Jessie and Ashley Booker

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Jessie and Ashley Booker

Jessie Wilson and Ashley Booker Mr. Murphy

    F.D.A 3/27/07

    Period 3&4 Essay #1


Chapter 12: The Age of Religious Wars


Jessie and Ashley Booker

Overview of the Age

    ; Chapter 12 deals with the religious and political factions in Europe. From Martin

    Luther’s death in 1546 until the middle of the seventeenth century, European life

    was dominated by religion and politics. Roman Catholics and Protestants across

    Europe engaged in almost a century of slaughter before religion ceased to be the

    primary motive or excuse for warfare. France descended into nearly 50 years of

    civil war before emerging with a united monarchy under Henry IV in the Edict of

    Nantes in 1598. Warfare in Germany during the Thirty Years’ War reached levels

    of human destruction higher than any previously experienced. Spain escaped civil

    strife and remained firmly Catholic. The country’s wealth, drawn from its

    Americas, gave Spain enormous political influence in European affairs. Despite

    its "superpower" status, Spain suffered defeat of its Armada naval fleet at the

    hands of the English, who unlike the French managed to avoid civil war under the

    inspired leadership of Queen Elizabeth, who was a politique. Spain also failed to

    subdue Protestant nationalism in the Netherlands. As a result, Spain’s position in

    international affairs declined. For Germany, the original center of the Reformation,

    Lutherans and Catholics, after some bloodletting, had come to tolerate each other.

    But in the early seventeenth century the temporary compromises collapsed. The

    resulting free-for-all, known as the Thirty Years’ War (16181648), effectively

    consumed much of Europe’s energies until it was resolved in the international

    settlement of Westphalia. After 1648, though the peoples of central Europe would

    remain deeply divided, religion would no longer be a primary factor in

    international conflict as it had been since the beginning of the Reformation.

Five Big Points

    ; Catholicism vs. Calvinism in France

    ; Spanish Occupation in the Netherlands

    ; England vs. Spain for Supreme Power (England as the “wildcard”)

    ; The Struggle with Religious and Political Factions (internationally)

; Peace Settlements

    Hit List and ID’s

    ; Besancon Hugues The leader Geneva’s political revolt against the House of

    Savoy in the 1520s and the name Huguenot comes from his name.

; Huguenot A French Protestant

    ; Francis I The French king and was captured by Emperor Charles V at the

    Battle of Pavia in 1525 provided a motive for the first wave of Protestant

    persecution in France.

    ; John Calvin The leader of Calvinism throughout Europe and he led various

    oppositions toward French monarchy with the held of Theodore Beza.

; Theodore Beza He converted Jeanne d’ Albert, the mother of the future Henry

    IV. He wrote in his “On the Right of Magistrates over Their Subjects” in 1574,

    which justified the correction and even the overthrow of tyrannical rulers by

    lower authorities.

    ; Henry II He ruled from 1547 to 1559 in France. He established measures

    against Protestants. During a tournament held to celebrate the marriage of his 13

    year old daughter to Philip II, the son of Charles V and heir to the Spanish

    Habsburg lands, Henry II was wounded when a lance pierced his visor.

    ; Edict of Fontainebleau- It was established in 1540 by Henry II, which subjected

    French Protestants to the Inquisition.

    ; Francis II He comes into power in 1559 under the regency of the queen mother,

    Catherine de Medicis, because he was only 15 years old and very sick. He dies on


    ; Guise Family They were a very strong family, whom wanted control of France.

    Francis, duke of Guise, had been Henry II’s general, and his brothers, Charles and

    Louis, were cardinals of the church. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots and wife of

    Francis II, was their niece. They were militant and Catholic.

; Bourbon and Montmorency Chatillon Family They developed strong

    Hueguenot sympathies. The Bourbon Louis I, prince of Conde, and the

    Montmorency - Chatillon Admiral Gaspard de Coligny became the political

    leaders if the French Protestant resistance.

    ; Conde He worked closely with Coligny in military organizations to merge the

    religious organization of the French churches, creating a potent combination that

    benefited both political and religious dissidents. He died b/w September and

    August 1570, by the hostilities b/w the Guise and Huguenots.

; Admiral Gaspard de Coligny He worked closely with Conde to further

    Huegnot power in France. He was allied with Catherine de Medicis for a while.

    After the death of Conde, Coligny became the Huegnot leader. He used his

    position of influence to win the king of France over to a planned French invasion

    of the Netherlands in support of Dutch Protestants. He was killed during St.

