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MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER

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MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER ...

    MEMORY OF THE WORLD REGISTER

    John Marshall Ju/’hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000

    (USA)

    Ref N? 2008-08

PART A ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    ―It is essential to know and understand the deeply spiritual special relationship between indigenous

    people and their land as basic to their existence as such and

    to all their beliefs, customs, traditions, and culture.‖ – UNESCO

    The John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000, held at the Smithsonian Institution‘s Human Studies Film Archives, is one of the seminal visual anthropology projects of the

    twentieth century. It is unique in the world for the scope of its sustained audiovisual documentation of

    one cultural group, the Ju/’hoansi, of the Kalahari Desert, in northeastern Republic of Namibia. The

    film, video, and audio that was created over a span of 50 years by John Marshall is an unparalleled

    historical record not only of an indigenous people‘s traditional lifeways and ties to the land but of the

    transformation of these lifeways in the rapidly changing political and economic landscape that

    developed in concert with the struggle for Namibian independence.

    The Ju/‘hoansi of the 1950s were one of the last surviving groups following traditional hunter-gather subsistence practices. They inhabited an area of the Kalahari known as Nyae Nyae, where life was

    sustained by access to ancestral waterholes. This audio-visual record documents the final years of

    Ju/‘hoansi‘s hunting and gathering life as well as the reality of modernity in their lives during the

    following decades. One can witness their decline into impoverished conditions of malnutrition,

    alcoholism and domestic violence; their struggles for self-determination, cultural identity, and rights to

    traditional land and waters; their attempts to create a mixed economy with subsistence farming; and

    their grassroots political organizing and entry into the modern global community. This rapid and

    extreme change plays out against a backdrop of conflicting needs and interests of neighboring ethnic

    groups, donors to international aid programs, wildlife conservationists, and the administration of

    Namibia‘s newly-formed democracy.

    This often tragic story of loss and rapid change is ongoing not only in the lives of the Ju/‘hoansi but of indigenous groups globally. This visual documentary record is not a static gift to the world but it is

    one that can continually be reinterpreted and used to inform a necessary ongoing dialogue concerning indigenous rights and representation and indigenous media.

The story of John Marshall is unique in the annals of ethnographic and documentary filmmaking. He

    first accompanied his parents on the co-sponsored Smithsonian and Harvard Peabody Museum

    expeditions to the Kalahari Desert in southern Africa, 1950-1958. These early expeditions began a life

    long relationship between John Marshall and the Ju/‘hoansi. Marshall is acknowledged as one of the

    foremost anthropological filmmakers of the twentieth century. His work among the Ju/‘hoansi culminated in 332 hours of film, 433 hours of video, 309 hours of audio, and supplementary paper

    documentation as well as 23 edited films and a five part video series, A Kalahari Family (2002). The latter details the Ju/‘hoansi‘s story over time, Marshall‘s own evolving and innovative filmmaking

    style, and reveals his personal commitment to the Ju/‘hoansi and their struggles. It is of note that

    Marshall created a foundation to aid their development and dedicated most of his adult life to

    advocacy on their behalf. Marshall‘s edited films are among the most widely-used in teaching anthropology globally and his vast influence in the field is reflected in a large amount of

    anthropological and ethnographic filmmaking literature.

The collection reflects the evolution of anthropological research from the study of cultural isolates

    with little or no contact with the outside world to cultures undergoing transformation due to local

    and global economic and political pressures; it follows the evolution of film and video technology and

    its impact on visually capturing a culture. These moving images are a supreme example of film‘s

    socio-cultural influence not only in perpetuating Western stereotypes of an indigenous people but also

    energizing advocacy on behalf of the same group.

Additionally, the associated audio tapes are an exceptionally valuable collection for the study of an

    endangered language of limited geographic distribution. Visuals and audio together provide valuable

    linguistic opportunities for studying language in relation to social context and with its associated

    gestural and performative components. Ju/‘hoansi are the speakers of the Ju/‘hoan language. Various

    cultural descriptors used over the years include !Kung which is a language group containing three

    dialect groups, one of which is the Ju/‘hoansi; San, which is now regarded by the Ju/‘hoansi to have

    negative connotations; and Bushman, which ironically (given the derogatory history of this term) is

    now preferred by the Ju/‘hoansi as a term of dignity. (Orthography information provided by Dr. Polly

    Wiessner, University of Utah anthropologist and long-time field worker among and researcher of the

    Ju/‘hoansi.) With the notebooks, lexicons, and photographs in the Bleek Collection at the University

    of Cape Town (selected for the UNESCO Memory of the World Register 2005-2006), these two

    archival holdings represent an astonishing record of Bushman intangible heritage that spans from the ththmid 19 century to the end of the 20 century.

