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Meeting the employment transportation needs of people with

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Meeting the employment transportation needs of people with

    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs

    of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    Final Report

    2005

    Prepared by:

    Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center

    Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy

    Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey th33 Livingston Avenue 5 Floor

    New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901

    Prepared for:

    New Jersey Department of Human Services

    Division of Disability Services

    P.O. Box 700

    Trenton, New Jersey 08625

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Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    This publication was made possible by funding from the

    Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

    Medicaid Infrastructure Grant Number CODA 93.779

    Legal Notice and Disclaimer

    CMS (including its employees and agents) assumes no responsibility for consequences resulting from the use of the information herein, (or from use of the information obtained at linked Internet addresses,) or in any respect for the content of such information including (but not limited to) error or omissions, the accuracy or reasonableness of factual or scientific assumptions, studies or conclusions, the defamatory nature of statements, ownership of copyright or other intellectual property rights, and the violation of property, privacy, or personal rights of others. CMS is not responsible for, and expressly disclaims all liability for, damages of any kind arising out of use reference to, or reliance on such information. No guarantees or warranties, including (but not limited to) any express or implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose, are made by CMS with respect to such information.

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    ABOUT THE RESEARCH TEAM

    The Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center was established in the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in 1998. Since that time, the center has become a national leader in the research and development of innovative transportation policy. VTC is one of 13 research centers within the Bloustein School, and includes the National Transit Institute, which was created by Congress in 1992 to design and deliver training and education programs for the nation‟s transit industry. The center‟s primary activities include a blend of applied and academic research, education and training and service to the state and region on a variety of transportation planning and policy topics. The research team assembled to conduct this study included the following researchers:

    Jon A. Carnegie, AICP/PP is assistant director of the Voorhees Transportation Center. He served as the principal investigator for this study with responsibility for overall research design and project management. Mr. Carnegie has 15 years of experience in the fields of land use and transportation planning and policy at the municipal, county and regional level. He is the principal investigator for a variety of research and planning projects involving a range of transportation policy topics. His experience includes managing research projects involving transit-oriented development, the relationship between land use and transportation, long-range vision planning, watershed planning, transportation capital finance, transportation equity, driver‟s licensing, workforce transportation options for low-income individuals and

    persons with disabilities, and senior mobility.

    Dr. Richard Brail is a research professor in the Urban Planning and Policy Development program at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. His teaching and research interests focus on urban transportation planning and the use of computer and information technology, particularly geographic information systems, urban databases, and spatial models. He has authored and co-authored numerous books and articles on these subjects. His publications include: Planning Support Systems: Integrating Geographic Information Systems, Models and Visualization Tools, Using GIS in Urban Planning Analysis and Assessment of Public Transportation Opportunities for WorkFirst New Jersey Participants. Dr. Brail received his B.A. from Rutgers University and M.C.R.P. and Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina.

    Andrea Lubin joined the Voorhees Transportation Center in 2001 and has served as a project manager and contributing researcher on a number of transportation planning and policy studies. In addition to this study, Ms. Lubin‟s recent efforts have involved working on several studies investigating transportation equity

    issues, including transportation options for older New Jersey residents and two studies for the NJ Motor Vehicle Commission examining the impacts of driver‟s license suspension and the effects of plea

    bargaining on highway safety. Ms. Lubin received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Tufts University in 1997 and a Master of Science degree in public policy from Rutgers University in 1999.

    Pippa Woods is a project development specialist at the Voorhees Transportation Center. She has over 23 years of transportation program development and management experience. Ms. Woods has held senior positions in transit agencies in the United States and Canada and was Assistant Commissioner of Transportation for Planning, Research and Local Government Services in the State of New Jersey from 1997 to 2002. She has developed, directed and managed a variety of research, funding and operations management programs involving multi-modal transportation, freight and ports development, human services and welfare reform, senior and disabled transportation, local aid, highway research and mass transit system development. Ms. Woods holds a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology and a Diploma of Public Sector Management from the University of Victoria in British Colombia.

Graduate and Research Assistants: Jianye Chen, Aaron Cardon, Jeffrey Perlman, Richard Rabinowitz

    and Ginna Smith.

