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LET'S TALK

By Sally Black,2014-06-21 11:30
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LET'S TALK

UNIT 1

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Hello, everyone. Today I invite you to join me in an exploration off the causes of depression. There ate many factors involved, but I believe some deserve special attention.

    Heredity certainly plays a role. .The tendency to develop depression may be inherited; there is evidence that this disorder may run in families.

    Physiology is another factor related to depression. There may be changes or imbalances in chemicals which transmit information in the brain called neurotransmitters. Many modern antidepressant drugs attempt to increase levels of certain neurotransmitters so as to increase brain communication. While the causal relationship is unclear; it is known that antidepressant medications do reliever certain symptoms of depression.

    Researchers also study psychological factors. They include the complex development of ones personality and how one has learned to cope with external environmental factors, such as stress. It is freeqently observed that low self-esteem and self-defeating thinking are connected with depression. While it is not clear which is the cause and which is the effect, it is known that sufferers who are able to make corrections to their thinking patterns can show improved mood and self-esteem.

    Another factor causing depression is ones early experiences. Events such as the death

    of a parent, the divorce of the parents, neglect, chronic illness, and severe physical abuse can also increase the likelihood of depression later in life. Some present experiences may also lead to depression. Job loss, financial difficulties, long periods of unemployment, the loss of a spouse or other family member, or other painful events may trigger depression. Long-term stress at home, work, or school can also be involved.

    It is worth nothing that those living with someone suffering from \depression experience increased anxiety which adds to the possibility of their also becoming depressed.

Depression-causing Problem Description Solution

    Factors

    Heredity It is inherited and run in families.

    Physiology changes or imbalances in Antidepressant drugs

    chemicals called relieve certain symptoms

    neurotransmitters, which transmit of depression.

    information in the brain

    Psychological Factors Low self-esteem and Sufferers who make

    self-defeating thinking are correction to their

    connected with depression. thinking patterns can

    show improved mood

    and self-esteem.

    Early Experiences Event like the death of a parent,

    the divorce of parents, neglect,

    chronic illness, and severe

    physical abuse can increase the

    likelihood of depression.

    Present Experiences Job loss, financial difficulties,

    long periods of unemployment,

    the loss of a spouse or other

    family member, or long-term

    stress may trigger depression.

    Living with somebody This causes increased anxiety,

    with depression which adds to the possibility of

    their also becoming depressed.

UNIT 2

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Greetings, ladies and gentlemen. I hope youll find it interesting how to be

    fashionable without spending too much money.

    Sure, some famous stars always look stylish. They have unlimited clothing budgets that put the latest looks at their fingertips! But you can also look amazing without spending lots of money on your wardrobes. Simple try the following suggestions on for size.

    First, you should make seasonal purchases; that is, you should buy winter coats, leather jackets, bathing suits, ad summer dress at the end of the season. Youll get

    major discounts as you stock up for the next year.

    If you want clothes to wear right now, you can go to discount stores. They may not be the place to buy an expensive evening dress, but theyre perfect for buying things like

    T-shirts

    There is yet another cheap way of you to buy stylish clothes. Many department stores have a store brand. It means they offer current styles but are much cheaper than big-name brands.

    To save money, an important principle for you to follow is to not buy outfits. With

    the exception of suits, interchangeable piece are more affordablebuying clothing in

    separate.

    Wear-with- anything pieces are always a good buy. For example, you can almost always wear a pair of black trousers and a white dress skirt; you can wear them several times a week, paired with different accessories.

    If you cant afford expensive clothes, you can spend money on accessories such as

    nice shoes and fashionable bags. Such extras make even the simplest outfit look polished.

    Finally, a great haircut always helps. When you hair looks fabulous, you look more stylish and fashionable.

Money-saving Methods Detailed Description

    seasonal purchases You should buy things at the end of the

    season. Youll get major discounts, and

    you’ll be stocked up for the next year.

    discount stores Theyre perfect for buying things like

    T-shirts.

    A store brand Stores offer current styles that are much

    cheaper than big-name brands.

    Dont buy outfits Buying separates is much more

    affordable.

    Wear-with- anything pieces You can almost always wear a pair of

    black trousers and a white dress skirt; you

    can wear them several times a week,

    paired with different accessories.

    spend money on accessories Examples are nice shoes and fashionable

    bags. Such extras make even the simplest

    outfit look polished

    a great haircut You look more stylish and fashionable

    with a nice haircut.

