SECTION 6 TESTING AND VERIFICATION 测试和检验
6.1 GENERAL 概述
To verify that the requirements of this Standard have been met, all electrical installations, and any alterations, additions or repairs to an existing electrical installation, after completion and before being energized, shall be —
(a) inspected as far as is practicable; and
Precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of persons and to avoid damage to property and the electrical installation equipment during inspection and testing.
Where the electrical installation is an alteration, addition or repair to an existing electrical installation, it shall be verified that the alteration, addition or repair complies with this Standard and does not impair the safety of the existing electrical installation.
Notwithstanding these requirements, certain types of test, such as those involving thermal properties and operation, may be made after the electrical installation has been placed in service.
NOTE: Additional visual inspections and testing may be required for specific installations (such as electromedical installations, caravan parks and marinas).
For guidance, see the specific installation Standards referenced in Clause 7.11.
6.2 VISUAL INSPECTION 外观检查
6.2.1 General 概述
A visual inspection shall be made when work on an electrical
installation has been completed in order to verify that the work
complies with the requirements of this Standard.
The visual inspection shall be carried out before, or in association with testing, and should where practicable be made before the relevant part of the electrical installation is placed in service.
Where the visual inspection of a part of the electrical installation is not practicable at the completion of the work, e.g. not accessible due to enclosure in the building structure, consideration should be given to inspecting that part during the course of the installation.
6.2.2 Check list 清单
The following items provide a guide to the matters to be checked during the visual inspection to assess that the relevant requirements of this Standard are satisfied:
(i) Protection against direct contact with lives parts, e.g. insulation and enclosure.
(ii) Protection against indirect contact with exposed conductive parts, e.g. double insulation or isolating transformers.
(iii) Protection against hazardous parts, e.g. enclosure, guarding or screening of flammable
materials, hot surfaces and parts that may cause physical injury.
(iv) Protection against spread of fire, e.g. penetration of fire barriers. (v) General condition of the electrical equipment, e.g. signs of damage that could impair safe
operation, disconnection of unused electrical equipment.
(b) Consumers mains:
(i) Current carrying capacity.
(ii) Voltage drop.
(iii) Underground installation conditions, e.g. enclosure, depth of burial, mechanical protection. (iv) Aerial installation conditions.
(v) Connection of wiring.
(vi) Protection against external influences.
(i) Location, e.g. access and egress.
(ii) Protective devices, e.g. overload and residual current rating, fault current rating. (iii) Isolating devices, e.g. main switches.
(iv) Connecting devices, e.g. neutral bars, earth bars and active links. (v) Connection and fixing of wiring and switchgear.
(vi) Identification and labelling of electrical equipment.
(vii) Protection against external influences.
(d) Wiring systems:
(i) Conductor size, e.g. current-carrying capacity and voltage drop.
(ii) Identification of cable cores.
(iii) Adequate support and fixing.
(iv) Connections and enclosures.
(v) Particular installation conditions, e.g. underground, aerial, emergency systems. (vi) Segregation from other services and electrical installations.
(vii) Protection against external influences, e.g. enclosure.
(e) Electrical equipment:
(i) Isolation and switching devices for protection against injury from mechanical movement devices
(ii) Isolation and switching devices for protection against thermal effects e.g. motors, room heaters, water heaters.
(iii) Switching devices for particular electrical equipment, e.g. socketoutlets, cooking appliances.
(iv) Particular installation conditions, e.g. locations affected by water, explosive atmospheres, extra-low voltage, high voltage.
(v) Compliance with required Standard.
(vi) Connection, support and fixing.
(vii) Protection against external influences.
(i) MEN connection.
(ii) Earth electrode.
(iii) Earthing conductors, e.g. size, identification.
(iv) Equipotential bonding conductors, e.g. size, identification.
(v) Connections, joints and terminations.
(vi) Protection against external influences.
(vii) Connection to earthing arrangements for other systems.
