Planning a School Sanitation and Hygiene Education Programme: Sample Baseline Survey
Description of tool: This tool provides a sample baseline survey for collecting the essential information needed to plan a school sanitation and hygiene education programme.
The information in this tool was adapted by UNESCO from the following publication: Snel, M., Ganguly, S., Shordt, K. 2002. School Sanitation and Hygiene Education – India: Resource Book. (Technical Paper Series; no. 39.) Delft, the Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and UNICEF. http://www.irc.nl/page/9479 (to order)
Description of document:
This book is meant for managers and trainers involved in school sanitation and
hygiene education (SSHE) programmes operating at various administrative levels.
Though developed in the context of a specific SSHE initiative in India, it provides
many useful guidelines and activities that apply to similar programmes elsewhere. The book is divided into two parts: the first examines the key features of SSHE programmes such as behavioural change, education and training; and the second examines implementation approaches linked to the project cycle, including strategic planning, district planning, local mobilisation, technologies and on-going school/community activities. A final chapter focuses on the provision of hygiene and sanitation education for pre-school children. A companion handbook for teachers
provides examples of hands-on learning activities.
This information or activity supports Core
Component #2 of the FRESH framework
for effective school health: water,
sanitation & the environment. It will
have a greater impact if it is reinforced by
activities in the other three components of
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health First Edition
FRESH Tools for Effective School Health First Edition
Planning a School Sanitation and Hygiene Education Programme: 1Sample Baseline Survey
A focus on school sanitation stems from the fact that children have a right to basic facilities such as school toilets, safe drinking water, clean surroundings and information on hygiene. If these conditions are created, children come to school, enjoy learning, learn better and take back to their families, especially siblings, concepts and practices on sanitation and hygiene. In this way, investment in education is more productive. Such conditions have an even greater positive outcome for girls who often stay away from or drop out of schools which do not have toilet facilities.
The FRESH framework for comprehensive school health calls for the provision of safe water and appropriate sanitation facilities as basic first steps in the creation of a healthy learning environment. And, based on a great deal of experience showing that facilities alone are not enough to achieve the desired improvements in both health and education outcomes, the framework also calls for skills-based health and hygiene education and partnerships with families and the community to ensure that facilities are maintained and used properly.
Effective school sanitation and hygiene programmes typically require ongoing collaboration among a variety of sectors (e.g., Education, Health, Water and Sanitation, Environmental Health, etc.) and other partners, including development agencies, community-based organizations, private enterprises, community leaders and, last but certainly not least, school staff, students and parents. Participatory planning, management and monitoring is essential to ensure that appropriate facilities are constructed, that effective hygiene behaviour is learned and practised, and the sustainability of the programme.
Before formulating objectives and drawing up an action plan for a school sanitation and hygiene programme, a participatory needs assessment must be undertaken. Data should be collected about the health condition of the students, their hygiene behaviour, the existing facilities, the health education curriculum in use, the qualifications of the teachers, the available teaching materials and the available budget. A baseline study is an essential tool for both the planning phase and for monitoring activities at later stages of the project.
The purpose of a baseline study is to build on current strengths and get information to make plans that will prevent or solve problems. In school programmes similar challenges appear again and again. Therefore a small survey will usually give sufficient information for planning. In most cases a representative sample of schools in different parts of a district is sufficient. Information obtained should be fed into district/school workplans and training modules. It should also be used to develop indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies and activities planned.
The following is an example of a baseline study focusing on some of the main issues that should be evaluated in and around the school.
School Sanitation and Hygiene Education Programme
Name of school being surveyed:________________________________________ Address of school:___________________________________________________ Name of village _____________________________
Name of district _____________________________
Name of school administrator: _________________________________
Type of school:
____ Primary school
____ Primary and upper primary
____ Primary and middle/high school
Number of shifts in schools _______________
Give timings from _______ to _______
from _______ to _______
Number of students ___________
Number of boys ___________
Number of girls ___________
Number of teachers ___________
Note: ‘N.A.’ means not applicable. It means that the question cannot be answered in this school
YES NO N.A.
1. FACILITIES: (based on observation) (good) (not good) 1.1 School compound
1.1.a Is the school yard/compound and classrooms clean? (free
from visible garbage on grounds and in classroom,
classrooms with waste containers, solid waste disposed away ____ ____ ____
1.2 Water: (based on observation) ____ ____ ____ 1.2.a Is there a functioning water point within the school area? 1.2.b Is there a public water point or water point that teachers use ____ ____ ____ within 100 meters of the school? (about 150 steps) 1.2.c Is the water point functioning at time of visit? (Check to see if ____ ____ ____ one standard container can be filled in 2 minutes or less) ____ ____ ____ Does it function in the dry season? (Ask teachers.) ____ ____ ____ 1.2.d Is the water apparently of drinking quality at the water point? ____ ____ ____ 1.2.e Is there water storage that appears to be clean? (Water storage should be at least 20 litres per class.) ____ ____ ____ Are the containers clean? Does the teacher state that it has been cleaned within the ____ ____ ____ past 7 days? 1.2.f Are there ladles or cups with handles used by children and ____________teachers for taking the drinking water?