UNIT 3

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    A natural disaster is the consequence of a hazardous event, occurring when human activities are affected by adverse natural phenomena such as flood, drought, hailstorm, heat wave, forest fore, hurricanes or typhoons, tornado, tsunami, landsides and mudslides, or volcanic eruption. The resulting deaths or property damages depend on the human ability to resist the disasters.

    Sometimes two seemingly different disasters may be related to each other. For example, an undersea earthquake may result in a tsunami. While there is a long dry spell in one area, there may be a great flood in another. It is necessary for human beings to understand and combat natural disasters.

    A drought is a long-lasting weather pattern consisting of dry conditions with very little or no precipitation. During this period, food and water supplies can run low, and other condition, such as famine, can result. Drought can last for several years and are

    particularly damaging in areas in which the residents depend on agriculture for survival.

    A flood follows too much rain or water in a location, and could be the result of many different conditions. Floods can be caused by heavy rainfall from a storm, including thunderstorms, rapid melting of a large amounts of snow, or rivers which swell from too much precipitation upstream, causing widespread damage to areas downstream. Another possible cause of a flood is the bursting of man-made dams.

     Description

    Adverse natural phenomena such as

    flood, drought, hailstorm, heat wave, Natural disaster

    forest fore, hurricanes or typhoons,

    tornado, tsunami, landsides and

    mudslides, or volcanic eruption.

    They are related to each other. An

    undersea earthquake may result in a Relationship Between Two Disasters

    tsunami. While there is a long dry spell I

    none area, there may be a great flood in

    another.

    During a drought, food and water

    supplies can run low, and other condition, Drought

    such as famine, can result. Drought are

    particularly damaging in areas in which

    the residents depend on agriculture for

    survival.

    Floods can be caused by long rainfall

    from a storm, including thunderstorms, Flood

    rapid melting of a large amounts of snow,

    or rivers which swell from too much

    precipitation upstream, causing

    widespread damage to areas down

    stream. Another cause of a flood is the

    bursting of man-made dams.

UNIT 4

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Lillian: Mr. Baxter, you have worked in the company for five years, and you manage

    everything here smoothly, like a clock. Could you tell us the secret of your successful career?

    Baxter: Just as the golden rule of real estate is location, location, location, the golden rule of work is relationships, relationships, relationships. Unfortunately, many workers focus so hard on the job at hand that they never develop useful relationships with people in other parts of their organization. Worse, when they do interact with colleagues in other departments, they may not treat then with respect. Lillian: Could you give more details?

    Baxter: Lets take Wendy as an example. She switched jobs several months ago in the company. In her first position, as a marketing manager, she frequently found herself in conflict with the financial department over her staffs expenses. Her argument for

    more funds usually ended in vain.

    Then in her new job as training administrator, she wanted to launch an on-the-job training project. She needed the financial department to support her request for a budget. How did she convince them this time?

    Although the financial departments offices were located in another city, Wendy

    decided to visit them in their offices and try to establish closer relationships. She believed she must first of all understand their mission and their own training needs. Then she found an ally in the company’s chief financial officer, who saw how her

    group could help develop his staff. So the two forged a long-tern=m alliance, which led to a training program so successful that it has since been picked up by the companys offices in Germany and Japan.

    Winning allies throughout your organization has an additional benefit. These days, its

    far too risky to expect your work to speak for itself. Having allies who speak well of you increases your reputation with the top management.

Positive Statements Negative Statements

    The golden rule of work is relationships. Many workers never develop useful

    relationships with people in other parts of

    their organization. Worse, they may not

    treat then with respect.

     Wendy frequently found herself in

    conflict with the financial department

    over her staffs expenses. Her argument

    for more funds usually ended in vain.

    She and the companys chief financial

    officer forged a long-term alliance, which

    led to a training program so successful

    that it has since been picked up by the

    companys offices in Germany and Japan.

    Having allies who speak well of you

    increases your reputation with the top

    management.

UNIT 5

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Kathy: Well, now that everybody I here, lets call the meeting to order. Today we

    have to discuss the operation of our software development department. Were

    all aware that nowadays market competition is becoming more intense than

    ever before. If we want to keep our competitive edge, the only way is to offer

    excellent and considerate service to our customer and, at the same time,

    lower our prices. So, what Im thinking is, maybe we could outsource the

    software side of out business to another company. But what impact will it

    have on our engineers? Its a big problem. Mm, Id be interested to know

    your thoughts, Warton.