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Executive Summary ix

CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1

    1.1. Background 1

    1.2. Report overview 1

    1.3. Definitions 2

    1.4. Broad Policy Context 4

    1.5. Comparable statewide planning studies 6

CHAPTER 2: Geography of Disability and Employment in New Jersey 11

    2.1. Introduction 11

    2.2. Census Overview 11

    2.3. Population and employment characteristics: Statewide and county patterns 12

    Density patterns 12

    Disability patterns by type of disability 15

    Employment patterns 19

    2.4. Sub-county patterns 23

    Cumberland County 23

    Essex County 26

    Middlesex County 30

    2.5. Summary of key findings 34

CHAPTER 3: Transportation Options of People with Disabilities in New Jersey 37

    3.1. Introduction 37

    3.2. Types of accessible transportation 37

    3.3. Transportation inventory and survey 38

    3.4. Transportation services in New Jersey 42

    Public transit bus and rail services 42

    NJ TRANSIT Access Link 43

    County Community Transportation Services 46

    Nongovernmental services 54

    Private Medical Access Vehicle services 58

    3.5. Summary of key findings 61

    CHAPTER 4: Transportation Needs Analysis 67

    4.1. Introduction 67

    4.2. Focus group findings 67

    4.3. Consumer survey findings 81

    4.4. Access and work opportunity analysis 92

    4.5. Summary of key findings 104

CHAPTER 5: Institutional Barriers, Best Practices and Model Programs 109

    5.1. Introduction 109

    5.2. Coordinating human services transportation 109

    5.3. Best practices and model programs 113

    5.4. Summary of key findings 118

CHAPTER 6: Recommendations 121

CHAPTER 7: References 129

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 2.1: Population density by county ............................................................................................................. 13

    Table 2.2: Disability Patterns by County Working Age Population age 16-64 (2000) ...................................... 16 Table 2.3: Rates of Employment General Population (2000) ........................................................................... 20 Table 2.4: Rates of Employment People with NO Disability (2000) ................................................................ 21 Table 2.5: Rates of Employment People with Disabilities (2000) .................................................................... 22 Table 2.6: Disability Patterns by Municipality Cumberland County (2000) ..................................................... 24 Table 2.7: Rates of Employment Cumberland County (2000) ......................................................................... 24 Table 2.8: Disability Patterns by Municipality Essex County (2000) ............................................................... 27 Table 2.9: Rates of Employment by Municipality Essex County (2000) .......................................................... 28 Table 2.10: Disability Patterns by Municipality Middlesex County (2000) ...................................................... 31 Table 2.11: Rates of Employment by Municipality Middlesex County (2000) ................................................. 32 Table 3.1: Service provider attributes ................................................................................................................ 42

    Table 3.2: Percentage of total county paratransit funding from SCDRTAP (2002) ............................................. 47

    Table 3.3: Types of service offered in each county All county-operated services ............................................. 48 Table 3.4: Fleet size characteristics All county-operated services .................................................................... 50 Table 3.5: Fleet Mix County paratransit providers .......................................................................................... 50 Table: 3.8: Number of NGO providers surveyed by county ............................................................................... 54

    Table 3.9: “Main” sources of transportation funding received by NGOs ............................................................ 55

    Table 3.10: Types of service offered NGO service providers .......................................................................... 55 Table 3.11: Hours of operation NGO service providers ................................................................................... 56 Table 3.12: Fleet size and mix operated by private NGO providers in each county ............................................. 56

    Table 3.13: Fleet size and mix operated by private MAV providers in each county ............................................ 59

    Table 4.1: Consumer survey response rates ....................................................................................................... 83

    Table 4.2: Age of Respondents ......................................................................................................................... 83

    Table 4.3: Educational Attainment .................................................................................................................... 83

    Table 4.4: Employment rates of working age respondents ................................................................................. 84

    Table 4.5: Employment rates by age group ........................................................................................................ 84

    Table 4.6: Last year of education: Employed working age respondents .............................................................. 84

    Table 4.7: Reasons for not seeking employment ................................................................................................ 85