    Bartholomew’s Day.

    ; Catherine de Medicis She becomes the regent for Francis II and Charles IX.

    She wanted a Catholic France, but didn’t want the power to reside with the Guise.

    She allied with the Bourbon family, but did become allies with the Guise. She

    helped foster many Catholic resistances toward the Protestants, especially with

    the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

    ; Saint-Germain-en-laye - In 1570, the peace of Saint Germain-en-laye ended the

    third war of France’s age of religious wars. The crown acknowledged the power

    of the protestant nobility and thus granting Huguenots religious freedoms within

    territory and the right to fortify their cities.

    ; Henry of Navarre - (r.1589-1610) was a Bourbon who became Henry IV after

    his marriage to the sister of King Henry III, Margarite Valois, who was a Catholic.

    He converted to Catholicism in 1590 due to the upheaval that his marriage had

    caused among Protestants, claiming that “Paris is worth a mass”. He issued the

    Edict of Nantes.

    ; Edict of Nantes - This Edict was passed in1598 and it gave Protestants religious

    freedoms and settlement. They were allowed to worship and have open

    assemblies in their own designated towns. This was significant because Lutherans

    were finally being recognized.

    ; Catholic League- This was a league of Catholics that was formed to counter the

    unification of the Protestants. They wanted religious uniformity and began

    persecuting the Protestants all over Europe. The Catholic League also helped the

    Guises maintain their control in France.

    ; Day of the Barricades - Henry the 3rd planned a surprise attack on the Catholic

    League. His attempts failed and he was forced to flee to Paris. Since he had been

    defeated so many times, he had the duke and Cardinal of the Guises assassinated

    which sent France into turmoil.

    ; Peace of Beaulieu - In 1576 passed by King Henry III who was trying to pacify

    the religious and political feud between the Protestants and the Catholics. It

    granted Huguenots almost complete religious and civil freedom. However, France

    was not ready for such a movement and within seven months of this Peace the

    Catholic League forced Henry to return to his attempt of religious unification.

; Phillip II- King of Spain-devoted Catholic, he created organized bureaucracy

    and tried to take over the Netherlands. He lost it because of Perpetual Edict on

    1577 in which the Netherlands made Don John, the military leader, sign. He lost

    his holdings to the Americas and Spain fell.

    ; Cardinal Granville- He was left to aid Phillip the 2nd half sister in control of the

    autonomies of the Netherlands. Since he was Catholic he wanted to create a

    centralized government and he wanted to create religious uniformity. Many of the

    people in the autonomies were Calvinist so they didn’t want uniform Catholicism

    and they wanted him taken out of power.

; William of Orange -He was Calvinist and against the concept of religious

    uniformity. In 1564, after seeing Granville was planning his reorganization of the

    Netherlands, he and Edmont were able to get him out of power. He and his wife

    Mary would eventually become the monarchs of England after the “Glorious


; The Compromise of 1564- After the Council of Trent, Protestants were in

    opposition of many of the laws put in place. William of Orange’s brother led the

    opposition and was supported by the majority of the townspeople. In 1564, this

    compromise was reached and it resisted the decrees of the Council of Trent.

    ; The Duke of Alba- He was sent by Spain to suppress the rebellion in the

    Netherlands. During his reign, he executed thousands of Protestants causing the

    Calvinist to hate him. William of Orange became the leader for Netherlands

    independence meaning the overthrowing of the Duke.

; Sea Beggars- Anti Spanish exiles were given this name. They captured seaports

    in Holland and Zeeland and were given permission by Elizabeth. They were

    responsible for sparking the rebellion against Alba.

    ; Don Luis Requesens - The Commander of Spanish forces in the Netherlands in

    November 1573. Power was ceded to him by the faltering Duke of Alba who

    couldn’t stabilize the Spanish siege in The Netherlands. During his rule, the

    Spanish troops mutinied and Spain went bankrupt.

    ; Pacification of Ghent - An alliance of the provinces of the Netherlands for the

    purpose of driving Spain out of the country which was signed on November of

    1576. The northern and southern provinces of the Low Countries put aside their

    religious difference and united in revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs. The

    Pacification of Ghent called for the expulsion of Spanish troops from the Low

    Countries, and an end to the persecution of Calvinists.

