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Market Research 2008 - Market Research Project 0506 Awareness

By Anne Perry,2014-03-20 00:55
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The RSPB Market Research Team was asked to help evaluate the impact of this project against the objectives outlined above, by carrying out independent

    Coastal Futures : Humber Community Project

    Market Research : Awareness of and attitudes towards

    ‘Managed Realignment’

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    Market Research : Awareness of and attitudes towards Managed

    Realignment

    Andrew Manly, RSPB Market Research Team, December 2008

Contents

    1 Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 3 2 Background ............................................................................................................................................. 3 3 Research objectives ................................................................................................................................. 4 4 Research methodology ............................................................................................................................ 5 5 Research findings .................................................................................................................................... 5 5.1 Profile of respondents..................................................................................................................... 5

    5.1.1 Sex ............................................................................................................................................ 5

    5.1.2 Age ............................................................................................................................................ 6

    5.1.3 Length of time in area ................................................................................................................ 6

    5.1.4 Children under 16 living at home ................................................................................................ 7 5.2 Satisfaction with local area ............................................................................................................. 7 5.3 Opinion on how the local area is changing ................................................................................... 8 5.4 Advantages of living in local area ................................................................................................. 8 5.5 Recency of visiting the coast .......................................................................................................... 9 5.6 Reasons for visiting the coast ....................................................................................................... 10 5.7 Main reason for visiting the coast ................................................................................................ 10 5.8 Main reasons for not visiting the coast ........................................................................................ 11 5.9 What respondents value most about living near the coast ........................................................ 12 5.10 Improvements respondents would make to the coast ............................................................... 12 5.11 Respondents’ awareness of issues affecting their local coastline .............................................. 13

     Awareness of ‘Managed Realignment’........................................................................................ 14 5.12

    5.13 Understanding of ‘Managed Realignment’ ................................................................................. 15 5.14 Awareness of local managed realignment schemes ................................................................... 16

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1 Summary

    ; Skeffling, North Somercotes and the East Anglia coast are each characterised by a settled

    population that is slightly older than the national average

    ; There remains a perception, identified in the survey of 2006 that the coastal areas are not

    changing or at least only changing slowly.

    ; Local residents are satisfied with the area in which they live and value the various aspects of a

    coastal living which include: the ‘peace and quiet’, ‘access to green open spaces’, the

    ‘opportunity to enjoy wildlife and nature’ and of course ‘the sea’ itself.

    ; Local people are making good use of the coast with more than half of them visiting on a

    weekly basis or more often. ‘Going for a walk’, ‘enjoying the peace and quiet’ or the ‘scenery’

    are the principal reasons for visiting the coast. In contrast, ‘poor health’ and to a lesser extent,

    a ‘lack of interest’ are the main reasons for not visiting the coast

    ; In 2008 as in 2006, the ‘fresh air ‘and ‘tranquillity’ remain the aspects of a coastal living most

    valued by local people.

    ; Despite being settled and clearly showing ongoing signs of satisfaction with their local area,

    residents are still seeking improvements to their local area. ‘Beach litter’ continues as a shared

    irritant across all three survey areas while ‘coastal erosion’ clearly remains an issue of concern

    for residents of Skeffling

    ; As was found in 2006, the 2008 survey identified considerable variation between sites in the

    issues perceived to be affecting the region. While for residents of Skeffling or the East Coast

    awareness of ‘coastal erosion’ remained in 2008 almost unchanged at the high levels identified

    in 2006, awareness of the issue has clearly grown among residents of North Somercotes in the

    intervening years. Associated with an awareness of coastal erosion, the 2008 survey also

    shows increasing awareness of ‘sea level rise’, ‘flooding/inadequate flood defences’ and the

    ‘build up of mud flats’

    ; Between 2006 and 2008, awareness of the term ‘managed realignment’ among residents of

    Skeffling or the East coast remained unchanged. In contrast, among residents of North

    Somercotes awareness of the term appears to have increased from 39% of the population in

    2006 to 50% in 2008

    ; There clearly remains some confusion over the term ‘managed realignment’ among local

    residents in the survey areas despite the efforts of the project. However, an increased

    awareness of some of the key features of ‘managed realignment’ over the two year period,

    particularly among residents of North Somercotes, would suggest the project has contributed

    to a better understanding of the term and associated issues overall

2 Background

    The RSPB, in partnership with the Environment Agency, Natural England (previously English Nature) and DEFRA, is seeking to improve the sustainability of coastal management by addressing the barriers to effective uptake of managed coastal realignment.

