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How to Apply Humanistic Psychology Teaching English Writing

By Jon Bradley,2014-08-28 16:30
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How to Apply Humanistic Psychology Teaching English Writing

    How to Apply Humanistic Psychology

    Teaching English Writing

    

    这篇文章主要是通过人文主义心理学原理的不同方面的关系来讨论怎样教写作

    这个问题。文章首先阐述了人文心理学的定义,接着专家对其提出几的几点综合的解释,并对传统教学和运用人文主义心理学原理设计了一堂写作课的教学设计的对比,突出了在现代教学中这一原理的作用这就暗示着我们老师要善于运用它在教学中,使其在教学中产生一个合理有推断能力的写作变化过程,从人文主义心理学的角度出

    发,就是要懂得爱,了解爱,用爱进行教学。在教学中产生爱。让我们的写作课堂充满人文主义理想和爱。

    关键词!人文主义心理学,老师,爱,写作教学

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    Abstract

     This article is meant to discuss, from the perspective of the theories of humanistic psychology, the first, the article expounds the theories of humanistic psychology definition; next, expect presents an integrated account, then, compares two teaching methods which are defects of traditional and using the theory of humanistic psychology, outstanding this theory of effect- ion of modern teaching. So, implicate teachers are good at applying this theory in the class and produce a rationale for process approach .Set off the humanistic psychology, we must know love; we must be able to teach it, to create it in teaching .Let our teaching of English writing in class fill with humanism and love.

    Key Words: humanistic psychology; teacher; love; the teaching of

    English writing

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    Contents

    Abstract„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„i 摘要„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„ii Contents„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„iii Introduction „„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„1 1. The theory of humanistic psychology „„„„„„„„„„„„1

     1.1 Defining the theory of humanistic psychology„„„„„„„1

     1.2 Presents an integrated account„„„„„„„„„„„„„2 2. The compare ion of two teaching methods „„„„„„„„2

     2.1 Defects of traditional teaching method„„„„„„„„2 2.2 The teaching method using the theory of humanistic psychology3

    2.2.1 Pre-writing „„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„3

     2.2.2 Writing„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„4

     2.2.3 Rewriting„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„5

     2.2.4Marking„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„5

    2.2.5Displaying„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„5 3. Implications for teacher„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„6 4. The rationale for the process approach„„„„„„„„„„„„9 Conclusion „„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„12 Bibliography„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„13 Acknowledgement„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„„14

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Introduction

    Teaching English writing is currently the focus of much concern, so far, considerable reaches have been made on this area and a wide variety of theories and approaches have proliferated with each expert advocating his own ideas and methods. However, there still exists controversy as to the optimal ways of teaching English writing. In view of the fact, this article is meant to discuss, from the perspective of the theories of humanistic psychology, produce an effective teaching writing. In the hope of making teachers realize that they will very likely facilitate the learning process if they are more considerate of their students affective needs.

1 .The Theory of Humanistic Psychology

    1.1 Defining the Theory of Humanistic Psychology

    Humanism became influential in psychology through a loosely knit movement that began in the 1950s and became a significant force in the

    1966s. Know as humanistic psychology, it offer a distinctive approach to psychological life, base on respect for the specially humanquality of

    human existence, and taking into account a persons feelings and motives, not

    merely the brain or an information-processing system. As humanistic psychology became more prevalent, it also has an impact on the adjoining field of education. It voice both an objection to what is interpreted as the mechanistic, dehumanizing, and inhumane emphasis of traditional approaches

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    to education, and a plea for the adoption of new attitudes, concepts and approaches in this area.

    1.2 Process an Integrated Account

    Carl Rogers is the most influential theorist in this area. He give the major points are summarized as follow: A. the significant aspect of the environment consists of the world of private experience. The realities are therefore completely individualistic. B. Self-actualization is the end towards which all humans Strive. C. Much of our inability to understand behavior stems from our failure to recognize that Responses are meaningful only from a persons own point of view. D. The Self constructed by the Individual. E. Our behavior conforms to our notion of self. In line with their beliefs, humanists present a strong plea for student-centered teaching. They Advocate a philosophy of teaching in which students a given a far more important role the classroom, and they argue as well that teachers should be learning facilitators rather than didactic instructors and that in order to be successful learning facilitators they should be learning facilitators rather than didactic instructors and empathetic.

2. The comparison of two teaching method

    2.1 Defects of traditional teaching method

    It is by no means rare that composition writing has been taught by using what might be called the “Input /output mode. In this approach, a teacher

    would introduce a topic or use the guides provided a textbook, talk about

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    them and maybe invite a little class discussion and then explain how students are going to write a composition based on them. Some hints of what to include and how to organize might also be given. Then the students would be ordered to written will be checked, Corrected, marked and graded. This approach is totally product or output focused.

    2.2 The teaching method using the theory of humanistic psychology.

    This is sampling lesson plan which using the theory of humanistic psychology for writing in class.