    Warton: I totally agree with you.

    Kathy: Could you go into more detail about your opinion?

    Warton: I think that outsourcing this part of our operation to another company

    certainly makes a lot sense. Our software engineers ate getting a bit too old,

    and their technology is a bit out of date. Worse still, their salaries are quite

    high. Many professional software-designing companies are offering better

    products at lower rates. With outsourcing, we can give some of the

    engineers the sack.

    Jennifer: Sorry to interrupt you. Coming from the PR department, I look at this issue

    from a different perspective. I think we should consider all sides of this

    issue before we make a decision.

    Kathy: Jennifer, Id be interested t o knot your view too.

    Jennifer: I think as a large company we should consider not only customers and

    prices, but also our employees. Our workers have contributed a lot to our

    company. Some of them even started working here when our company

    opened. I hope we can find a solution that wont require us t o lay off our

    loyal and trust employees.

    Kathy: Im very much impressed by what you said. Wed better give this issue more

    careful consideration.

    Maybe we could outsource the software side of out business to Kathy

    another company. But what impact will it have on our engineers?

    Our software engineers ate getting a bit too old, and

    their technology is a bit out of date. Worse still, their Warton

    salaries are quite high. Many professional

    software-designing companies are offering better

    products at lower rates. With outsourcing, we can give

    some of the engineers the sack.

    Our workers have contributed a lot to our company. Jennifer:

    Some of them even started working here when our

    company opened. I hope we can find a solution that

    wont require us to lay off our loyal and trust

    employees.

    Wed better give this issue more careful consideration. Kathy

UNIT 6

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Thanks, perhaps, to falling stock markets and unrest in the Middle East, Britons have become even more superstitious than usual, according to a report published today. There has been a significant increase in superstition over the last month, possible as a result of current economic and political uncertainties, stated Dr. Dick Armstrong.

    He launched an Internet Survey of national superstition, and found it to be surprisingly high, even among those with a scientific background. Only more in ten of those surveyed claimed not to be superstitious at all. Three out of four people in Britain feel the need to touch wood, and 65% cross their fingers. It is interesting to note that lucky people were much less superstitious and tended to take constructive action to improve their lives. Conversely, superstitious people tended to regard themselves as among the less lucky, worried about life, had a strong need for control, and could not tolerate ambiguity.

    The survey also revealed some unexpected beliefs. For example, one respondent could not stay in the bathroom once a toilet had been flushed.

    There was no evidence that superstitious ever worked, even, when people were instructed to carry lucky charms for a week. They didn’t feel any luckier or more

    stratified with their lives at the end of that week than when they started. Armstrong attempted to explain this phenomenon: When students are preparing for

    exams with a lucky charm, they may trust the charm, rather than doing some extra revision.

    Thanks, perhaps, to falling stock markets and unrest in the Reasons foe More

    Middle East, Britons have become even more superstitious than Superstitions

    usual

    Lucky people were much less superstitious and tended to take

    constructive action to improve their lives. Conversely, Who are more

    superstitious people tended to regard themselves as among the superstitious?

    less lucky

    There was no evidence that superstitious ever worked, even,

    when people were instructed to carry lucky charms for a week. Do superstitions

    They didn’t feel any luckier or more stratified work?

    When students are preparing for exams with a lucky charm, they Explanation

    may trust the charm, rather than doing some extra revision.

UNIT 7

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    The notion of a weekly rest is ancient. Christian religions celebrate a day of rest known as the Sabbath, also called the Lord’s Day. It is on Sunday. The weekend as a

    holiday is a rather modern invention. Before the industrial revolution the wage labor force was a small fraction of the population. The day of the Sabbath was viewed as one dedicated to God, not one of relaxation.

    The early industrial period in Europe saw a six-day work week with only Sunday off, but some workers had no days off at all. Only the workers rights movements in the

    late nineteenth and early twentieth century saw a five-day work week introduced as Saturday became a day of rest and relaxation. This movement began in England. In many ways this has been a great boon to the economy as it leads to a great increase in consumer spending on Saturdays as restaurant visits, motorcar journeys, or trips to the movies became common on Saturday. Many jurisdictions continued to enforce strict Lord’s Day laws on Sunday, which meant that most places of recreation, such as stores and theaters, were forced to close on that day. These regulations began to weaken in the years after the Second World War, and Sunday also became a day of recreation for many.