    ; Don John - The victor over the Ottoman Turks at the naval Battle of Lepanto in

    1571. In 1576 he took command of the Spanish land forces and was appointed

    Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. In February of 1577 he was confronted by

    unified Netherlands resistance and forced to sign the Perpetual Edict.

; Perpetual Edict -An Edict forced on Don John by a Unified Netherlands in 1577.

    This edict provided for the removal of all Spanish troops from the Netherlands

    within 20 days. It gave William of Orange control over the Netherlands and ended

    Philip’s plans of using the Netherlands as a staging area for invading England.

    ; Mary Tudor -The hardcore Roman Catholic queen of England from 1553 to

    1558. She married Prince Phillip II of Spain, and forced Parliament to repeal the

    Protestant statutes of Edward and reverted England to the Catholic religious

    practices of her Father. Executed great protestant leaders of her time such as John

    Hooper, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer.

; Elizabeth I -The politique queen of England from 1558 to 1603, she was able to

    subordinate theological doctrine to political unity and urging tolerance,

    moderation, and compromise in religious matters which resulted in the Episcopal

    Anglican church. In 1563 she insured the 39 Articles on Religion which

    Protestantism the official religion in England.

    ; Act of Supremacy (in Elizabeth's Reign) - An act by Elizabeth that passed

    England’s parliament in 1559, which asserted Elizabeth’s right as supreme

    governor over both spiritual and temporal affairs. It repealed all anti-Protestant

    legislations that Mary Tudor established in England during her rule.

; Act of Uniformity -An edict issued by Elizabeth I, at the beginning of her reign.

    This Act revised the Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty- Nine Articles,

    enforcing them in each parish. This Act also made Protestantism the official

    religion of the Church of England.

; Mary Stuart/Mary Queen of Scots - Heir to the Scottish throne, Mary abdicated

    her throne to her son, after a controversial marriage to Bothell. During her years

    of exile in England, many Catholics saw the arrival of Mary as an opportune

    moment to replace the Protestant Elizabeth I. Mary was executed by Elizabeth II,

    after her devout advances to inherit the throne.

    ; The Spanish Armada - During the second half of the sixteenth century, Spain

    emerged as a European juggernaut. Spain’s strong army brought it success and

    wealth, until it faced the defeat of English resistance.

    ; Frederick III - Fredrick III was a devout convert to Palatine and made Calvinism

    the dominant religion in Germany. Frederick helped Calvinists to gain recognition

    as they struggled to be an official religion. Calvinists were a threat, not only a

    threat to Catholicism, but to Lutheranism. Lutherans found their outspoken and

    aggressive behavior as a mockery to the Reformation.

    ; Peace of Augsburg -After fierce Protestant resistance, Catholics issued the Peace

    of Augsburg recognizing Lutheranism as an official religion. This edict marked a

    permanent division in Catholicism. Calvinism and Anabaptism failed to gain

    recognition, which in turn prolonged a determined Protestant resistance.

    ; Frederick IV - After Ferdinand II was forced to abdicate the Bohemian throne,

    Calvinist elector Palatine, Frederick was declared overlord. During he first stage

    of the Thirty Years War, the Calvinists suffered a humiliating loss at the Battle of

    White Mountain. Ferdinand II not only subdued the Protestants, but was able to

    re- organize Catholicism and re-conquer Palatinate.

; Albrecht of Wallenstein - Wallenstein was a powerful mercenary, joined

    Ferdinand in conquest of Bohemia. Eventually gained great territory by carrying

    the conquest into Denmark. Major victory was a breaking of Protestant resistance

    allowing King Ferdinand to lay the deadly blow: The Edict of The Restitution.

    Unfortunately for the Catholics, he was assassinated by Ferdinand in 1634

    because of Ferdinand’s jealously and the fact that he was leading a “double life”

    apparently helping out the Protestants for land.

    ; Edict of Restitution -This Edict or law was issued by Ferdinand in 1629 after

    Albrecht Wallenstein broke Protestant resistance allowing Ferdinand to move in

    not only did it reassert the Catholic safeguards of the Peace of Augsburg. It made

    Calvinism illegal and forced the Lutherans to give back all church lands

    (bishoprics etc) that they obscured since 1552

    ; Gustavus Adolphus - Deeply pious king of unified Lutheran nation came into

    power during the Swedish Period of the 30 years war. He was bankrolled by

    Cardinal Richelieu of France, and the Dutch who were supporting his force in

    their effort against the Habsburg Empire which had dominated them during the

    15th and 16th century. Gustavus Adolphus’ life came to an end at the hands of

    Wallenstein’s forces during the 30 years war

; The Treaty of Westphalia -The Holy Roman Empire’s hostilities effectively

    came to an end in 1648. One of its major provisions gave Germany’s individual

    princes sole control over all its provinces which was cause for much confusion in

    the past. The treaty also altered Europe’s religious status, widening the legal

    status of Protestantism, so much that the pope objected, but could not make a

    decisive veto of it. Finally, one of the “aftershocks” of this treaty was that

    Germany, badly in need of a centralized government, was not able to wholly

    govern it’s provinces until the modern period, causing political weakness for

    years to come.

