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APPENDIX 1 EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATED METHODS FOR INVESTIGATION

By Anna Williams,2014-03-22 09:50
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gender and ethnic relations, market opportunities and constraints, environmental shockslarge enterprises in the same marketing chain etc.

    L.mayoux 154717134.doc Page 1 3/22/2011

    APPENDIX 1: EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATED METHODS FOR INVESTIGATION

    EXAMPLE 1:PROGRAMME IMPROVEMENT IN MICROFINANCE

1) Aim of assessment:

    ; to find out how particular loan conditions in a microfinance programme should be improved to increase contribution to

    poverty reduction and gender equality. The intention is to introduce any required changes quickly in response to high drop

    out rates and anecdotal evidence of repayment problems and tensions within households.

2) Priority requirements:

    ; rapid investigation and dissemination of findings

    ; increased understanding of problems by programme staff

    ; improved relations between programme and clients

3) Assumptions:

    ; relations between staff and clients are good

    ; sincere interest in honest investigation of problems and solutions on the part of the programme as a whole

    ; good and reliable management information system exists with some baseline indicators from loan records into which

    indicators for long-term impact monitoring can be integrated

    ; grassroots groups keep group records and minutes and hold regular meetings which can contribute to the

    assessment on a sustainable basis

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    4) Possible sequencing of methods

    Step Aim What Method Who 1. Reviewing to identify institutional programme aims, interventions Participatory Principal investigator

    existing strengths and and structures workshop and with programme staff information weaknesses and literature review

    possibilities for change

     to identify non-Macro level economic and Participatory Principal investigator

    programme political context, gender and workshop and with programme staff

    opportunities and ethnic relations, market literature review

    constraints for poverty opportunities and constraints,

    reduction and change environmental shocks

     To identify possible differences in repayment patterns Consultation Principal investigator

    patterns of individual-and/or activities for which loans programme records

    level impacts and are taken, loan size etc. between and statistics and

    inform sampling design different categories of client and group records

    different needs by economic

    status, ethnic group, gender,

    marital status, age, economic

    activity

     To identify possible Consultation of Principal investigator ; differences in repayment

    patterns of group-level programme records patterns between groups

    impacts, inform and statistics and ; quality of group minutes

    sampling design and group minutes ; any particular problems in

    grassroots investigation group governance

     To facilitate sampling list of names and addresses of Consultation of Principal investigator

    respondents and dropouts to programme records

    inform sampling design

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    2. Establishing Selected questions about Participatory Principal investigator ; To introduce the

    rapport programme implementation workshop/s with with key assessment

     sample stakeholders stakeholders, ; To investigate the

    Selected questions about including grassroots including some non-local relevance of

    context groups/representatives programme the programme and

     participants and contextual

    Brainstorming/diagramming to Exploratory private dropouts. information

    explore hypotheses focused interviews ; To get a preliminary

    with key stakeholders feel for the

    relevance of any

    hypotheses

    generated

    ; To get a preliminary

    feel for any further

    hypotheses

    proposed by other

    stakeholders

    3. Asking the Background of participant and Structured one-hour Programme staff ; To quantify

    questions context survey with some and/or principal particular impacts

     open questions at the investigator for ; To quantify

    Selected questions about end purposive cluster particular contextual

    programme participation sampling of factors

     beneficiaries and ; To quantify

    Selected questions about impact dropouts particular attitudes

    and problems and needs in

     Group-level survey on Group leaders at relation to policy

    Selected questions about issues of interest to group meetings changes proposed

    proposed solutions them above

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    4. Recording As identified in text As identified in text. All stakeholders ; To ensure reliability the where possible to of information

    information contribute to capacity-; To contribute to

    building and understanding

    sustainable learning between

    unless this stakeholders and

    compromises capacity building

    reliability too much

    5. Processes of impact Informal interviews Principal researcher ; To investigate in

    Crosschecking for purposive sample more detail the

    information Feasibility of proposed solutions and/or participatory of key informants reasons for any

    workshop selected from patterns observed in

    quantitative sample of quantitative survey

    both beneficiaries and

    dropouts

    6. Ending the Processes of impact Participatory Principal researcher ; to establish

    investigation workshop/s. with key stakeholders consensus on the

    Feasibility of proposed solutions and informants findings and practical

    including group recommendations or

    leaders and influential to establish

    institutional differences and

    representatives conflicts of interest

    between stakeholders

    regarding these

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     EXAMPLE 2: POLICY DEVELOPMENT: FOR GENDER-SENSITIVE REGULATORY FRAMEWORKS FOR ENTERPRISE.

