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Eng_12GK_MHYM

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Eng_12GK_MHYM

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    上海市闵行区2012届一模英语试卷讲解

    主讲人;施老师

    上海市闵行区2012届高三英语?一模,

    考生注意(

    1. 答卷前!考生务必在答题纸上将学校、姓名及准考证号填写清楚!并在规定的区域

    填涂。答题时客观题用2B铅笔按要求涂写!主观题用黑色水笔填写。

    2. 本试卷分为第I卷和第II卷!共12页。满分150分!考试时间120分钟。

    3. 考试后只交答题纸!试卷由考生自己保留。

    I (105)

    I. Listening Comprehension

    

    II. Grammar and Vocabulary

    Section A

    Directions: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A, B. C and D. Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence.

    25. Most of the people in this village have free access ___ ___ clean drinking water.

     A. with B. for C. by D. to

26. Are you coming to the party?

     I’m not sure. I ___ ____ go to the concert instead.

     A. must B. might C. should D would

    27. So little ___ _____ the plan that they could not settle their difference.

     A. they agreed on B. do they agree on

     C. did they agree on D. they did not agree on 28. With the great weight _____ off her mind, she passed the test successfully.

     A. taking B. taken C. take D. to be taken

    29. Taobao.com has begun selling tickets online for international flights, _____ to cut the market share of Ctrip.com and other competitors.

     A. to aim B. having aimed C. aiming D. being aimed 30. The little girl showed no anxiety before the competition. She seemed ____ for it pretty well.

     A. to prepare B. to have prepared

     C. having prepared D. to be preparing 31. It was fortunate that Jack narrowly escaped ___ in a traffic accident.

     A. being killed B. killing C. to be killed D. to kill

     Is there anything wrong, Bob? You look sad. 32.

     Oh, nothing much. In fact, I __ of my friends back home.

     A. have just thought B. would just think

     C. was just thinking D. will just be thinking 33. I suppose by the time I come back in ten years’ time all these old houses __ down.

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     A. will have been pulled B. will be pulling

     C. will have pulled D. will be pulled

    34. Safety in school has been of great concern because of frequent reports about accidents ___ __ students got injured or killed while in school.

     A. why B. when C. in which D. for which 35. The figures are further evidence ___ ____ children are more likely to become near-sighted.

     A. what B. that C. why D. which 36. It was for her rare charm and inner beauty ______ British movie star Audrey Hepburn was named the most naturally beautiful woman of all time.

     A. when B. therefore C. that D. why 37. Handwritten documents are more valuable to researchers, historians say, ___ ___ their reliability can be confirmed.

     A. though B. so that C. while D. because 38. Man must keep in mind that it will be years ___ ___ the earth recovers from the damage he makes to it.

     A. when B. until C. since D. before

39. I don’t mind how you do it ___ ____ you finish the painting on time.

     No problem.

    A. as well as B. as far as C. as long as D. as fast as 40. The businessman is very modest about his success. He says it’s ___ ____ the result of good

    luck as of his own diligence.

     A. more than B. so much C. more D. as much

Section B

    Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

    A. essential B. endangered C. going D. performance E. crises

    F. supposed G. consequence H. material I. exposed J. involves

    As the pace of life continues to increase, we are fast losing the art of relaxation. Once you are in the habit of rushing through life, being on the 41 from morning till night, it is hard to slow down. But relaxation is 42 for a healthy mind and body.

    Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to avoid it. In fact, it is not the bad

     to be. A certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and give thing as often 43

    purpose to life. It is only when the stress gets out of control that it can lead to poor 44 and ill health.

    The amount of stress a person can stand depends very much on the individual. Some people are not afraid of stress, and such characters are obviously prime 45 for managerial responsibilities; others lose heart at the first sign of unusual difficulties. When 46 to stress, in whatever form,

    we react both chemically and physically. In fact we make choice between “flight or fight” and in more primitive (远古的) days the choices made the difference between life or death.