    Key Events

    ; October 1534 Protestants plastered Paris and other cities with anti-Catholic

    placards. The government retaliation drove John Calvin and other members of the

    French reform party into exile.

    ; 1559 - Treaty of Cateau- Cambresis ends Hapsburg Valois wars.

    ; 1559 Francis II succeeds to French throne under regency of his mother,

    Catherine de Medicis.

    ; 1561- More than 2000 Huegnot congregations existed throughout France.

    ; 1560 Conspiracy of Amboise, which was between Conde and Coligny that they

    had collaborated in an abortive plot to kidnap Francis II from his Guise advisers,


    ; 1562 Protestant worshippers massacred at Vassy in Champagne by the duke of


    ; 1572 The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre leaves thousands of Protestants


    ; 1589 Assassination of Henry III brings the Huguenot Henry of Navarre to the

    French throne as Henry IV.

; 1593 Henry IV embraces Catholicism.

    ; 1598 Henry IV grants Huguenots religious and civil freedoms in the Edict of


    ; 1540s in Spain- Spain had great silver mines opened in Potosi in present-day

    Bolivia and in Zacatecas in Mexico. These gave Philip the great sums needed to

    pay his bankers and mercenaries.

; 1568- Don Carlos died under suspicious circumstances.

; 1560s in Spain- The Turks advanced deep into Austria, while their fleets

    dominated the Mediterranean.

; 1568 and 1570- Armies under Philip’s half-brother, Don John of Austria, the

    illegitimate son of Charles V, suppressed and dispersed the Moors in Granda.

    ; October 7, 1571- Don John’s fleet engaged the Ottoman navy under Ali Pasha off

    Lepanto in the Gulf of Corinth. This gave Spain the Mediterranean.

    ; January 6, 1579 -Union of Arras, an accord signed on in Arras by the Southern

    states of the Spanish Netherlands. The southern states of the Spanish Netherlands,

    expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II. They also recognized the

    landlord of the southern province, Don John.

    ; January 23 1579- Union of Utrecht, a treaty was signed by Holland, Zeeland,

    Utrecht and the province of Groningen. The treaty was a reaction of the Protestant

    provinces in the Union of Arras in which the southern provinces declared their

    support for the Catholic Spanish.

; Defenestration of Prague - Ferdinand II became the king of Bohemia and tried

    to revoke Protestant rights Outraged Protestants threw, or defenestrated, several of

    his regents out the window-their salvation rested on a mot of manure. This

    conflict marked the beginning of the Thirty Years War.

    ; Bohemian Period - The Bohemian Period described the first phase of the Thirty

    Years War. War ascended when the Bohemian throne was abdicated to Ferdinand

    the Archduke of Styria. When Ferdinand tried to restore Catholicism ,by revoking

    the religious rights Emperor Rudolf II granted them. Protestants were so irate that

    they defenestrated the king’s regents.

; The Danish Period -Second period in 30 years war. The Lutheran King

    Christian IV, eager to extend Danish influence over North Sea coastal towns. His

    army was defeated by Maximilian however in Germany; Wallenstein (great

    mercenary) gained a great deal of territory by joining Ferdinand. He carried a

    campaign into Denmark. By 1628, he had army of more than 100,000 soldiers.

    Archduke Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution during this time, reaffirming

    the illegality of Calvinism

; The Swedish Period - During this period, Gustavus Adolphus became the new

    Protestant leader within the Swedish empire. Took in revenue from Cardinal

    Richelieu and the Dutch. Adolphus brought new winning tactics to his warfare.

    Unfortunately for the Protestants this time, he was killed by Wallenstein’s forces

    at the Battle of Lutzen. During this period Wallenstein is executed by an angered

    and jealous Ferdinand, because Wallenstein attempted to strike deals with the

    Protestants. At an attempt to end the war, the Peace of Prague is called in 1635

    which was a deal between the German Protestant States and King Ferdinand.