    Traditionally, coastal flood plains have been defended with hard measures, such as sea walls, dikes and embankments. However, over the past 10-20 years, escalating costs of maintaining defences against sea level rise and coastal erosion have forced the consideration of alternative, more cost effective approaches to managing the coastline. Softer approaches to coastal defence, which work with nature rather than against it, have been introduced. One of these new methods is ‘managed realignment’.

    Managed realignment involves setting back the line of actively maintained sea defences to a new line (inland of the original) and promoting the creation of inter-tidal habitats (e.g. salt marsh) between the old and new defences. As inter-tidal habitats are capable of responding to changing coastal

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    environments, setting back the line of sea defences often requires a shorter dike or wall or even no defence at all, particularly where there is rising ground. These defences are therefore cheaper to build and maintain and the risk of flooding is greatly reduced. Consequently, managed realignment can greatly reduce Government expenditure on coastal defence and flood management and enable greater control of the natural realignment process than at present.

    Furthermore, managed realignment can bring environmental and socio-economic benefits to the areas where it is implemented. For example, the inter-tidal habitats created are often important for plants, birds and other wildlife. Re-creating these inter-tidal habitats, many of which were lost through land claim and are still being lost through ‘coastal squeeze’, will contribute to achieving biodiversity targets in the UK. Furthermore, the wildlife resulting from the coastal habitats created can provide new recreation opportunities. Currently, however, these factors are not taken in to account in the Government strategy for coastal defence; decisions to implement managed realignment schemes are made on a cost analysis only.

    While in certain situations, there is a good environmental and economic case for pursuing managed realignment, practical issues on the ground often determine whether or not it is practised. Not surprisingly, local communities often react negatively to the prospect of managed realignment; this opposition (often led by influential individuals within a community) can often seal the fate of managed realignment projects and is costly in terms of time and money. Experience has shown that people living locally to sites of proposed realignment are generally confused about why it is needed and why it is happening in their area. Moreover, the threat of an advancing coastline and losing land appears to be so overwhelming that a community is unable to see any of the benefits managed realignment can bring.

    In response to this situation, the RSPB (in partnership the Environment Agency, Natural England and DEFRA) are trialling a project on the Humber Estuary to support the Government’s strategy for

    sustainable coastal defence. The aims of the project are to

    ; ensure that managed realignment delivers multiple objectives (i.e. brings socio-economic and environmental benefits in addition to cost benefits)

    ; increase community understanding of the potential benefits of managed realignment to their area ; encourage community participation in the development and design of the scheme.

    It is hoped that by fulfilling these objectives there will be improved uptake of managed realignment, in terms of both speed and acceptability. A project manager has been employed for three years to implement the scheme. They will also be responsible for running a wider campaign along the East Coast to promote public acceptance of managed realignment among communities that are likely to be affected by coastal erosion.

    Findings from this project will help develop a model of best practice to inform future effective delivery of coastal flood risk management that maximises the delivery of social, economic and environmental benefits both locally and nationally.

3 Research objectives

    The RSPB Market Research Team was asked to help evaluate the impact of this project against the objectives outlined above, by carrying out independent community attitude surveys among the target communities for engagement on the Humber, as well as target communities for the wider promotion of managed realignment on the coast of East Anglia. An initial quantitative survey was undertaken in Spring 2006 at the outset of the project to collect baseline data on these communities’ awareness of and

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    attitudes towards managed coastal realignment. This identical survey has been carried out to establish whether understanding of and attitudes towards managed realignment have changed over the duration of the project.