    The 47 we meet today are unlikely to be so extreme, but however little the stress, it 48 the same response. It is when such a reaction lasts long, through continued exposure to stress, that health becomes 49 .Since we can’t remove stress from our lives (it would be unwise to do so even if we could), we need to find ways to deal with it.

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    III. Reading comprehension:

    Section A

    Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. We all remember seeing hitchhikers, standing by the side of the road, thumb sticking out, waiting for a lift. But it is getting 50 nowadays. What killed hitchhiking? 51 is often mentioned as a reason. Movies about murderous hitchhikers and real-life crime have put many drivers off 52 hitchhikers. That no single women picked me up on my journey to Manchester no doubt 53 the safety fear: a large, strangely dressed man is seen as dangerous. But the reason may be more 54 : hitchhiking happens where people don’t have cars and

    transport services are poor. Plenty of people still hitchhike in Poland and Romania. Perhaps the rising level of 55 in the UK means the few people left hitchhiking are usually considered strange. Why can’t they afford cars?

    Three-quarters of the UK population have access to a car; many of the remainder will be quite old. The 56 hitchhiking population is therefore small. Yet my trip proves it’s still

     57 to hitchhike. The people who picked me up were very interesting lawyer, retired surgeon,

    tank commander, carpenter, man who live in an isolated farmhouse and a couple living up in the mountains. My 58 is that only really interesting people are mad enough to pick up fat blokes (家伙) in red, spotted scarves. Most just wanted to do someone a good turn; a few said they were so surprised to see a hitchhiker that they couldn’t help 59 .

    The 60 of hitchhiking most likely lies with car-sharing organized over the Internet, via sites such as hitchhikers. org. But for now, you can still stick your thumb out (actually, I didn’t do

    much of that, 61 just to hold up my destination sign) and people wonderful, caring, sharing,

    unafraid people will stop.

    In the UK, with its cheap coaches and reasonable rail service, I don’t think I’ll make a

     62 of it. But having 63 it so much, I’m ready now to do a big trip across Europe and

    beyond. In the 1970s a female friend of my wife’s hitchhiked to India. How wonderful it would be to have another go, though Afghanistan might be a(n) 64 . I wish I’d got that tank commander’s

    mobile number.

     We all remember seeing hitchhikers, standing by the side of the road, thumb sticking out, waiting for a lift. But it is getting 50 nowadays. What killed hitchhiking? 51 is often mentioned as a reason. Movies about murderous hitchhikers and real-life crime have put many drivers off 52 hitchhikers. That no single women picked me up on my journey to Manchester no doubt 53 the safety fear: a large, strangely dressed man is seen as dangerous. But the reason may be more 54 : hitchhiking happens where people don’t have cars and

    transport services are poor. Plenty of people still hitchhike in Poland and Romania. Perhaps the rising level of 55 in the UK means the few people left hitchhiking are usually considered strange. Why can’t they afford cars?

    50. A. frequent B. meaningless C. rare D. unbelievable 51. A. Expense B. Distance C. Location D. Safety 52. A. refusing B. picking up C. saving D. getting rid of 新课标(高考的风向标?

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    53. A. eliminates B. strengthens C. reflects D. multiplies 54. A. complex B. relevant C. personal D. persuasive 55. A. safety awareness B. car ownership

     C. transportation service D. road condition

    Three-quarters of the UK population have access to a car; many of the remainder will be quite old. The 56 hitchhiking population is therefore small. Yet my trip proves it’s still

     57 to hitchhike. The people who picked me up were very interesting lawyer, retired surgeon,

    tank commander, carpenter, man who live in an isolated farmhouse and a couple living up in the mountains. My 58 is that only really interesting people are mad enough to pick up fat blokes (家伙) in red, spotted scarves. Most just wanted to do someone a good turn; a few said they were so surprised to see a hitchhiker that they couldn’t help 59 .

    56. A. potential B. sensitive C. suspected D. respectable 57. A. dangerous B. doubtful C. possible D. sensible 58. A. prediction B. principle C. intension D. conclusion 59. A. hating B. stopping C. fearing D. gasping

    The 60 of hitchhiking most likely lies with car-sharing organized over the Internet, via sites such as hitchhikers. org. But for now, you can still stick your thumb out (actually, I didn’t do much of that, 61 just to hold up my destination sign) and people wonderful, caring, sharing,

    unafraid people will stop.

