svThe Third Periodfa

By Annette Bradley,2014-11-10 15:32
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svThe Third Periodfa

    The Third Period


    According to the contents based on the new course standardsenior students are required to

    understand the function of grammar and can use it freely. Gradually contact and understand complex language phenomena so that students may have the ability to summarizeanalyze and

    explain. This is the third period of this unit. In this periodwe mainly deal with the changes

    between Direct Speech and Indirect Speech. In order to make students grasp it wellI think it is

    necessary to give them more practice and encourage them to find out the problems of grammar by themselves.


    Master the interchanges of direct speech and indirect speech in the declarative sentences and interrogative sentences.


    Master the changes of the pronounstensesadverbials in the interchanges of direct speech and indirect speech.


    Step 1 .Lets come to our text.Read the sentences in exercise 1 of discovering structures.Later

    Ill ask you to tell me what youve discovered.

    SWe should pay attention to the changes of tenses.Look at the underlined words. 1

    SWe should pay more attention to the second sentence.In direct speechits a general 2

    question.But in indirect speechwe should use if or whether to introduce object clause besides the change of verb.

    SIf it is a special question in direct speechwe should use the original interrogative in 3

    indirect speech.

    Step 2 Brief explanation of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech”(1;:Statements &


    ?You use Direct Speech when you want to show the exact words someone said or wrote.Use quotation marks to show that you report the exact words a person used and a reporting clause to include information about the speak and the situation.e.g.I had a great time at the picnic,” she

    told her mum.(direct speech;(reporting clause

    ?The reporting clause may come beforewithinor after the direct speech.When the

    reporting clause comes after the direct speechthe order of the subject and the verb may be

    changede.g.Jane said/said Jane.This typically happens when the reporting clause is within the reported speech and the subject is not a pronoun.e.g.Jane said,“Ive got a new e-pal.He is from


    Ive got a new pal.He is from Germany,” Jane said/said Jane/she said.

    Use a comma to connect the direct speech and the reporting clause.

    When you change a sentence from Direct Speech to Indirect Speechyou sometimes need to

    change the verb tense.You may also need to change pronouns in order to keep the same meaning.


    Present Past

    Past past or past perfect


    Present perfect past perfect

    Past perfect past perfect

    e.g.Did you get e-mails from your friends;” she asked.?

    She asked if I had got e-mails from my friends.

    When you use Indirect Speech to report what someone saidyou can sometimes change the

    exact words without changing what the speaker actually said.

    e.g.Wilson said,“How long have we been in his place;”?

    Wilson asked how long you had been here.

    Step 3 Exercises: Look at Part 2.Change the following direct speech into indirect speech and

    indirect into direct.First do it by yourselves.Then discuss it in pairs.

    Step 4 Deal with using structures on page 42.Retell the story to consolidate the grammar.

    And report your story.

    Step 5 Now play the game on page 43.Make up a dialogue in groups of three.

    Step 6 .I show you two letters to see how well you understand this grammar.Change them

    into Indirect speech.

    Letter 1

    Dear Bassanio

    My friendmy ships are all lost at sea and now I have to pay Shylock with a pound of my flesh according to our agreement.Since paying him will cost me my lifeI wish to see you before I

    die.If you love me not enough to lead you hereforget about the letter.



    Letter 2


    I am very ill.When your letter reached meI had with me a learned young doctor from Rome.I told him about the quarrel between Shylock and Antonio.We studied many law books and

    he knows what I would say.I ask you to let him stand in my place and pass judgement.He is

    youngbut I never knew so young a body with so wise a head.


    Doctor Bellario

    Step 7 Summary and homework.

    TNote the following structure

    (1She left the office with tears in her eyes.

    (2The murder was brought inwith his hands tied behind his back.

    (3With a lot of difficult problems to settlethe newly-elected president is having a hard time.

    (4Peter soon fell asleep with the light still burning.


    (1____________(由那个男孩带路;,we had no trouble finding the strange cave.

    (2Jessica was standing by the window____________(手里拿着一封信;.