The specific objectives of this research were as follows:

    1. To find out how target communities feel about their coastline, i.e.

    ; What they appreciate/value about it

    ; How often they use it

    ; What improvements they would make to it

    2. To find out what target communities understand about the problems facing Britain’s coastlines

    3. To establish whether target communities have heard of ‘managed realignment’ and what they

    understand by the term

    4. To measure target communities’ awareness of local managed realignment schemes

4 Research methodology

    This current telephone survey updates the one previously undertaken by telephone in 2006. The same three areas were chosen for the 2008 survey as were selected for the survey in 2006 using identical sample section methods. The three areas were: Skeffling, near Withernsea (around which the project on the Humber coast is focussed), North Somercotes (where there are also plans to introduce managed re-alignment) and selected areas of the East Anglia Coast (namely, those that are considered by the Environment Agency to be red flood risk areas, plus 5 km).

    ththBetween June 9 and June 26 2008, we employed Critical Research Ltd to carry out 1,305 CATI

    (computer aided telephone interviewing) interviews across the total survey area, via random digit dialling within postal sector. This comprised of 402 interviews in Skeffling (postal sectors HU12 O and HU19 2), 402 in North Somercotes (postal sector LN11 9) and 501 along the East Anglian Coast. The telephone interviews were distributed across each survey area according to the distribution of households and lasted approximately 7-10 minutes each. The full questionnaire can be found in Appendix 3. Data analysis was also carried out by Critical research and the results weighted to reflect

    the population profiles in each of the survey areas. The survey achieved an estimated response rate of 55%

5 Research findings

    Below, all percentage figures have been rounded to the nearest whole percentage. Therefore, in questions where the respondent was asked to choose just one of the options, percentage figures in the tables may sum to just under or just over 100% because of rounding. In questions where respondents were allowed to choose more than one of the options, percentage figures in the tables will sum to more than 100%.

5.1 Profile of respondents

5.1.1 Sex

    ; Weights were applied to the final data to ensure a match between the respondents’ sex profile

    in 2008 compared with 2005 (Details of the weights applied can be found in Appendix 1).

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Table 1. Sex of respondent (Interviewer observation)

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % %

    Male 49 49 49 49 50 50

    Female 51 51 51 51 50 50

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.1.2 Age

    ; By age, the overall informant profile in 2008 was very similar to that achieved in 2006

    although the 2008 informant sample for each of the three survey areas was slightly older than

    that obtained in 2006. In comparison with the national age profile, East Coast residents

    including those of Sketfling and North Somercotes, are typically older than those found

    elsewhere in GB.

Table 2. Which of the following age categories do you fall into?

     Estimated Skeffling North East Coast 1GB pop Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % % %

    16-24 15 3 5 3 4 6 5

    25-34 16 6 8 4 7 6 11

    35-44 18 17 14 12 14 17 17

    45-54 16 13 17 21 21 18 18

    55-64 15 26 23 27 24 25 20

    65+ 20 34 31 34 29 27 29

    Refused <1 1 <1 1 - -

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.1.3 Length of time in area

    ; Skeffling, North Somercotes and the East Coast generally are characterised by a population

    that is not only slightly older than the general population (section 5.1.2) but one that is likely

    to have been resident for a longer period of time. In each of the three survey areas,

    approximately three quarters or more of the population have lived in the area for 10 years or

    more compared with only about half of the GB population (49%). In contrast, while in an

    average year approximately one in ten (11%) of the GB population moves house to relocate to

    a different area, considerably fewer than this move to either Skeffling (1%), North

    Sommercotes (1%) or the East Coast (2%)

1 TGI Survey 2008 ? BMRB International

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Table 3. And for approximately how long have you been living in this area?

     Estimated Skeffling North East Coast 2GB pop Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % % %

    Less than a year 11 1 1 1 - 2 3

    1-2 years 11 3 4 4 3 3 6

    3-5 years 15 9 13 6 11 6 10

    6-9 years 14 8 7 11 8 8 8

    10 years or more 49 77 73 78 77 82 72

    Refused 1 1 <1 1 - -

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.1.4 Children under 16 living at home

    ; Approximately one in five households in each of the survey areas contain at least one child

    (aged <16). This is fewer than the national average of one in three (34%) and almost certainly

    reflects the slightly aged local resident profile mentioned above

Table 4. Do you have any children under the age of 16 living at home?

