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Meeting the employment transportation needs of people with

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Meeting the employment transportation needs of people with

    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs

    of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    Final Report

    2005

    Prepared by:

    Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center

    Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey th33 Livingston Avenue 5 Floor

    New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901

    Prepared for:

    New Jersey Department of Human Services

    Division of Disability Services

    P.O. Box 700

    Trenton, New Jersey 08625

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Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    This publication was made possible by funding from the

    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

    Medicaid Infrastructure Grant Number CODA 93.779

    Legal Notice and Disclaimer

    CMS (including its employees and agents) assumes no responsibility for consequences resulting from the use of the information herein, (or from use of the information obtained at linked Internet addresses,) or in any respect for the content of such information including (but not limited to) error or omissions, the accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, the defamatory nature of statements, ownership of copyright or other intellectual property rights, and the violation of property, privacy, or personal rights of others. CMS is not responsible for, and expressly disclaims all liability for, damages of any kind arising out of use reference to, or reliance on such information. No guarantees or warranties, including (but not limited to) any express or implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose, are made by CMS with respect to such information.

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    ABOUT THE RESEARCH TEAM

    The Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center was established in the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in 1998. Since that time, the center has become a national leader in the research and development of innovative transportation policy. VTC is one of 13 research centers within the Bloustein School, and includes the National Transit Institute, which was created by Congress in 1992 to design and deliver training and education programs for the nation‟s transit industry. The center‟s primary activities include a blend of applied and academic research, education and training and service to the state and region on a variety of transportation planning and policy topics. The research team assembled to conduct this study included the following researchers:

    Jon A. Carnegie, AICP/PP is assistant director of the Voorhees Transportation Center. He served as the principal investigator for this study with responsibility for overall research design and project management. Mr. Carnegie has 15 years of experience in the fields of land use and transportation planning and policy at the municipal, county and regional level. He is the principal investigator for a variety of research and planning projects involving a range of transportation policy topics. His experience includes managing research projects involving transit-oriented development, the relationship between land use and transportation, long-range vision planning, watershed planning, transportation capital finance, transportation equity, driver‟s licensing, workforce transportation options for low-income individuals and

    persons with disabilities, and senior mobility.

    Dr. Richard Brail is a research professor in the Urban Planning and Policy Development program at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. His teaching and research interests focus on urban transportation planning and the use of computer and information technology, particularly geographic information systems, urban databases, and spatial models. He has authored and co-authored numerous books and articles on these subjects. His publications include: Planning Support Systems: Integrating Geographic Information Systems, Models and Visualization Tools, Using GIS in Urban Planning Analysis and Assessment of Public Transportation Opportunities for WorkFirst New Jersey Participants. Dr. Brail received his B.A. from Rutgers University and M.C.R.P. and Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina.

    Andrea Lubin joined the Voorhees Transportation Center in 2001 and has served as a project manager and contributing researcher on a number of transportation planning and policy studies. In addition to this study, Ms. Lubin‟s recent efforts have involved working on several studies investigating transportation equity

    issues, including transportation options for older New Jersey residents and two studies for the NJ Motor Vehicle Commission examining the impacts of driver‟s license suspension and the effects of plea

    bargaining on highway safety. Ms. Lubin received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Tufts University in 1997 and a Master of Science degree in public policy from Rutgers University in 1999.

    Pippa Woods is a project development specialist at the Voorhees Transportation Center. She has over 23 years of transportation program development and management experience. Ms. Woods has held senior positions in transit agencies in the United States and Canada and was Assistant Commissioner of Transportation for Planning, Research and Local Government Services in the State of New Jersey from 1997 to 2002. She has developed, directed and managed a variety of research, funding and operations management programs involving multi-modal transportation, freight and ports development, human services and welfare reform, senior and disabled transportation, local aid, highway research and mass transit system development. Ms. Woods holds a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology and a Diploma of Public Sector Management from the University of Victoria in British Colombia.

Graduate and Research Assistants: Jianye Chen, Aaron Cardon, Jeffrey Perlman, Richard Rabinowitz

    and Ginna Smith.

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Executive Summary ix

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1

    1.1. Background 1

    1.2. Report overview 1

    1.3. Definitions 2

    1.4. Broad Policy Context 4

    1.5. Comparable statewide planning studies 6

CHAPTER 2: Geography of Disability and Employment in New Jersey 11

    2.1. Introduction 11

    2.2. Census Overview 11

    2.3. Population and employment characteristics: Statewide and county patterns 12

    Density patterns 12

    Disability patterns by type of disability 15

    Employment patterns 19

    2.4. Sub-county patterns 23

    Cumberland County 23

    Essex County 26

    Middlesex County 30

    2.5. Summary of key findings 34

CHAPTER 3: Transportation Options of People with Disabilities in New Jersey 37

    3.1. Introduction 37

    3.2. Types of accessible transportation 37

    3.3. Transportation inventory and survey 38

    3.4. Transportation services in New Jersey 42

    Public transit bus and rail services 42

    NJ TRANSIT Access Link 43

    County Community Transportation Services 46

    Nongovernmental services 54

    Private Medical Access Vehicle services 58

    3.5. Summary of key findings 61

    CHAPTER 4: Transportation Needs Analysis 67

    4.1. Introduction 67

    4.2. Focus group findings 67

    4.3. Consumer survey findings 81

    4.4. Access and work opportunity analysis 92

    4.5. Summary of key findings 104

CHAPTER 5: Institutional Barriers, Best Practices and Model Programs 109

    5.1. Introduction 109

    5.2. Coordinating human services transportation 109

    5.3. Best practices and model programs 113

    5.4. Summary of key findings 118

CHAPTER 6: Recommendations 121

CHAPTER 7: References 129

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 2.1: Population density by county ............................................................................................................. 13

    Table 2.2: Disability Patterns by County Working Age Population age 16-64 (2000) ...................................... 16 Table 2.3: Rates of Employment General Population (2000) ........................................................................... 20 Table 2.4: Rates of Employment People with NO Disability (2000) ................................................................ 21 Table 2.5: Rates of Employment People with Disabilities (2000) .................................................................... 22 Table 2.6: Disability Patterns by Municipality Cumberland County (2000) ..................................................... 24 Table 2.7: Rates of Employment Cumberland County (2000) ......................................................................... 24 Table 2.8: Disability Patterns by Municipality Essex County (2000) ............................................................... 27 Table 2.9: Rates of Employment by Municipality Essex County (2000) .......................................................... 28 Table 2.10: Disability Patterns by Municipality Middlesex County (2000) ...................................................... 31 Table 2.11: Rates of Employment by Municipality Middlesex County (2000) ................................................. 32 Table 3.1: Service provider attributes ................................................................................................................ 42

    Table 3.2: Percentage of total county paratransit funding from SCDRTAP (2002) ............................................. 47

    Table 3.3: Types of service offered in each county All county-operated services ............................................. 48 Table 3.4: Fleet size characteristics