    (3____________(钥匙丢了;,Anna had to wait until her husband came home.

    (4____________(因为有约翰帮助;,we are sure to finish the work ahead of time.

    (5The old man lay in bedunable to speak____________(眼闭着嘴张着;.




    Let students summarize the rules of the grammar by themselves.The purpose is to cultivate

    their ability to make up a summary.Divide them into several groups.

    After doing thatstudents form groups again to help each other.



    直接引语(变化前; 间接引语(变化后; 陈述句 that引导的宾语从句

    Jane said,“Im very fond of traveling. Jane said that she was very fond of traveling. 一般疑问句 whether/if引导的宾语从句 Is this your umbrellaMary;”asked John. John asked Marry if that was her umbrella. 特殊疑问句 wh-词引导的宾语从句 Marrywhen will you return me the book;”asked John asked Marry when she would return him the book. John.

    祈使句 不定式

    The officer said to him,“Dont leave your post. The officer ordered him not to leave his post. Lets 开头的祈使句 that引导的宾语从句

    I said to him,“Lets start at once. I suggested to him that we(shouldstart at once.

    that/what/how引导的宾语从句 感叹句 He said that he was very happy. He said:“How happy I am! He said how happy he was.

    直接引语 间接引语 this that/this

    these those/these

    now then

    ago before

    today that day/today/yesterday tomorrow (thenext day

    the day after tomorrow in two days time

    yesterday the day before

    last night the night before

    the day before yesterday two days before

    go come/go

    bring bring/take

    here there/here

    直接引语(变化前; 间接引语(变化后; 主句动词为一般现在时或现在完成时 从句动词时态不变

    She often says,“All men and women are equal under She often says the all men and women are equal under

    the law. the law.

    You did very well,” I have just told Tom. I have just told Tom that the did very well.

    引语动词为: 从句动词变为:

    一般现在时“I know it,”he said. 一般过去时He said that he knew it.


    现在进行时“Im making coffee for you all,”she 过去进行时She said she was making coffee for said. us all.

    现在完成时“I have seen her before,”said he. 过去完成时He said he had seen her before.

    现在完成进行时He said,“I have been doing it 过去完成进行时He said he had been doing it for hours. for hours.

    一般过去时“I saw her last Monday,”he said. 过去完成时He said he had seen her the previous Monday.

     过去进行时“I was waiting for Jim,”she said. 过去完成进行时She said she had been waiting

    for Jim.

    过去完成时“Do you know Rick had been ill in 过去完成时Jack asked if I knew Rick had been

    bed for many days till he died;”Jack asked. ill in bed for many days till he died.

    一般将来时He said:“We shall start tomorrow. 过去将来时He said they would start the next


    2.Change the following passage into dialogues.

    Bassanio told Antonio that he was in love with Portiaa rich and beautiful ladyand that she

    also loved him.He also told Antonio that he could ask Portia to marry him because he had no

    many.He asked Antonia if he could lend him three thousand ducats.Antonio told him that all his

    ships were at sea and he had no money at present.

    They went to Shylock to borrow the money.Shylock didnt like Antoniowho had many times told others about his greed and cruelty.Howeverhe agreed to lend Antonio the money on one condition.He would have the right to have a pound of Aantonios flesh to be cut off from any part of his body if he did not pay the money back at the end of three months.Aantonio said that he

    would accept these terms.Bassanio tried to keep Antonio from accepting thembut Antonio treated them as a joke and said he would not refuse Shylocks offer and would sign the agreement.


    BAantoniomy friend.I am in love with a rich and beautiful ladywhose name is Portia.

    ADoes she love you

    BYesshe loves me.Or at least I think so.

    AHave you asked her to marry you

    BI wanted tobut I cant.

    AWhy not

    BBecause I have no money.

    AIf that is your only problem.I can help you.How much do you need

    BI would be very grateful if you can lend me 3000 ducats.

    AId be happy to help youbut all my ships are at sea and I have no money at present.But

    dont worryIll find a way to solve this problem.

    BOhyou are such a kind man.Thank you very much.


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