    Table 4.7: Vehicle ownership and accessibility requirements ............................................................................. 86

    Table 4.8: Travel from home to places other than work ..................................................................................... 86

    Table 4.9: Travel from home to work ................................................................................................................ 87

    Table 4.10: Perceptions of service quality Traditional bus or train service ....................................................... 88 Table 4.11: Perceptions of service quality Access Link ................................................................................... 89 Table 4.12: Perceptions of service quality County paratransit ......................................................................... 89 Table 4.13: Perceptions of service quality Taxi .............................................................................................. 90 Table 4.14: Means of communication for receiving information on transportation options ................................. 91 Table 4.15: Characteristics of bus, rail and Access Link coverage ...................................................................... 93

    Table 4.16: Characteristics of county paratransit services .................................................................................. 96

    Table 4.17: Proportion of working age go outside the home disabled living proximate to existing

    bus routes, rail stations and Access Link ........................................................................................ 98

    Table 4.18: Land area covered by Access Link compared to go outside the home disabled

    covered by Access Link ................................................................................................................ 99

    Table 4.19: Job proximity to bus routes, rail stations and Access Link ALL jobs ........................................... 100

    Table 4.20: Job proximity to bus routes, rail stations and Access Link Jobs with large employers

    (100 + employees) ...................................................................................................................... 101

    Table 4.21: Job proximity to bus routes, rail stations and Access Link Jobs with employers

    from key industries ..................................................................................................................... 102

    Table 4.22: Comparison of access and work opportunity factors and employment rates.................................... 103 Table 6.1: Implementation Matrix ................................................................................................................... 128

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 2.1: Density of disabled population ages 16-64 by census tract (2000) .................................................... 14

    Figure 2.2: Percent of disabled population ages 16-64 by census tract (2000) ..................................................... 17

    Figure 2.3: Percent of “go-outside-the-home” disabled ages 16-64 by census tract (2000) .................................. 18

    Figure 2.4: Percent of population with go outside the home disability Cumberland County, NJ (2000) ................. 25

    Figure 2.5: Percent of population with go outside the home disability Essex County, NJ (2000) ...................... 29

    Figure 2.5: Percent of population with go outside the home disability Essex County, NJ (2000) ...................... 33

    Figure 3.1: Access Link “shadow” buffer – Source: Paladino 2004 ................................................................... 43 Figure 3.2: Pick-up / drop-off window Source: Paladino 2004 ....................................................................... 43 Figure 3.3: Access Link Service Regions .......................................................................................................... 45

    Figure 3.4: County paratransit services Hours of operation ............................................................................. 49 Figure 3.6: “Main” customers served – All county-operated services .................................................................. 51 Figure 3.7: “Main” trip purposes – All county-operated services ........................................................................ 52 Figure 4.1: Geographic distribution of survey respondents ................................................................................ 82

    Figure 4.2: NJ TRANSIT bus routes with ? mile buffer .................................................................................... 94

    Figure 4.3: NJ TRANSIT bus routes with ? mile Access Link service boundary ............................................... 95

LIST OF APPENDICES

The appendices for this report are compiled in separate volumes as follows:

    Appendices - Volume 1

    Appendix A Phase 1 Report

    Appendix B Literature and best practice review

    Appendix C Transportation Inventory and Survey

    Appendix D Follow up Focus Group Report

    Appendix E Survey questionnaires

Appendices - Volume 2

    Appendix F Map Atlas

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    Meeting the Employment Transportation Needs of People with Disabilities in New Jersey

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    Background

    Getting and keeping a job can be a challenge for anyone, regardless of disability status. For people with disabilities in New Jersey, the challenge can be even greater. Although the state has a large and extensive public transportation network, many suburban and rural areas have little or no public transportation. In addition, in areas where transportation options are available, they are not always accessible and affordable.

    In an effort to address transportation and other barriers to work for people with disabilities wishing to work in a competitive work environment, in 2000, the New Jersey Department of Human Services, Division of Disability Services (DDS) applied for and was awarded a Ticket to

    Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 Medicaid Infrastructure Grant from the

    federal Health Care Financing Administration. The goal of the project, is to design and implement services that support individuals with disabilities as they secure and sustain competitive employment in an integrated setting.