    Aim: To write one paragraph of about 60-80 words in English.

    Top: your favorite kind of music

    Time: 30 minutes

    Procedure:

    2.2.1 Pre-writing

    This is an input stage and it serves the function of focusing, stimulating and guiding the thinking activities. The teacher should try to trigger a lively response and discussion through rich input material about music such as pop music and classical music. Probably relating to earlier reading comprehension passage. After that, the class can be divided up into several groups and group brainstorming may take place to discuss the pros and cons. The essence of this activity is to encourage the individual student to think deeply about what he attempts to write, to activate the learners schemata, developing the

    connections between what they have written and what to be written, and what

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    to be written, and to facilitate the transition from spoken English to written English.

    2.2.2 Writing

    2.2.2.1 First draft

    The students can think over the ideas and content they have discussed and they want to convey, and then phage straight into writing without stopping until the ideas have dried up. This free follow of ideas prevent anxieties about grammaticality getting in the way of expressiveness and often results in a more personal writing. Writing with speed will elicit errors of grammar from all writers and so, at the writing phase, the students need not concern themselves with these errors. Their responsibility is to put the information on to paper in a logical manner.

    2.2.2.2 Peer editing for idea, content and language

    The teacher may group the students in pairs. Each one reads his or her draft in turn to the other who gives a personal response, or they can also exchange their work to be examined in detail based on the list and the teachers guidance. The teacher circulates, looks over the students shoulders,

    gives advice and points out the features to consider. What must not happen is that, as a students writing is circulated in the group, corrections are made to his draft without prior consultation and consent. After the process is over, the editor should write down his or her name and the date with responsibility. Then, the teacher can choose two of the students’ first drafts and help the

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    class to spot the errors. This sharing of the writing process lightens the burden for the learners. Help the weaker ones and makes the work more enjoyable. Through the difference between conversation and writing deserves some specific attention to the students.

    2.2.3 Rewriting

    Conversation is immediate and find. Rewriting is not a sign that one is incapable, but rather it is an integral part of the whole process. So patience is required of them. While written text is completely different because it is not as transient as speech and therefore it can be extensively revised until the writer is satisfied that it can communicate it intentions. Writing takes time and effort to get it right.

    2.2.4 Marking

    All the students hand in the writing together so that the teacher can know what changes and improvement have been made. No corrections should be made in the student’s writings, but the errors should be underlined, with

    symbols given for the students to correct. This part finished by teacher. In the end, one positive cornet should be made on the students effort at revising

    from the first draft stage, with the advice to help them to write better next time. Marks can then be given as usual.

    2.2.5 Displaying

    It is a basic principle of process writing that a minimum of writing in every four students should be published in some way. This can be through

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    display, a booklet, a newspaper or any other forms of school publications. The writings could be selected on the basis of the best done by each student in any one term. The published version must be a polished rewrite of the marked final draft, preferably with some illustrations. In this way, the students will see that their writings have a real communicative purpose in being available for others to read and take great pride in their achievements .The compaction of two teaching methods, obvious, the etching method using the theory of humanistic psychology more effective for writing.

3. Implications for teacher

    Perhaps the best known proponent of humanism in language teaching, comes to the conclusion that success or failure in language teaching depends not so much on whether one adopts inductive or deductive techniques for teaching grammar, vocabulary and so on, but on the extent to which one caters to the learners affective domain. In his eyes, perhaps the most

    important article of faith is that the learners attitude towards the teacher,

    towards the fellow learners, and towards the target language is the single most important variable in language learning. It is crucial, not only to take account of this factor, but to give it a central place in the selection of content, materials and learning activities, as teachers with the desired skills, knowledge and expertise, they have a great deal of power in the classroom and it is their responsibility to set the tone or interpersonal classroom climate.

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The atmosphere they set will determine whether the students non-linguistic

    emotional needs are met in the classroom. In an effort to establish an effective emotional climate, the first thing that has to be dealt with is respect for learners.

    Respect for learner is a salient feature of any classroom that is learner

    [1] rather than teacher centered. It means encouraging learners to state their

    own opinions, to talk about their own experience and treating them with respect if they cannot express themselves account their desire for self accurately. It also means taking into account their desire for self- actualization, acknowledging then as an independent entity and separate and autonomous individuals by involving then in derisions affecting their learning process, and constantly to develop learning skills. Relevant research has proved that learners even are. Capable of being in planning, organizing, and managing and evaluating their own leaning and learner participation in class

    [2] relates significantly to their language improvementthe was in which teacher

    construe their learners can have a profound influence on the classroom practice.

    One of the common Lon caption in china is seeing learners as passive receptacles to be filled with knowledge. The teacher gets a jug of

    knowledge poured into the students, mug. If readers view their learners

    just as receptacles, they tend to adopt methods which mainly involve transmission of knowledge, melding learners expression of productiveness

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