1) Aims of the impact assessment:

    ; to develop gender sensitive policy guidelines

    ; to develop structures and networks which take into account the needs of different stakeholders and linkages between

    different types of enterprise

    ; to identify any particular needs of poor women.

2) Priority requirements

    ; reliable in-depth and generalizable information on the specific needs and problems of different groups of women involved in

    enterprise

    ; balancing of the needs of different stakeholders

    ; protecting the interests of poor women

    ; obtaining broad consensus about the changes needed and minimising or addressing any possible conflicts between women

    and other interests e.g. men in the same households and communities, large enterprises in the same marketing chain etc. ; establishment of networks which can assist in implementation of the changes identified

4) Assumptions

    ; no baseline study exists and the need for change is too urgent to wait for longitudinal data

    ; that the investigation will need to cover sensitive issues of intra-household and intra-community relations, power relations

    between different types of enterprises

    ; that the investigation is likely to uncover patterns of avoidance of regulation and corruption ; that skilled local researchers and interested NGOs and government staff can be found to translate the findings of the

    assessment into policy change

    ; that some grassroots organizations exist which are interested in participating in the research ; that there is a need to balance immediate dissemination of easily understandable information with credible and in-depth

    analysis which can convince senior policymakers

    L.mayoux 154717134.doc Page 6 3/22/2011 4) Possible sequencing of methods

    Step Aim What Method Who 1. Reviewing Literature review and Principle researcher ; to identify the relevant ; detailed stakeholder and existing participatory with selected stakeholders as institutional analysis

    information at workshop/s participants: ‘experts’, contributors to the ; macro level economic and

    macro-level stakeholder and assessment/sample political context, gender

    organizational respondents and ethnic relations,

    representatives ; to identify contextual market opportunities and

     opportunities and constraints, environmental

    constraints shocks

    ; to identify the different ; detailed analysis of

    regulatory measures existing regulations,

    which already affect the implementation and any

    different stakeholders evidence of impacts

    2. Establishing Principle researcher ; To introduce the ; local-level stakeholder ; participatory rapport at with assistants assessment to intended and institutional analysis workshop/s with local level assisted by other policy beneficiary groups identified ; local-level analysis of

    stakeholders and where not included in A stakeholder groups effects of macro level

    grassroots leaders ; To investigate the local economic and political ; exploratory

    relevance of the context, gender and ethnic qualitative research

    programme and relations, market with stakeholder

    contextual information opportunities and groups were

    constraints, environmental participatory ; To get a preliminary feel

    shocks workshops might for the relevance of any

    be to public and/or ; local-level analysis hypotheses generated

    make them analysis of existing ; To improve

    vulnerable regulations, representativeness of

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    sampling methodology implementation and any ; possible initial

    evidence of impacts census of

    ; local-level exploration of communities

    possible solutions identified as key

    sample to further ; identification of

    establish rapport differences between

    and reliably identify stakeholders relevant to

    appropriate control sampling and analysis

    group categories 3. Asking the Background of participant Structured survey in Programme staff ; To quantify particular

    questions and context several stages with and/or principal impacts of existing

     some open questions investigator for policies

    Selected questions about at the end and purposive cluster ; To quantify particular

    programme participation adapted to the needs sampling of different contextual factors

     of particular groups stakeholder groups ; To assess the extent of

    Selected questions about sensitive problems like

    impact and problems Structured Grassroots corruption, sexual

     questionnaires for leaders/groups harassment and

    Selected questions about grassroots violence

    proposed solutions organizations on ; To quantify particular

     issues of concern to attitudes and needs in

    them relation to policy

    changes proposed

    above

    4. Recording As indicated in text As identified in text All stakeholders ; With clear eye to ways

    the but carefully designed where feasible to in which information

    information photography and contribute to capacity needs to be presented

    videos are likely to be building and for different audiences

    particularly important sustainable learning

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    for dissemination 5. Processes of impact Informal interviews Principal researcher ; To investigate in more

    Crosschecking for purposive sample detail the reasons for

    information Feasibility of proposed participatory of key informants any patterns observed in

    solutions workshops with selected from quantitative survey

    quantification through quantitative sample of

    voting both beneficiaries and

    dropouts

    Reliable stakeholder

    representatives 6. Ending the participatory stakeholder groups or ; To publicise findings

    investigation workshop/s representatives who ; to discuss the feasibility

    were involved in of policy changes

    research identified

     ; to identify ways in which

    other influential networks can be set up

    institutional actors for implementation and

     ongoing

    other researchers who monitoring/learning

    might be involved in ; identification of

    future measures which might

    be needed to avoid any

    negative repercussions

    for those most

    vulnerable

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