Option B Physiology of exercise (15 hours)

By Carrie Mason,2014-04-09 18:21
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Option B Physiology of exercise (15 hours)

Option B: Physiology of exercise (15 hours)

    B1 Muscles and movement 4 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.1.1 State the roles of bones, ligaments, 1

    muscles, tendons and nerves in human


    B.1.2 Label a diagram of the human elbow joint, 1

    including cartilage, synovial fluid, joint

    capsule, named bones and antagonistic

    muscles (biceps and triceps).

    B.1.3 Outline the functions of the structures in the 2

    human elbow joint named in B.1.2.

    B.1.4 Compare the movements of the hip joint and 3 Aim 7: Video analysis of motion is possible here.

    the knee joint.

    B.1.5 Describe the structure of striated muscle 2

    fibres, including the myofibrils with light and

    dark bands, mitochondria, sarcoplasmic

    reticulum, nuclei and the sarcolemma

    B.1.6 Draw and label a diagram to show the 1 No other terms for parts of the sarcomere are

    structure of a sarcomere, including Z lines, expected.

    actin filaments, myosin filaments with heads,

    the resultant light and dark bands.

    B.1.7 Explain how skeletal muscle contracts, 3 Details of the roles of troponin and tropomyosin are not

    including the release of calcium ions from expected.

    the sarcoplasmic reticulum, formation of Aim 7: Data logging could be carried out using a grip cross-bridges, the sliding of actin and sensor to study muscle fatigue and muscle strength. myosin filaments and the use of ATP to

    break cross-bridges and re-set myosin heads

    B.1.8 Analyse electron micrographs to find the 3 Muscle fibres can be fully relaxed, slightly contracted,

    state of contraction of muscle fibres. moderately contracted and fully contracted.

    B2 Training and the pulmonary system 2 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.2.1 Define total lung capacity, vital capacity, 1 Total lung capacity: volume of air in the lungs after a

    tidal volume, ventilation rate. maximum inhalation.

    Vital capacity: maximum volume of air that can be

    exhaled after a maximum inhalation.

    Tidal volume: volume of air taken in or out with each

    inhalation or exhalation.

    Ventilation rate: number of inhalations or exhalations

    per minute (this term is used, not breathing rate).

    Aim7: Data logging using a spirometer could be used.

    B.2.2 Explain the need for increases in tidal 3

    volume and ventilation rate during exercise.

    B.2.3 Outline the effects of training on the 3 Ventilation rate at rest can be reduced from about 14 to

    pulmonary system, including changes in 12 bpm. Maximum ventilation rate can be increased

    ventilation rate at rest, maximum ventilation from about 40 to 45 bpm or more. Vital capacity may

    rate and vital capacity. increase slightly.

    Aim7: Data logging using a gas pressure sensor and a

    ventilation rate monitor belt can be performed.

    B3 Training and the cardiovascular system 3 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac 1 Heart rate: number of contractions of the heart per

    output, and venous return. minute.

    Stroke volume: volume of blood pumped out with each

    contraction of the heart.

    Cardiac output: volume of blood pumped out by the

    heart per minute.

    Venous return: volume of blood returning to the heart

    via the veins per minute.

    B.3.2 Explain the changes in cardiac output and 3 Detection of lowered blood pH causes impulses to be

    venous return during exercise. sent by the brain to the pacemaker, increasing cardiac

    output. Contraction of muscles used during exercise squeezes blood in adjacent veins, increasing venous


    B.3.3 Compare the distribution of blood flow at 3 Blood flow to the brain is unchanged during exercise.

    rest and during exercise. Blood flow to the heart wall, skeletal muscles and skin

    is increased, but blood flow to the kidneys, stomach,

    intestines and other abdominal organs is reduced.

    B.3.4 Explain the effects of training on heart rate 3

    and stroke volume, both at rest and during


    B.3.5 Evaluate the risks and benefits of using EPO 3 Aim 8: There are clear ethical issues involved in the

    (erythropoietin) and blood transfusions to use of performance-enhancing drugs.

    improve performance in sports. TOK: Decisions about what constitutes an acceptable

    level of risk could be discussed, together with

    differences between different groups and their views

    scientists, sportsmen, doctors and spectators.

