Capitalization & punctuation

By Ramon Webb,2014-09-10 23:19
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Capitalization & punctuation&

? Capitalization

    Forgive us, O Lord.

     Capitalizing the first word of a sentence 1.

    E.g. His philosophy can be reduced to three basic rules: (1) Think for yourself. (2) Take care of your body. (3) Never hurt anyone.

2. Capitalizing quotations and quotations from poetry

    Why did parents permit their children to work in factories? In answering this question, the author says that there was usually nothing else to do, “except to starve.”

3.Capitalizing proper nouns and their derivatives

    (1). Individual people and animals

    (2). Religions and religious terms

    (3). Nationalities, ethnic groups, and languages

    (4). Courtesy titles

    (5). Months, days of the week, and holidays

    (6). Geographic names

    (7). Institutions, organizations, and businesses

    (8). Historical documents, events, and periods

    (9). Ships, aircraft, spacecraft, and trains

    (10). Derivatives of proper nouns

(1). Individual people and animals

    The family gave a party for mother and aunt Carol. My mother and my aunt are twins.

(2). Religions and religious terms

    Capitalize the names of religions, members of a religion, religious sects, deities, and sacred works. For example,

    Christianity, Christians, (Roman) Catholic, Protestant, Protestantism, Allah, Islam, Muslim, Muhammad, the Koran, the Bible, Genesis (the first book of the Old Testament), Jews, Buddhism, Buddhist

(4). Courtesy titles

    Sir Edmund Hillary, Mahatma Gandhi, President Bill Clinton, Senator Robert White, Pope John Paul ?, General MacArthur, Premier Wen, Captain Wang, Chairman Hu, Saint(St) John, Chancellor (Hitler had been Chancellor of Germany before he became the Fuehrer), Prime Minister

    my physics professor, Alice Cox

    the President of the United States

(6). Geographic names

Arlington Street

    (8). Historical documents, events, and periods

the Renaissance, the Norman Conquest,

    the Declaration of Independence, the Stone Age, the Gettysburg Address, the Romantic poets,

    (9). Ships, aircraft, spacecraft, and trains

the Challenger, May Flower, the Orient Express, the Titanic,

    (10). Derivatives of proper nouns

    Newtonian, Platonic, Texan (after Texas)

    thohm, volt, quixotic, sandwich, the 4 Earl of Sandwich

    Prefixes before derivatives of proper nouns are not capitalized:

    neo-Marxist, anti-American

?. Punctuation

    1. Avoid the overuse of the exclamation point.

    1. Avoid the overuse of the exclamation point. For example,

    Oh, don‟t get involved.

    How quiet the lake is.

2. Do not use superfluous commas

    Unnecessary or misplaced commas are false and awkward signals that may confuse the reader.

    A typical example of comma fault (or comma splice) is: It was raining, they could not see sunrise.

3. Quotation marks

    3.1 She said, “Earl keeps calling my idea „an impossible dream.‟”

    3.2 Using other punctuation with quotation marks (1) Periods and commas

    After Gina finished singing “Memories,” Joe began to hum “The Way We Were.”

    The first essay is “A Summing Up.”

    (2) Colons and semicolons

    The sign read “Closed”: there would be no cold soda for us today. In 1982, Bobbie Ann Mason wrote “Shiloh”; it is considered one of her finest works.

    (3) Question marks, exclamation points, and dashes He began singing “Oklahoma!” and doing a square dance.

I can‟t believe you‟ve never read “The Lottery”!

    “Hold on a minute. I can‟t hear—”

    Emma‟s first word—“dada”—caused her father to beam.

    (4) Practice:

    as soon as we heard someone shout fire we began to run toward the exit.

    4. Italics and quotation marks

    (1) Italicizing titles

    Italicize the titles of books, plays, operas and other long musical works, movies, recordings, newspapers, magazines, television or radio series, works of art, and long poems considered to be independent works.

    (2) Quoting titles

    Use quotation marks rather than italics for titles that are subdivisions of a larger work. For example,

    Today‟s China Daily carries an important article: The Present Situation in Middle East.

    Use quotation marks for titles of brief poems, short stories, essays, book chapters and parts, magazine and journal articles, episodes of television series, and songs.

4. Italics and quotation marks

    (2) Quoting titles

    Today‟s China Daily carries an important article: “The Present Situation in Middle East.”

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