2 DETAILS OF THE NOMINATOR

2.1 Name (person or organisation)

     Human Studies Film Archives (HSFA), Smithsonian Institution (SI)

     Collections and Archives Program

     Department of Anthropology

     National Museum of Natural History

2.2 Relationship to the documentary heritage nominated

    The HSFA, SI, is the archival repository for the John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Bushman Film and

    Video Collection, 1950-2000

2.3 Contact person (s)

    Pamela Wintle

    Senior Film Archivist

     Human Studies Film Archives

    Collections and Archives Program

    Department of Anthropology

    National Museum of Natural History

     Smithsonian Institution

2.4 Contact details (include address, phone, fax, email)

    Pamela Wintle

    Smithsonian Museum Support Center, MRC 534

     4210 Silver Hill Road

     Suitland, Maryland 20746

     USA

     (301) 238-1324 (ofc)

     (301) 238-2883 (fax)

    wintlep@si.edu

     2

3 IDENTITY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE DOCUMENTARY HERITAGE

3.1 Name and identification details of the items being nominated

The HSFA is nominating the John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000

    for inclusion on UNESCO‘s Memory of the World Register. The collection consists of archival

    original film, video, and audio tapes; original or master film and video for the edited and ―semi‖ edited

    films; film and video reference copies; paper records; photographs; and maps.

    ? 714,405 feet (332 hours) of original film outtakes (film footage not used in the edited films) or

    ―uncut film‖ from 1950-1990

    ? 391 hours of original video on various formats from 1981-2000

    ? 21 published films (A&B rolls, picture and sound elements, and other production film and

    sound materials) made from the 1951-1978 projects including, but not limited to, the

    following.

     Bitter Melons (1971)

     The Hunters (1957)

     Joking Relationship (1962)

     N!ai, Story of a !Kung Woman (1980)

     N/um Tchai: The Ceremonial Dance Of The !Kung Bushmen (1969)

    ? 3 published videos, made from the 1950-2000 projects.

     Pull Ourselves Up or Die Out (1985)

     To Hold Our Ground (1990)

     A Kalahari Family (2002)

    ? 18 unpublished films and related film elements made from the 1951-1990 projects, including

    early and alternate versions of published titles and workprint and video edits for potential

    publication.

    ? 309 hours of audiotapes (synchronous and non-synchronous sound recordings)

    ? Photographs: original negatives, slides, and prints, 1954-2003

    o 27 rolls color 35mm negatives

    o 309 color 35mm slides

    o 165 B&W and color prints

    Reference photographic prints and slides (copies of the Marshall family photographs at the

    Harvard Peabody Museum and photographs taken by third parties and given to Marshall)

    o 654 duplicate color 35mm slides (reference only)

    o 430 B&W and color prints (reference only)

    ? 14.5 linear feet of documentation includes: writings by John Marshall, published research and

    reviews by others, study guides for edited films, field journals and logs, genealogical studies,

    Nyae Nyae Development Foundation and Advocacy Files, photographs, maps of southern

    Africa, and production files that include letters, shot logs, translations, transcriptions, editing

    logs, treatments, and proposals.

    ? Film and video copies for reference use.

3.2 Description

Collection Control

The John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Bushmen Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000 is a very large and

    complex collection of audiovisual material (film, video and audio) and supplementary records (paper

    records, photographs, and maps). The collection is controlled in the following manner:

Film: Initial inventory*

     Technical records for each roll film

     Original shot logs

     Finding Aid

     3

     Collection level MARC cataloging record

Edited films: Initial inventory*

     Technical records for elements

     Finding Aid

     Collection level MARC cataloging record

Video Initial inventory*

     Technical records for each video cassette

     Original shot logs

     Finding Aid

     Collection level MARC cataloging record

Audio Initial inventory*

     Finding Aid

Paper records Initial inventory

     Finding Aid

Photographs Initial inventory*

     Finding Aid

Maps Initial inventory

     Finding Aid

    For all collections there are accession files that contain the agreement and any other document that relates to the rights in the accessioned collection. There is also a correspondence file for each collection.

    *When the HSFA film, video, and audio collections are prepared for moving into the new environmentally controlled storage, they will be barcoded for an automated inventory system which will be tied into the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS) cataloging database for SI archives and libraries. This is a first step for creating an electronic collections management system.

    Attached are examples of record keeping for [Marshall !Kung Expedition IV, 1955], roll 1; [Marshall !Kung Film Project,1983], roll 3; [Marshall !Kung Video Project, 2000], cassette 6; and Baobab Play. The examples include the initial inventory, technical records, pertinent section of

    the original shot log, and the collection level MARC cataloging record. (Appendix B)

    Due to the constraints of the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS) MARC cataloging system, HSFA catalogs multi-roll (or video cassette) titles/series as individual ‗collections.‘

    Eventually, scanned copies of the original project shot logs will be attached to these collection level records to help researchers target specific film rolls or video cassettes.