    After centuries of development, the weekend is now a part of the week usually lasting two days in which most paid workers do not work. This is a time for leisure and recreation, and for religious activities.

Christian religions celebrate a day of rest known as the Sabbath, also called the Lord’s

    Day. It is on Sunday.

    Before the industrial revolution the day of the Sabbath was viewed as one dedicated to

    God, not one of relaxation.

    The early industrial period in Europe saw a six-day work week with only Sunday off.

    Only the workers rights movements in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century

    saw a five-day work week introduced as Saturday became a day of rest and relaxation

    In many ways this has been a great boon to the economy as it leads to a great increase

    in consumer spending on Saturdays.

After the Second World War, and Sunday also became a day of recreation for many.

    The weekend is now a part of the week usually lasting two days in which most paid

    workers do not work. This is a time for leisure and recreation, and for religious

    activities.

UNIT 8

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Correspondent: In the U.S. what percentage of people support biotech crops? And do

    those who support biotech crops also eat biotech foods? What

    percentage of food on the market has genetically modified

    ingredients?

    Professor: U.S. consumers have been exposed to a very effective

    anti-biotechnology propaganda campaign for the last few years, but

    according to polls, over 70% support biotechnology. For example, in

    a recent referendum in Oregon, voters rejected a proposal to require

    special labels on all products containing biotech ingredients by an

    overwhelming 73% to 27%. That’s probably because consumers

    know that we have an effective administrative system. Many may

    also know that 70-80% of the processed food products on

    supermarket shelves contain one or more ingredients from biotech

    crops. All Americans eat biotech foods unless they deliberately seek

    out products that are labeled otherwise. Evidence suggests that this

    is less than 5% of consumers.

    Correspondent: Chinese scientists have used biotechnology to create a new type of

    tomato, which contains the vaccine against hepatitis B. What’s your

    take on this?

    Professor: It’s a great example of how this technology can be used to save lives,

    ease pain and suffering and improve the human condition. How can

    anyone be opposed to that? My only hope is that the clinical trials of

    this new tomato go well, and that it is quickly delivered to

    health-care providers who will use it to vaccinate people against

    hepatitis. By the way, please note that I do think that such new

    pharmaceutical foods need to be handled as medicines by

    professionals and not as conventional foods. You will never see

    these tomatoes in the supermarket. In a sense, the tomato plant is

    just being used to manufacture a vaccine in a very safe and

    economical manner.

    Over 70% of U.S.consumers support U.S. Consumer’s attitude to

    biotechnology. Biotech

     In a recent referendum in Oregon, voters rejected

    a proposal to require special labels on all products Examples

    containing biotech ingredients by an

    overwhelming 73% to 27%.

    Chinese scientists have used biotechnology to Chinese Progress in Biotech

    create a new type of tomato, which contains the

    vaccine against hepatitis B.

    This technology can be used to save lives,ease Significance of the Progress

    pain and suffering and improve the human

    condition.

    I do think that such new pharmaceutical foods

    need to be handled as medicines by professionals The Professor’s Advice

    and not as conventional foods.

UNIT 9

    V. Lets Talk

    Script

    Journalist: Professor Williams, some people argue that the GDP does not reflect the

    true nature of the economy. What’s your opinion of the GDP

    measurement?

    Professor: The GDP is a core index in the calculation of a national economy. But it

    shows only whether the economy has grown in a region or a country.

    What isn’t taken into account is the price being extacted from our natural

    resources and environment to support growth. China’s more than eight

    percent annual GDP growth in the past depended a lot on high energy

    consumption and uncontrolled discharge of wastes.

    Journalist: Cangreen GDP solve the problems?

    Professor: As a brand-new method of calculating a national economy, thegreen

    GDP index system takes into consideration both the economy and

    environmental costs. It deducts environmental costs from the traditional

    gross domestic product. In other words, green GDP equals traditional

    GDP minus the costs of resources and environmental damage. Green

    GDP can be regarded as “the genuine GDP”, for it not only reflects

    economic growth, but also shows the quality of that growth. Journalist: How will thegreen GDP influence enterprises?

    Professor: The system will have direct and far-reaching influence on enterprises.

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