    As part of the project, DDS contracted with the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (VTC) to develop a five-year transportation plan intended to identify and document transportation barriers to work for people with disabilities and make recommendations related to addressing the identified barriers and providing enhanced transportation services in a variety of settings throughout the state. The following report is the culmination of that work.

The Geography of Disability and Employment in New Jersey

    Critical to addressing transportation barriers to work for people with disabilities in New Jersey is identifying where the state‟s disabled residents live. In order to understand better the geographic relationship between transportation services and where the disabled population resides, an analysis of census data was conducted. Chapter 2 presents the results of this analysis at the state and county level and presents a more detailed analysis for Essex, Middlesex and Cumberland counties to illustrate the extent to which there is municipal variation.

The following is a summary of key findings from the analysis:

    ; According to the 2000 Census, Essex County has the highest number of residents

    (140,551) reporting a disability. Hunterdon County has the lowest (12,130). Densities of

    people with disabilities range from a low of twenty six persons per square mile in Salem

    County to a high of 2,292 in Hudson County.

    ; Statewide, almost one in five residents (17 percent) report having a disability. Hudson

    County has the greatest proportion of disabled residents. Nearly one in four or 24 percent

    report being disabled. At nine percent, Hunterdon County has the lowest rate of

    disability. Morris, Sussex, and Somerset Counties have disability rates at least 5

    percentage points lower than the statewide average. Essex and Passaic Counties have

    rates 5 or more percentage points higher than the average. The four counties with the

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    lowest rates of disability (Hunterdon, Morris, Sussex and Somerset) are either rural or

    suburban in character, while the three counties with the highest rates of disability

    (Hudson, Essex and Passaic) are more urbanized.

    ; Similarly, patterns of disability by type vary across the state. In some cases however the

    variation is more pronounced. For example, two in five working age disabled New

    Jersey residents (39%) report having a condition that makes it difficult to go outside the

    home. At the county level, five counties (Burlington, Cape May, Gloucester, Hunterdon,

    and Sussex) have go outside the home disability rates ten or more percentage points

    lower than the statewide average. At the same time, Hudson and Passaic Counties have

    rates more than ten percentage points higher than average. Once again, the counties with

    lower rates of disability are rural and suburban in character, while those with higher rates

    are more urbanized.

    ; In the case of employment disability, more than two-thirds or 68 percent of the state‟s

    working age disabled population reported having a condition that makes it difficult to

    work at a job or business. Bergen County has the highest rate of employment disability

    (73 percent). Hunterdon County has the lowest (61 percent).

    ; In New Jersey, rates of employment for working age people with no disability average 74

    percent and range from a high of 80 percent in Hunterdon County to a low of 67 percent

    in Essex and Hudson Counties. Nearly 3 out of every 4 working age adults are employed.

    ; For working age people with disabilities in New Jersey, the statistics are dramatically

    different. Statewide, the percent of working age people with disabilities employed is

    approximately 58 percent, 15 percentage points lower than the statewide average for

    those without a disability. Variation between counties is also more pronounced than was

    evident among those with no disability. The county with the lowest proportion of

    employed residents with a disability is Cumberland County, where only 50 percent are

    employed. The county with the highest proportion of employed disabled residents is

    Hunterdon, where two thirds (67 percent) of disabled working age adults are employed.

    ; Just as patterns of disability and employment at the county level vary widely throughout

    the state, so do patterns at the sub-county level. As such, it is important to examine

    municipal level data when considering interventions to improve transportation options

    and services for people with disabilities.

Transportation options for people with disabilities in New Jersey

    The National Council on Disability reports that “[f]or many Americans with disabilities who

    cannot drive or who, if they could drive, do not have the resources for the adaptive driving controls, lifts, telescopic systems, or other assistive technology that may be necessary, accessible transportation represents one of the chief barriers to participation in economic and community life” (2002). A important component of this study was to inventory the range of transportation options available to people with disabilities in each of New Jersey‟s twenty one counties and to document the service characteristics of available travel options.

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