1.3 Latrines, Lavatories, Toilets: (based on observation)
1.3.a Do toilets or latrines or a lavatory exist within the school compound? ____Yes ____No
1.3.b How many girls use one toilet? ________
(For schools with 2 sessions, write the number of girls in one session only.)
Note: one hole latrine = one toilet = one lavatory
1.3.c How many toilets or urinals are there for boys? ____ toilets _____ urinals
How many boy students? _________ How many boys for one toilet or urinal _______
(For schools with 2 sessions, write the number of boys in one session only.)
1.3.d Are the toilet and urinals clean? ____Yes ____No
(I.e. free from visible garbage or faecal matter on floor; smell not
bad enough to stop use; no puddles; not too many flies.)
1.3.e Is there water storage facility and a ladle/cup next to the toilets? ____Yes ____No
1.3.f Are there separate latrines for teachers? ____Yes ____No
1.3.g On what day(s) is the toilet cleaned? ________________________________________
YES NO N.A. 2. BEHAVIOURS (good) (not
good) 2.1 Are latrines being used?
(Observe if a pupil voluntarily uses a latrine during your visit.) ____ ____ ____
2.2 Can children use the toilets during the school day? ____ ____ ____
2.3 Are they easy to open or unlock? ____ ____ ____
2.4 Look into the latrine. Does it smell? ____ ____ ____
Do you see faecal matter? ____ ____ ____
2.5 Ask a group of girls separately, outside the classroom, about
when they use it.
2.6 Do children wash their hands correctly after using the toilet? ____ ____ ____
2.7 Observe if a child voluntarily washes hands during your visit. ____ ____ ____
2.8 Ask some children separately, outside the classroom, when
they wash their hands.
2.9 Ask a child to demonstrate how to wash hands in the place
where this is usually done. Is it done correctly? ____ ____ ____
Is it easy and fast for the child to get the water and a cup? ____ ____ ____
Does the child rub both hands at least 3 times? ____ ____ ____
Is the water disposed of so that it will not breed mosquitoes? ____ ____ ____
Is the area clean, free from visible garbage? ____ ____ ____
2.10 Do the children in the school help clean, including the latrines? ____ ____ ____
Do both boys and girls participate? ____ ____ ____
Do the children take turns (rotate) in doing this? ____ ____ ____
Ask some children separately, outside the classroom.
YES NO N.A.
3. TEACHERS good)
3.1 Have the teachers of this school been trained in School ____ ____ ____
Sanitation and Hygiene Education?
3.2 Have the teachers taught anything about hygiene (safe water,
household sanitation, personal hygiene)? ____ ____ ____
Ask the teachers.
Ask some students.
3.3 Can teacher or headteacher show any teaching material, book
____ ____ or learning materials or a chapter in a book about this subject? ____
Note: materials must appear to have been used.
3.4 Can teacher explain correctly what sanitation means to him or
____ ____ ____her?
(Sanitation refers to the safe disposal of excreta which takes
place on or near the plot).
3.5 Write here anything interesting the teacher says or any interesting hygiene/health activities
teacher or school has carried out with children.
3.6 Your general assessment
Do the teachers and headteacher seem motivated and interested in the hygiene education
programme? Do you think they will work with students to use and maintain the facilities?
Do they seem to get along with the community?
YES NO N.A.
(good) (not 4. COMMUNITY (Clarify who should ask these questions) good)
4.1 Are parents, PTA or other community groups involved in the
school? In supporting the school? ____ ____ ____
4.2 Is the PTA active? Do they keep minutes? Have they met in
the last three months? ____ ____ ____
4.3 Do the parents know about the sanitation and water facilities
provided at the school? ____ ____ ____
4.4 Do the parents provide a financial contribution towards the
sanitation and water facilities at the school? ____ ____ ____
4.5 Are there household latrines (more than 1 out of 10
households) in this community? ____ ____ ____
4.6 Has the school planned events/conducted events to promote
School Sanitation and Hygiene Education in the community? ____ ____ ____
5. SUPERVISOR OR CLUSTER
5.1 Has there been a cluster meeting in the past three months to
discuss health/hygiene and sanitation? ____ ____ ____
5.2 Has a school supervisor who will be involved in SSHE visited
this school during the past three months? ____ ____ ____
5.3 Do district education officers express interest in this
programme? ____ ____ ____
5.4 Does the district/cluster?) supervisor have information or
records about the visits of his/her supervisors? ____ ____ ____
Can we tell successes or failures in the school? ____ ____ ____
5.5 Is there a state/district School Sanitation and Hygiene
Education implementation plan with a budget? ____ ____ ____
6.1 Is there an NGO staff member assigned to the project who has
been trained? ____ ____ ____
List problems that need to be solved as stated by Education authorities or NGO staff.
What in your opinion are the successes of the SSHE programme at this school?
What do you consider to be the major challenges or problems of the programme?
Record your conclusions and recommendations.
1 Adapted from: Snel, M., Ganguly, S., Shordt, K. 2002. School Sanitation and Hygiene Education – India: Resource
Book. (Technical Paper Series; no. 39.) Delft, the Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and