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % %

    Yes 22 22 19 24 22 23

    No 78 78 81 75 78 77

    Refused 1 1 - 1 - -

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.2 Satisfaction with local area

    ; Resident satisfaction with their local area has changed little between 2006 and 2008. Within

    each of the three survey areas, the high level of satisfaction identified in 2006 was maintained

    in 2008

    ; Satisfaction levels in 2006 were correlated with age and remained so in 2008. Older residents,

    aged 65+, were generally more satisfied with their local area than those aged 45-64 or 16-44

    but satisfaction levels generally remained high across all age groups between the two survey

    periods

2 TGI Survey 2008 ? BMRB International

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    Table 5. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with this area as a place to live? By ‘this area’, I mean the area within a few miles from your home. (Prompted)

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % %

    Very satisfied 53 60 70 65 54 52

    Fairly satisfied 42 32 27 27 39 41

    Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied 2 3 2 3 3 1

    Fairly dissatisfied 2 2 <1 2 3 3

    Very dissatisfied 2 3 <1 2 2 3

    Don’t know - 1 <1 - - 0

Mean score 1.48 1.46 1.66 1.52 1.40 1.38

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.3 Opinion on how the local area is changing

    ; For residents of Skeffling and North Sommercotes the perception that their respective areas

    are unchanging or changing only slowly remains as strong in 2008 as it did in 2006. For each

    of these areas, approximately half of all residents considered their area as unchanging while

    the remainder were almost evenly split between those who considered their area had been

    changing for the better and those who considered such change had been for the worst. These

    incidences of perceived change remain unchanged from those measured in 2006

    ; In contrast to the above, residents of the East Coast in 2008 appeared to have a slightly

    heightened perception of un-welcomed change in their area since 2006. The proportion of

    those claiming their area was ‘getting worse’ as a place to live increased slightly from 31% in

    2006 to 37% in 2008

    Table 6. And do you think this area is getting better, not changing or getting worse as a place to live? (Prompted)

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % %

    Getting better 21 23 16 18 19 18

    Getting worse 25 24 23 23 37 31

    Not changing 51 49 58 54 42 47

    Don’t know 3 4 3 4 3 4

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.4 Advantages of living in local area

    ; For each of the three separate survey areas, the perceived advantages of living within a close

    proximity to the coast remained very similar in 2008 to those identified in 2006.

    ; Residents of Skeffling or North Somercotes appear to share and value similar aspects of their

    local environment. The peace and quiet, the coast, access to green open spaces and the

    opportunities this provides to enjoy wildlife and nature, are the principal aspects most valued

    by residents in these two areas. In contrast, while East Coast residents also value the coast

    (44%) and access to green open spaces (44%), their appreciation of shop accessibility (35%)

    and a comparatively lower value placed on peace and quiet (29%)clearly sets these residents

    apart from those of Skeffling or North Somercotes

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Table 7. Thinking about this area, which (if any) of the following are particular advantages of living here

    for you personally? (Prompted)

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % % Peace and quiet 45 50 54 54 29 37 The coast 52 47 37 39 44 40 Good access to green open spaces 33 39 46 37 44 42 Good opportunities to enjoy wildlife / nature 33 29 45 39 27 29 Access to shops 22 23 14 9 35 34 Feeling safe while out and about 27 21 20 20 18 21 The people / community 26 25 26 22 20 16 Low crime rates 21 18 23 20 18 18 Good schools 16 14 20 14 18 17 Good public transport 15 16 4 1 23 18 Good leisure / recreational facilities 6 7 3 3 14 9 The countryside (not read out) - - - 1 - - Other (not read out) 2 1 1 3 <1 - Nothing (not read out) <1 - - - <1 1 Don’t know <1 1 1 1 1 3

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

5.5 Recency of visiting the coast

    ; Residents in each of the three survey areas are making use of the close proximity of the coast.