; Battle of Breitenfield - First major victory for the Protestants as Gustavus

    Adolphus pretty much sealed his “fame” in the 30 years war. Battle of

    Breitenfield known for training the first army to handle and run highly capable and high speed weaponry that other military’s had not yet encountered. Also, his

    ingenious method of using the timing of natural light and the exploitation of his foes weaknesses sealed the Battle of Breitenfield in a matter of days.

; 1635- Peace of Prague was reached by German Protestant states and Ferdinand.

    However, after peace (which was a pathetic attempt at an armistice) the Swedes received continued support from France and the Netherlands, pushing on into the war for possession purposes.

; The Swedish/French Period- Swedish/French Period=Anarchy; phase known

    for the neglect ion of religion, and the fact that some countries were fighting just for the sake of land or in the Dutch’s case, for revenge against an empire that dominated you for nearly a whole century. Chaos is a perfect description word because Protestants in the past wouldn’t dare support Catholics but here they were, Catholics supporting Protestants (France and Sweden) (Germany and Spain) It was the ending of the Thirty Years War.

    Intellectual Movements and Historical Trends

    ; The struggle between Protestant and Catholic factions and followers came to a

    heat during the sixteenth and seventeenth century. Religious struggles can

    specifically be seen in France, and the Holy Roman Empire (Germany).

    ; France The Catholic Valois monarchy of France was able to put aside religious motives in order to make political maneuverings to stay on the throne as long as they could. Catherine de Medici was a regent to her things after the death of her husband Henry II. A monk, who felt that he was not doing anything to control tensions between the Catholics and Protestants, murdered him. Catherine vacillated between Catholic and Protestant sympathies because although he did not want a Protestant France she did not want the Guise to be in power however after an attempt to assassinate Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, she ordered the death of Protestants four days after the wedding between the Valois, Marie de Medici and the Protestant Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) and over 20,000 protestants were massacred, thus the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. Henry IV then converted to

    Catholicism, thus the Edict of Nantes in which the Protestants were granted some religious freedom.

; Thirty Years War The Holy Roman Empire was a hotbed for Protestantism,

    however Calvinism was not legal. Things came to a heat when the duke of Bohemia, Ferdinand II, converted the long Lutheran Bohemia to catholic based on the peace of Augsburg of 1555 in which the ruler determines religion. He appoints

    Catholics into high offices and they were defenestrated, or thrown out of the

    window and were saved by a pile of horse manure (defenestration of Prague). War

    broke out in Bohemia in which the Catholics Prevailed. Then was the Danish

    period in which the Catholics once again prevailed. In the third period (the

    Swedish period) the Protestants won with the aid of Gustavus Adolphus and in the

    last period, the French period there was all out war. The war concluded with the

    Peace of Westphalia in 1648. This recognized Switzerland and the Netherlands as

    independent states while at the same time reinstating the peace of Augsburg with

    Calvinism as a legal religion.

    Changes in Political Ideology

    ; Britain and Spain at this time represent two different fields of political and

    religious policies of their time. Britain was able to settle with the rise of

    Protestantism under the Elizabethan era while Spain merely crushed it.

    ; Spain Spain was under total domination by the Spanish monarchy, Phillip II.

    Spain was staunchly Catholic and was easily able to subdue Protestants to

    Catholic rule. Phillip II also took it upon himself to carry his religious crusades

    against Protestantism throughout the rest of Europe, such as in the Netherlands

    and Germany.

    ; Britain Britain post the Edward error was left to the domination of Mary Tudor,

    who suppressed Protestantism and exiled many. She married the Spanish king

    Phillip II and after her death followed the politique, her sister Elizabeth II who

    was able to create a common ground with Catholicism and Protestantism which

    was later known as Anglicanism.

    ; Spanish Armada Long time British and Spanish tensions came to a peak at the

    Spanish Armada in which Phillip II was looking to avenge the execution of Mary

    Queen of Scots and exceed the British in naval power. However, the British fleets

    are victorious.

    Changes in Economic Structure

; Pillars of Spanish Power The Spanish will after this age of religious wars

    descend in power but at this time they have crested. They had the first sign of

    mercantilist empires in the Americas. There were new discovered silver mines in

    Bolivia and Zacatecas in Mexico. They also had an increased populous and

    demonstrated monarchial supremacy over the population and even domination

    over the Ottomans.

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