Since 1975 advocates of human treatment of animals have broadened their goals to oppose the use of animals for fur, leather, wool, and food. They have moaned protests against all forms of hunting
and the trapping of animals in the wild. And they have joined environmentalists in urging
protection of natural habitats from commercial or residential development. The occasion for these
added emphases was the publication in 1975 of “Animal liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals” by Peter singer, formerly a professor of philosophy at Oxford University in
England. This book gave a new impetus to the animal rights movement.
The post-1975 animal rights activists are far more vocal than their predecessors and the organizations to which they belong are generally more radical. Many new organizations are
formed. The tactics of the activists are designed to catch the attention of the public. Since the
mid-1980s there have been frequent news reports about animals’ rights organizations picketing(示
威抗议) stores that sell furs, harassing hunters in the wild, or breaking into laboratories to free animals. Some of the more extreme organizations advocate the use of assault, armed terrorism, and death threats to make their point. Aside from making isolated attacks on people who wear fur coats or trying to prevent hunters from killing animals, most of the organizations have directed their tactics at institutions.
The results of the protests and other tactics have been mixed. Companies are reducing reliance on
animal testing. Medical research has been somewhat curtailed by legal restrictions and the reluctance of younger workers to use animals in research. New tests have been developed to replace the use of animals. Some well-known designers have stopped using fur.
While the general public tends to agree that animals should be treated humanely, most people are unlikely to give up eating meat or wearing goods made from leather and wool. Giving up genuine fur has become less of a problem, since fibers used to make fake fur such as the Japanese invention Kanecaron can look almost identical to real fur. Some of the strongest opposition to the animal rights movement has come from hunters and their organizations. But animal rights activists have succeeded in marshaling public opinion to press for state restrictions on hunting in several parts of the nation.
1. 1975 was an important year in the history of animal rights movement because ________.
A. many people began to call for human treatment of animals that year
B. a new book was published that broadened the animal rights movement
C. the environmentalists began to show interest in animal protection
D. the trapping of animals began to go wild all through the world
2;Some organizations advocate the use of extreme means in order to ________.
A. wipe out cruel people
B. stop using animals in the laboratory
C. attack hunters in the wild
D. catch full public attention
3. When the author says that “the results of the protests and other tactics have been mixed” ( the third paragraph ), he means the protest and other tactics _________.
A. have produced desired effects
B. have almost amounted to nothing
C. have some influence on the public
D. have proved to be too radical
4. It seems that the author of this article __________. A. is strongly opposed to the animal rights movement B. is in favor of the animal rights movement C. supports the use of violence in animal protection D. hates the use of fake fur for clothes