(viii) Creation of earthed situation that may require earthing of additional electrical equipment.
6.3 TESTING 测试
6.3.1 General 概述
After completion of, or in association with, the visual inspection, tests in accordance with Clause 6.3.3 shall be carried out on the electrical installation to verify that it complies with the requirements of this Standard and that it is suitable for the use intended.
If necessary, optional tests in accordance with Clause 6.3.4 may be carried out.
1 The test methods described in this Clause are given as reference methods; other methods are not precluded provided they give equally valid results.
2 AS/NZS 3017 sets out some of the common test methods required to test that a low voltage electrical installation complies with this Standard.
6.3.2 Sequence of tests 测试顺序
A testing sequence is shown in Figure 6.1. 测试顺序见图6.1。
FIGURE 6.1 TEST SEQUENCE
图 6.1 测试顺序
6.3.3 Mandatory tests 强制测试
188.8.131.52 General 概述
The following tests shall be carried out on the electrical installation:
(a) Continuity of the earthing system (earth resistance of the main earthing conductor, protective earthing conductors and bonding conductors).
(b) Insulation resistance.
(d) Correct circuit connections.
(e) In New Zealand, operation of residual current devices (RCDs).
If the electrical installation fails a test, that test and any preceding tests that may have been influenced by the fault indicated shall be repeated after the fault has been rectified.
NOTE: Guidance on the test equipment and methods of carrying out electrical installation tests are contained in AS/NZS 3017.
184.108.40.206 Continuity of the earthing system (earth resistance of the main earthing conductor, protective earthing conductors and bonding conductors)
220.127.116.11.1 General 概述
Earth resistance tests are necessary to ensure that the earthing system has been installed in a manner that will cause circuit protective devices to operate if there is a fault between live parts, other than the neutral, and the mass of earth.
An effective earthing system will ensure that electrical equipment parts that are earthed do not reach dangerous voltages when such faults occur.
18.104.22.168.2 Results 结果
The resistance of protective earthing conductors shall be low enough to permit the passage of current necessary to operate the overcurrent protective device.
The resistance of the main earthing conductor or any equipotential bonding conductor shall be not more than 0.5 ?.
NOTE: As described in Appendix B, the maximum allowable resistance of the protective earthing conductor associated with any particular circuit depends on the type and rating of the protective device and the impedance of the live conductors that comprise the circuit.
22.214.171.124 Insulation resistance 绝缘阻抗
126.96.36.199.1 General 概述
An insulation resistance test is necessary to ensure that the insulation resistance between all live conductors and earth or, as the case may be, all live parts and earth is adequate to ensure the integrity of the insulation.
This is to prevent —
(a) electric shock hazards from inadvertent contact; and
(b) fire hazards from short-circuits; and
(c) equipment damage.
The integrity of the insulation is stressed by applying a direct current at 500 V.
The insulation resistance tester used shall be able to maintain its terminal voltage within +20%, ?10% of the nominal open-circuit terminal voltage, when measuring a resistance of 1 M??on the 500 V range or 10 M??on the 1000 V range.
NOTE: Care may be required with the application of the insulation resistance test to electronic equipment and surge protective devices to prevent damage to the devices.
188.8.131.52.2 Results 结果
The insulation resistance between live and earthed parts of an electrical installation or parts thereof shall be not less than 1 M?.
The value of 1 M??may be obtained with appliances disconnected.
The value of 1 M??may be reduced to —
(a) 0.01 M??for sheathed heating elements of appliances; or
(b) a value permitted in the Standard applicable to electrical equipment.
184.108.40.206 Polarity 极性
220.127.116.11.1 General 概述
Polarity testing is necessary to ensure that no shock hazard arises from the incorrect connection of active, neutral and earthing conductors. This testing is to prevent —
(a) the transposition of active and neutral conductors of the consumers mains or submains (with MEN connection at outbuilding or detached portion) resulting in the electrical installation earthing system becoming energized; and
(b) combinations of incorrect active, neutral and earthing conductor connections resulting in the exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation becoming energized; and
(c) the connection of switches in neutral conductors, resulting in parts of appliances, such as heating elements and lampholders, remaining energized when the switches are in the ‘OFF’ position.