    In the UK, with its cheap coaches and reasonable rail service, I don’t think I’ll make a

     62 of it. But having 63 it so much, I’m ready now to do a big trip across Europe and

    beyond. In the 1970s a female friend of my wife’s hitchhiked to India. How wonderful it would be to have another go, though Afghanistan might be a(n) 64 . I wish I’d got that tank commander’s

    mobile number.

    60. A. future B. problem C. uncertainty D. danger 61. A. pretending B. expecting C. preferring D. managing 62. A. mistake B. habit C. misunderstanding D. decision 63. A. enjoyed B. heard about C. imagined D. suffered from 64. A. example B. coincidence C. imagination D. challenge

Section B

    Directions: Read the following three passages. Each passage is followed by several questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that fits best according to the information given in the passage you have just read.

    (A)

    London has become a cycle friendly zone after the launch of a new bike hire scheme. It has been designed to encourage more people to cycle in and around central London.

    So how does it workFirst you have to sign up to the scheme to be sent a key. The key will

    unlock one of the bikeswhich are kept at docking stations in and around central London. You

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    have to pay an access fee for the key and then you pay as you go for the length of time you use the bike.

    Transport for London, which runs the schemeare hoping to have 6,000 bikes and 400 docking

    stations in place by the end of the year. The new hire system is hoping to ease congestion (拥挤)

    in London and is expected to create up to 40,000 extra cycle trips a day into the city centre. London Mayor Boris Johnston launched the scheme and said London had been “filled with

    thousands of gleaming machines that will transform the look and feel of our streets and become as commonplace on our roads as black cabs and red buses”.

    Howeverthere have been a few problems since the scheme was launched last Friday. On the first day some people found they couldn’t dock their bike properly and their usage of the bike had not been registered. Transport for London did admit they had been expecting a few “teething problems” and have said they wouldn’t charge for the first day as a “gesture of goodwill”. Some other people have criticized the lack of docking stations and locks for the bikes as well as the price it costs to hire the bicycles.

    Despite the commentsthe green-thinking London Mayor still seems very positive about things, saying, “My campaign for the capital to become the greatest big cycling city in the world has taken a big pedal-powered push forwards.”

    65. London Mayor Boris Johnston launched the new bike scheme in order to ___________. A. reduce the air pollution of the city B. encourage the citizens to take exercises C. deal with the city’s traffic problems D. increase employment opportunities

    66. If you want to hire a bike, what would you do first?

    A. Pay for the bike according to the time you use it.

    B. Pay for the key to a bike.

    C. Cycle in and around central London.

    D. Sign up as a member to get a key.

    67. All the following are the problems of the scheme EXCEPT___________

    A. the high cost to hire a bike

    B. not charging for the first day of the scheme

    C. not registering their usage of the bikes

    D. docking the bikes properly

    68. From the passage we can infer that __________.

    A. the London Mayor is confident in the scheme

    B. the scheme will be cancelled because of the problems

    C. all the citizens in London support the scheme

    D. the cycling revolution is not successful

    (B)

    Sabina Caste Franco Rome October 16,2011The U.N. World Food program says there are

    growing concerns over food insecurity in the developing world. Some of those concerns are discussed in a report to agree with the anniversary Sunday of World Food Day. The theme for World Food Day 2011 is “Food Prices — From Crisis to Stability”. A ceremony to

    mark World Food Day will be held Monday at the headquarters of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome. Rising food prices, weather emergencies and political instability are deepening the struggle of families trying to provide for their households in many developing nations. This year’s “State of Food Insecurity in the World” report, published last week, focuses on the impact of food price volatility, confirming that high, unpredictable prices are likely to 新课标(高考的风向标?

