The Third Period
According to the contents based on the new course standard，senior students are required to
understand the function of grammar and can use it freely. Gradually contact and understand complex language phenomena so that students may have the ability to summarize、analyze and
explain. This is the third period of this unit. In this period，we mainly deal with the changes
between Direct Speech and Indirect Speech. In order to make students grasp it well，I think it is
necessary to give them more practice and encourage them to find out the problems of grammar by themselves.
Master the interchanges of direct speech and indirect speech in the declarative sentences and interrogative sentences.
Master the changes of the pronouns，tenses，adverbials in the interchanges of direct speech and indirect speech.
Step 1 .Let’s come to our text.Read the sentences in exercise 1 of discovering structures.Later
I’ll ask you to tell me what you’ve discovered.
S：We should pay attention to the changes of tenses.Look at the underlined words. 1
S：We should pay more attention to the second sentence.In direct speech，it’s a general 2
question.But in indirect speech，we should use if or whether to introduce object clause besides the change of verb.
S：If it is a special question in direct speech，we should use the original interrogative in 3
Step 2 Brief explanation of “Direct Speech and Indirect Speech”(1；：Statements &
?You use Direct Speech when you want to show the exact words someone said or wrote.Use quotation marks to show that you report the exact words a person used and a reporting clause to include information about the speak and the situation.e.g.“I had a great time at the picnic，” she
told her mum.(direct speech；(reporting clause；
?The reporting clause may come before，within，or after the direct speech.When the
reporting clause comes after the direct speech，the order of the subject and the verb may be
changed，e.g.Jane said/said Jane.This typically happens when the reporting clause is within the reported speech and the subject is not a pronoun.e.g.Jane said，“I’ve got a new e-pal.He is from
“I’ve got a new pal.He is from Germany，” Jane said/said Jane/she said.
Use a comma to connect the direct speech and the reporting clause.
When you change a sentence from Direct Speech to Indirect Speech，you sometimes need to
change the verb tense.You may also need to change pronouns in order to keep the same meaning.
DIRECT SPEECH??INDIRECT SPEECH
Past past or past perfect
Present perfect past perfect
Past perfect past perfect
e.g.“Did you get e-mails from your friends；” she asked.?
She asked if I had got e-mails from my friends.
When you use Indirect Speech to report what someone said，you can sometimes change the
exact words without changing what the speaker actually said.
e.g.Wilson said，“How long have we been in his place；”?
Wilson asked how long you had been here.
Step 3 Exercises: Look at Part 2.Change the following direct speech into indirect speech and
indirect into direct.First do it by yourselves.Then discuss it in pairs.
Step 4 Deal with using structures on page 42.Retell the story to consolidate the grammar.
And report your story.
Step 5 Now play the game on page 43.Make up a dialogue in groups of three.
Step 6 .I show you two letters to see how well you understand this grammar.Change them
into Indirect speech.
My friend，my ships are all lost at sea and now I have to pay Shylock with a pound of my flesh according to our agreement.Since paying him will cost me my life，I wish to see you before I
die.If you love me not enough to lead you here，forget about the letter.
I am very ill.When your letter reached me，I had with me a learned young doctor from Rome.I told him about the quarrel between Shylock and Antonio.We studied many law books and
he knows what I would say.I ask you to let him stand in my place and pass judgement.He is
young，but I never knew so young a body with so wise a head.
Step 7 Summary and homework.
T：Note the following structure：
(1；She left the office with tears in her eyes.
(2；The murder was brought in，with his hands tied behind his back.
(3；With a lot of difficult problems to settle，the newly-elected president is having a hard time.
(4；Peter soon fell asleep with the light still burning.
(1；____________(由那个男孩带路；，we had no trouble finding the strange cave.
(2；Jessica was standing by the window，____________(手里拿着一封信；.
(3；____________(钥匙丢了；，Anna had to wait until her husband came home.
(4；____________(因为有约翰帮助；，we are sure to finish the work ahead of time.
(5；The old man lay in bed，unable to speak，____________(眼闭着嘴张着；.
Let students summarize the rules of the grammar by themselves.The purpose is to cultivate
their ability to make up a summary.Divide them into several groups.
After doing that，students form groups again to help each other.
直接引语(变化前； 间接引语(变化后； 陈述句 that引导的宾语从句
Jane said，“I’m very fond of traveling.” Jane said that she was very fond of traveling. 一般疑问句 whether/if引导的宾语从句 “Is this your umbrella，Mary；”asked John. John asked Marry if that was her umbrella. 特殊疑问句 wh-词引导的宾语从句 “Marry，when will you return me the book；”asked John asked Marry when she would return him the book. John.
The officer said to him，“Don’t leave your post.” The officer ordered him not to leave his post. Let’s 开头的祈使句 that引导的宾语从句
I said to him，“Let’s start at once.” I suggested to him that we(should；start at once.
that/what/how引导的宾语从句 感叹句 He said that he was very happy. He said：“How happy I am!” He said how happy he was.
直接引语 间接引语 this that/this
today that day/today/yesterday tomorrow (the；next day
the day after tomorrow in two days’ time
yesterday the day before
last night the night before
the day before yesterday two days before
直接引语(变化前； 间接引语(变化后； 主句动词为一般现在时或现在完成时 从句动词时态不变
She often says，“All men and women are equal under She often says the all men and women are equal under
the law.” the law.
“You did very well，” I have just told Tom. I have just told Tom that the did very well.
引语动词为： 从句动词变为： 主从
句句一般现在时“I know it，”he said. 一般过去时He said that he knew it.
动现在进行时“I’m making coffee for you all，”she 动过去进行时She said she was making coffee for 词said. 词us all.
为时现在完成时“I have seen her before，”said he. 过去完成时He said he had seen her before.
一态现在完成进行时He said，“I have been doing it 过去完成进行时He said he had been doing it 般相for hours.” for hours.
过应一般过去时“I saw her last Monday，”he said. 过去完成时He said he had seen her the 去变previous Monday.
时 化 过去进行时“I was waiting for Jim，”she said. 过去完成进行时She said she had been waiting
过去完成时“Do you know Rick had been ill in 过去完成时Jack asked if I knew Rick had been
bed for many days till he died；”Jack asked. ill in bed for many days till he died.
一般将来时He said：“We shall start tomorrow.” 过去将来时He said they would start the next
2.Change the following passage into dialogues.
Bassanio told Antonio that he was in love with Portia，a rich and beautiful lady，and that she
also loved him.He also told Antonio that he could ask Portia to marry him because he had no
many.He asked Antonia if he could lend him three thousand ducats.Antonio told him that all his
ships were at sea and he had no money at present.
They went to Shylock to borrow the money.Shylock didn’t like Antonio，who had many times told others about his greed and cruelty.However，he agreed to lend Antonio the money on one condition.He would have the right to have a pound of Aantonio’s flesh to be cut off from any part of his body if he did not pay the money back at the end of three months.Aantonio said that he
would accept these terms.Bassanio tried to keep Antonio from accepting them，but Antonio treated them as a joke and said he would not refuse Shylock’s offer and would sign the agreement.
B：Aantonio，my friend.I am in love with a rich and beautiful lady，whose name is Portia.
A：Does she love you；
B：Yes，she loves me.Or at least I think so.
A：Have you asked her to marry you；
B：I wanted to，but I can’t.
B：Because I have no money.
A：If that is your only problem.I can help you.How much do you need；
B：I would be very grateful if you can lend me 3000 ducats.
A：I’d be happy to help you，but all my ships are at sea and I have no money at present.But
don’t worry，I’ll find a way to solve this problem.
B：Oh，you are such a kind man.Thank you very much.