18.104.22.168.2 Results 结果
Proof that all active, neutral and protective earthing conductors in the electrical installation are correctly connected to the corresponding terminals of electrical equipment so that —
(a) there is no transposition of conductors that could result in the electrical equipment becoming unsafe when it is connected to supply, particularly where appliances are connected by socket-outlets; and
(b) switches do not operate independently in the neutral or earthing conductor.
22.214.171.124 Correct circuit connections 正确电路连接
126.96.36.199.1 General 概述
Tests for correct circuit connections are necessary to ensure the following:
(a) Protective earthing conductors do not normally carry current.
(b) No short circuit exists, because a short-circuit current flowing between live conductors and through part of the earthing system can cause considerable fire damage or personal injury, particularly in high current locations.
188.8.131.52.2 Results 结果
Proof that the active, neutral and protective earthing conductors of each circuit are correctly connected so that there is no —
(a) short circuit between the conductors; and
(b) transposition of conductors which could result in the earthing system and any exposed conductive parts of the electrical installation becoming energized; and
(c) interconnection of conductors between different circuits.
NOTE: Any MEN or earth sheath return connection is not considered as a short circuit.
184.108.40.206 Operation of residual current devices (RCDs)
220.127.116.11.1 General 概述
In New Zealand, the function of each RCD shall be verified by the—
(a) use of test equipment which causes the device to operate under residual alternating current and residual pulsating direct current conditions; or
(b) operation of the integral test device provided that manufacturer’s compliance documentation
and equipment markings confirm that the RCD is intended to operate under residual alternating current and residual pulsating direct current conditions.
Tests shall be performed on each final subcircuit protected by an RCD to verify that the RCD operates to disconnect the designated circuit.
NOTE: A suitable test could be performed using a test plug with a resistor
between the active and earth pins.
18.104.22.168.2 Results 结果
The RCD shall disconnect the supply. RCD应与电源断开。
6.3.4 Optional tests 选定测试
22.214.171.124 General 概述
When considered necessary, the following tests may be carried out on the electrical installation: (a) Fault-loop impedance. 故障回路阻抗
(b) In Australia, verification of operation of residual current devices.
126.96.36.199 Fault-loop impedance 故障回路阻抗
188.8.131.52.1 General 概述
The fault-loop impedance of each circuit is measured in order to verify that the protective device will operate to disconnect an earth-fault current within the time and touch voltage requirements of Clause 184.108.40.206.
1 The fault-loop impedance test can only be made when the electrical installation has been made live.
2 If an RCD operates during the test, the test result is considered satisfactory. 3 Information on the maximum loop impedance of common circuit
arrangements is contained in Appendix B.
4 In New Zealand, as an alternative to testing, earth fault-loop impedance may be verified by assessment as detailed in AS/NZS 3017.
220.127.116.11.2 Results 结果
The values obtained shall satisfy the requirements of Clause 18.104.22.168.3.
22.214.171.124 In Australia, operation of residual current devices (RCDs) 在澳大利亚，RCD的操作
Testing of RCDs is performed to ensure that the RCD operates.
The function of the RCD shall be verified by the operation of the integral test device, or by the use of special test equipment.
1 Tripping the RCD by means of the integral test device establishes —
(a) the RCD is functioning correctly; and
(b) the integrity of the electrical and mechanical elements of the tripping device. 2 Operation of the integral test device does not provide a means of checking—
(a) the continuity of the main earthing conductor or the associated circuit protective earthing conductors; or
(b) any earth electrode or other means of earthing; or
(c) any other part of the associated electrical installation earthing.