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    continue. The report highlighted how poor consumers, small farmers and countries dependent on imports, especially in Africa, have been deeply affected by the food and economic crises. Gregory Barrow is with the World Food Program in Rome. “If you look at the places where World

    Food program works particularly in developing countries, you see populations of people who might be spending 60, 70, 80 percent of their salaries on purchasing food for their families”. Barrow added that if prices become changeful and generally start rising, even by a small amount, it means that many of these people are going to struggle to put nutritious food on their tables. The report also showed that even short-term fluctuations (波动) in prices can have a long-term

    effect on development, and that cutting back on nutritious food in the first 1,000 days of a child’s life can affect mental and physical development and finally, future earning capacity. The United Nations has programs in place aimed at reducing the number of hungry people by one-half by 2015. But most observers agree this target is unlikely to be reached.

69. The U.N World Food program aims to __________.

    A. hold a ceremony to mark World Food Day

    B. provide food for developing nations

    C. show concerns over food insecurity in the developing world

    D. introduce the U.N Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome

    70. The underlined word “volatility” in paragraph 2 means __________.

    A. supply B. instability C. quality D. control 71. According to the report, we can learn that __________.

    A. people in Africa have been influenced by the food and economic crises

    B. the short-term change in prices has nothing to do with development

    C. food price changes have little effect on households

    D. children’s development can be affected by the taking of nutritious food

    (C)

    In the past few decades, the popular belief in the area of organizational behaviour and organizational psychology has been that happy workers are better workers. However, new research at the University of Alberta shows that sad workers are more productive. Psychologist Dr. Robert Sinclair and his former PhD student Carrie Lavis recently conducted a series of four studies addressing the effects of experimentally induced (诱发的) happiness versus

    sadness on work productivity by asking the participants to build circuit boards (电路板). In the

    first study, sad people committed significantly fewer errors than did happy people (approximately half the number of errors) but there was no difference in the number of boards completed. Thus, sad people were more productive.

    In similar studies Sinclair and Lavis found the same results along with evidence that happy people might not devote as much energy to the task in order to maintain their happy moods they

    considered that task as something that might detract (减去) from their present feelings. Conversely,

    sad people appeared to be devoting energy to the task in order to divert themselves from their sad feelings. “It is important to know that the moods were unrelated to the task,” said Sinclair. “Unhappiness is coming from something else.”

    These findings are not surprising, said Sinclair, since there has been a growing body of literature in the area of social psychology demonstrating that sad moods lead to more calm lengthy intent consideration and, often, more thoughtful or accurate judgments.

    In Sinclair’s following studies, when people believed that the task would make them feel good, they devoted more energy to the job. The bottom line, said Sinclair, is that it is important for 新课标(高考的风向标?

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    organizations to take into account the emotions of their employees. It seems it could be beneficial to creating situations that lead people to believe that performing their jobs will cause them to feel good: this could cause increases in motivation and superior performance.

72. The new research done at the University of Alberta shows __________.

    A. sadness leads to accurate judgments B. sad workers are less engaged in their work C. sad workers produce better D. happiness can make people do well 73. The purpose of the series of four studies conducted by Dr. Sinclair was __________. A. to find out the influence of happiness vs. sadness on work

    B. to ask the subjects to build circuit boards

    C. to prove that happy workers are better workers

    D. to explore the ways how to produce happiness or sadness at work

    74. According to the third paragraph, the happy workers might not devote as much energy to the task because __________.

    A. they hate doing the same job for a long time

    B. they never feel sad

    C. happiness diverts them from their task

    D. they want to keep their happy moods

    75. It is suggested in the last paragraph that __________.

    A. increases in motivation and superior performance are important

    B. companies should take into consideration employees’ emotions

    C. companies should create situations that make workers feel good

    D. employees should do the task that would make them feel good

Section C

    Directions: Read the following passage and choose the most suitable heading from A-F for each paragraph. There is one extra heading which you do not need.

