundred years, a remarkable
phenomenon in history known as the Pax Romana.
th5. In the 4 century, the emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium,
renamed it Constantinople ( modern Istanbul ).
6. In 476 the last emperor of the west was deposed by the Coths and marked the end of the West
7. The East Roman Empire collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453.
8. Julius Caesar recorded what he did and saw in the various military campaigns he took part in
and these writings, collected in his Commentaries, are models of succinct Latin.
9. Virgil was the greatest of Latin poets and wrote the great epic, the Aeneid.
10. The Pantheon is the greatest and the best preserved Roman temple, which was built in 27 B. C.
And reconstructed in the 2th century A. D..
11. She-wolf is the statue which illustrates the legend of creation of Roman.