    B4 Exercise and respiration 3 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.4.1 Define VO, VO max. 1 2 2

    B.4.2 Outline the roles of glycogen and myoglobin 2 Limit the role of glycogen to glucose storage, and the

    in muscle fibres. role of myoglobin to oxygen storage, for use during


    B.4.3 Outline the method of ATP production used 2 Creatine phosphate can be used to regenerate ATP for

    by muscle fibres during exercise of varying 810 seconds of intense exercise. Beyond 10 seconds,

    intensity and duration. ATP is produced entirely by cell respiration. As the

    intensity of exercise decreases and the duration increases, the percentage of anaerobic cell respiration

    decreases, and aerobic cell respiration increases.

    B.4.4 Evaluate the effectiveness of dietary 3

    supplements containing creatine phosphate

    in enhancing performance.

    B.4.5 Outline the relationship between the rises until it 2 As the intensity of exercise increases, VO2 intensity of exercise, VO and the reaches VOmax. Use of fat in respiration falls and use 22 proportions of carbohydrate and fat used in of carbohydrate rises until it reaches 100%.


     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.4.6 State that lactate produced by anaerobic cell 1

    respiration is passed to the liver and creates

    an oxygen debt.

    B.4.7 Outline how oxygen debt is repaid. 2 Lactate is turned into pyruvate, which is converted to

    glucose or used in aerobic respiration in the

    mitochondrion, using oxygen taken in during deep

    ventilations after exercise.

    B5 Fitness and training 2 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.5.1 Define fitness. 1

    B.5.2 Discuss speed and stamina as measures of 3


    B.5.3 Distinguish between fast and slow muscle 2 Fast muscle fibres (typical of sprinters) have greater

    fibres. oxygen needs, low myoglobin levels and provide a

    maximum work rate over shorter periods (strength).

    Slow muscle fibres (typical of marathon athletes) have

    a very good blood supply, plenty of myoglobin and are

    capable of sustained activity (stamina) and high rates

    of aerobic respiration.

    B.5.4 Distinguish between the effects of moderate-2 Moderate-intensity exercise stimulates the

    intensity and high-intensity exercise on fast development of slow muscle fibres. High-intensity

    and slow muscle fibres. exercise stimulates the development of fast muscle


    B.5.5 Discuss the ethics of using performance-3

    enhancing substances, including anabolic


    B6 Injuries 1 hour

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    B.6.1 Discuss the need for warm-up routines. 3 TOK: There is almost universal belief in the need for

    warm-up and sometimes also warm-down routines, but

    much of the evidence for these theories is at best

    anecdotal and at worst non-existent. The difficulty of

    conducting controlled trials without a placebo effect

    could be discussed. The willingness of athletes to

    believe what they are told, without questioning it, could

    also be considered.

    B.6.2 Describe injuries to muscles and joints, 2

    including sprains, torn muscles, torn

    ligaments, dislocation of joints and

    intervertebral disc damage.

3.7 Cell respiration 2 hours

     Assessment statement Obj Teacher’s notes

    3.7.1 Define cell respiration. 1 Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy

    from organic compounds in cells to form ATP.

    3.7.2 State that, in cell respiration, glucose in the 1

    cytoplasm is broken down by glycolysis into

    pyruvate, with a small yield of ATP.

    3.7.3 Explain that, during anaerobic cell respiration, 3 Mention that ethanol and carbon dioxide are

    pyruvate can be converted in the cytoplasm produced in yeast, whereas lactate is produced in

    into lactate, or ethanol and carbon dioxide, humans.

    with no further yield of ATP. Aim 7: Data logging using gas sensors, oxygen,

    carbon dioxide or pH probes could be used.

    3.7.4 Explain that, during aerobic cell respiration, 3

    pyruvate can be broken down in the

    mitochondrion into carbon dioxide and water

    with a large yield of ATP.

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