    A. Keep your body healthy

    B. Cultivate supportive relationships

    C. Take care of yourself

    D. Challenge negative thinking

    E. Know when to get additional help

    F. Adopt healthy habits

    Tips for dealing with depression

    76. ( )

    Getting the support you need plays a big role in lifting the fog of depression and keeping it away. On your own, it can be difficult to maintain perspective and sustain the effort required to beat depression. But the very nature of depression makes it difficult to reach out for help. However, isolation and loneliness make depression even worse, so maintaining your close relationships and social activities are important.

    77. ( )

    Depression puts a negative spin on everything, including the way you see yourself, the situations you encounter, and your expectations for the future. But you can’t break out of this pessimistic mind frame by “just thinking positive.” Happy thoughts or wishful thinking won’t cut it. Rather, the trick is to replace negative thoughts with more balanced thoughts.

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    78. ( )

     In order to overcome depression, you have to take care of yourself. This includes following a healthy lifestyle, learning to manage stress, setting limits on what you’re able to do, adopting

    healthy habits, and scheduling fun activities into your day.

    79. ( )

    When you’re depressed, exercising may be the last thing you feel like doing. But exercise is a powerful tool for dealing with depression. In fact, studies show that regular exercise can be as effective as antidepressant medication at increasing energy levels and decreasing feelings of fatigue. Scientists haven’t figured out exactly why exercise is such a potent antidepressant, but evidence suggests that physical activity triggers new cell growth in the brain, increases mood-enhancing neurotransmitters and endorphins, reduces stress, and relieves muscle tension

    all things that can have a positive effect on depression.

    80. ( )

    If you find your depression getting worse and worse, seek professional help. Needing more help doesn’t mean you’re weak. Sometimes the negative thinking in depression can make you feel like you’re a lost cause, but depression can be treated and you can feel better!

Section D

    Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.

    All over the world mentioning of English education suggests a picture of the “public schools”, and it suggests in particular the names of certain very famous institutions Eton, Oxford and

    Cambridge; but people do not always realize what place these institutions occupy in the whole educational system. Oxford and Cambridge are universities each having about 12,000 students out of a total of over 250,000 students at all British universities. Eton is a public school, and the best known of the public schools, which, in spite of their name, are not really public at all, but independent and private secondary schools taking boys from the age of thirteen to eighteen years. The public schools in reality form a very small part of the whole system of secondary education; only about one out of forty English boys go to a public school, and one out of 1,500 goes to Eton. Apart from the so-called public schools there is a complete system of state primary and secondary education, which resembles in its general form the state education in most other countries. All children must, by law, receive full-time education between the ages of five and sixteen. Any child may attend, without paying fees, a school provided by the public authorities, and the great majority attend such schools. They may continue, still without paying fees, until they are eighteen. In presenting an overall picture of English education it would be reasonable to concentrate on the state system alone and refer briefly to the public schools. However, although the public schools are not important numerically, they have been England’s most peculiar and characteristic contribution to educational methods, and they have an immense influence on the whole of English educational practice and on the English social structure. For a hundred years most men in leading positions in banking, insurance, high finance, some industries, the army, the church and conservative politics have been educated at public schools.

    (Note: Answer the question or complete the statements in no more than 12 words.)

    81. British public schools are not as their names suggests because they are ___ ___________.

     _________________. 82. The public schools are not important in certain senses because __

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    83. Why must all British children between the age of five and sixteen attend a school? 84. Why do people easily think of public schools when British education is mentioned?

    II (45)

    I. Translation

    Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, using the words given in the brackets. 1. 我们有必要在出发前制定一份计划。 (It…)

    2. 中国加入世贸组织至今已十年了。 (since)

    3. 这是最新款的手机!有些功能我不太熟悉。(familiar)

    4. 虽然不被公众看好!但这位歌手仍然坚持自己的演唱风格。(stick)

    5. 经历一次次失败之后!我们认识到做任何事情没有捷径!要成功非下苦功不可。

    (experience)

II. Guided Writing

    Directions: Write an English composition in 120 - 150 words according to the instructions given below in Chinese.

请根据下图写一篇120150个词的短文。你的短文应包括下列要点(

    1. 简要描写图画内容;

    2. 说明图画含义;

    3. 表达你的观点。

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