    Virtually all have visited the coast at least once in the past year while weekly visits are made

    by approximately half of all residents of North Sommercotes (47%) or of the East Coast (51%).

    However, residents of Skeffling appear to make the most frequent coastal visits with three

    quarters of them (74%) having visited once a week or more often

Table 8. Now thinking specifically about the coast. Before today, when was the last time you visited the

    coast near to where you live? (Prompted)

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % % Yesterday 42 44 14 16 16 18 Within the last 7 days 32 29 33 30 35 26 Within the last month 12 12 25 21 22 19 Within the last 6 months 3 8 14 19 13 15 Within the last year 4 4 7 9 7 11 Longer ago 4 2 6 5 7 10 Never 1 1 <1 - <1 1 Don’t know / can’t remember 1 1 <1 - <1 1

     Base: All respondents (402) (400) (402) (400) (501) (500)

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5.6 Reasons for visiting the coast

    ; Asked to identify the main reasons for their most recent coastal visit during 2008, respondents

    typically cited going for a walk, enjoying the scenery or the peace and quiet. These were the

    same main reasons for visiting also identified in 2006 although a wide range of other reasons

    also appeared to play an influential role

    ; While residents in Skeffling or the East Coast tended to have similar reasons for visiting the

    coast in 2008 as they did in 2006, the same could not be said for residents of North Somercotes.

    Quite why the residents of North Somercotes in 2008 appear to express such a different

    enthusiasm for visiting the coast than they did in 2006 remains unclear. Certainly, in

    comparison with 2006, residents of North Sommercotes in 2008 were more likely to cite ‘going

    for a walk’ (49% vs 82%), ‘enjoying the scenery’ (30% vs 79%), or the ‘peace and quiet’ (24% vs

    72%), to ‘watch wildlife’ (32% vs 51%) or ‘birds’ (21% vs 43%) or to take some exercise (14% vs

    28%).

    Table 9. Thinking about the last time you visited the coast near to where you live, which of the following that I’m about to read out best describe your main reasons for visiting? (Prompted)

     Skeffling North East Coast

    Somercotes

     2008 2006 2008 2006 2008 2006

     % % % % % %

    To go for a walk 75 68 82 49 77 77

    To enjoy the scenery 71 61 79 30 77 72

    To enjoy the peace and quiet 65 60 72 24 59 57

    To watch wildlife (other than birds) 31 27 51 32 30 26

    To walk the dog(s) 28 30 35 31 20 22

    To watch birds 31 30 43 21 30 27

    To exercise / take part in a particular

    sport or activity 31 33 28 14 34 28

    To work 9 7 8 5 7 9

    To swim / sunbathe 8 5 6 2 12 7

    To go shopping (not read out) 5 8 2 3 1 2

    To visit friends / socialise (not read out) 2 1 2 1 4 5

    Live on the coast (not read out) - 3 - - - -

    Family day out (not read out) - 1 - 1 - 1

    Go for a meal / fish & chips (not read - - - - - 1 out)

    Other (not read out) 4 2 3 4 3 2

    Don’t know <1 4 <1 1 <1 1

     Base: All who have visited coast within last year (376) (385) (373) (377) (464) (440)

5.7 Main reason for visiting the coast

    ; Residents in each of the three areas who had visited the coast during the past year were then

    asked to say which one reason best described why they visited the coast. As in 2006,

    informants offered a variety of reasons for their visiting in 2008 but the most likely reason,

    ‘going for a walk’, remained unchanged between the two survey periods.

    ; While many of the reasons offered in 2006 remained important in 2008, there were some

    notable differences between the two survey periods. For example, to ‘enjoy the scenery’ as a

    principal reason for visiting the coast appears to have declined at each of the sites over the

    intervening years where as the reverse appears to be the case for ‘walking the dog’. It is

    possible that the shift in the survey fieldwork dates from spring in 2006 to summer in 2008,

    may have affected informant behaviour and motivations for making a coastal visit

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