The finding aid will be available on the HSFA website (www.nmnh.si.edu/naa).

Accessioning details

     HSFA Accession 1983-011

     Film and sound from 1950-1976

     HSFA Accession 2005-011

     Film, video, and sound from 1981-2000

     Video copies of original film and sound and video from 1950-2000

     4

     HSFA Accession 2008-008

     Paper records that support the 1950-2000 film and video projects

     HSFA Accession 2008-009

     Master video of A Kalahari Family

     HSFA Accession 2008-010

     Maps of the Kalahari Desert and other southern Africa areas

The accession number forms the base of HSFA‘s film and video numbering system which is unique

    for each ―title― and film roll or video cassette. As an example, the first roll of camera original film in

    the collection would be 83.11.1 1 OF.

     83.11 is the accession number (leading zero not included)

     .1 indicates that this is the first ―title or series‖ in accession 83-011

     - 1 indicates first roll of film in the title or series

     OF indicates ―original film‖

Provenance

In 1983 John Marshall deposited the film and audio created from 1950-1976. Prior to that time, the

    materials were held in various locales in the Boston, Massachusetts area where Marshall lived and

    worked. From 1983-1997, the film materials were reconstructed (See appendix C for further

    information on the handling and reconstruction of these film projects) at DER, Boston and sent to the

    film preservation laboratory (Cinema Arts) or to HSFA. By 1998, all original film and sound materials

    were integrated into the HSFA collections.

In 2005 and 2008, Cynthia Close, executive director of DER, deposited the audiovisual materials,

    paper records and photographs created from 1981-2000. (John Marshall died in April 2005.) These

    materials were held in DER‘s offices and an air conditioned warehouse outside Boston. The materials

    were shipped in batches from 2005-2008. The processing is close to completion and the materials

    nearly all integrated into the HSFA collections. A master video copy of A Kalahari Family was

    deposited by DER in 2008.

The maps were received in late 2007 and will be the last of the John Marshall collection materials to

    be integrated into the HSFA collections. The maps were discovered in Alexandra Marshall‘s

    (Marshall‘s widow) attic of their house in Boston.

Assessment of Physical Condition

The 1950-1958 film was used for production of numerous films and although the color was (and is)

    still excellent, the film exhibited wear and shrinkage. There were also substantial ―outtakes‖ and

    ―trims‖ (film footage removed from the original camera rolls for making preprint elements). In

    agreement with DER, between 1984 and 1986 the HSFA contracted John Bishop to archivally

    organize and reconstruct the camera rolls at DER. The reconstructed camera original was sent to the

    film laboratory, Cinema Arts, Angel Falls, Pennsylvania, USA, for film preservation. In 1997, the

    film preservation initiative for the 1978 film footage was reconsidered in light of the U.S. Library of

    Congress‘ 1994 ―Redefining Film Preservation: A National Plan‖ which promotes climate controlled

    storage as a cornerstone of film preservation policy. Since the 1976 film was in good condition, the

    remaining original film at Cinema Arts was sent to the HSFA and placed in cold storage. (See

    Appendix C for more information.)

The film and video from 1981-2000 is still in excellent condition. HSFA engaged a contract archivist,

    Karma Foley, who worked with John Marshall on making A Kalahari Family to organize and identify

    the film and video. The original film and original video is now in HSFA‘s climate controlled storage.

    (See appendix D)

     5

    The ?‖ audio tapes are in good condition and are organized in chronological sound roll order within the associated project. The audio tapes are stored in high quality musuem cabinets in stable storage (70?F and 45?8%RH).

    The paper records are identified and ordered into archival series. They are all in reasonably good condition and will be housed in archival folders and boxes and placed in stable storage in museum cabinets. The maps are in fair condition and we will seek advice from a Smithsonian paper conservator for the best way to proceed in caring for them. Environmental storage conditions for the paper records and maps are 70?F and 45?8%RH

    HSFA has climate controlled film storage (38?F and 35%RH) and video storage (55?F and 40%RH). New state of the art climate controlled storage for film and magnetic media is planned for 2010. The moving image and still film will be stored in -4?F with passive humidity control (for more information on this Smithsonian sponsored research see http://www.wilhelm-

    research.com/ist/WIR_ISTpaper_2004_04_MMG_%20preview.html) and magnetic media and still photographic prints will stored in 55?F and 35%RH. (According to Image Permanence Institute‘s

    Preservation Calculator, the current original and preservation film storage environment provides stablization for more than 500 years and the planned sub- zero environment is projected to delay the onset of deterioration for more than 5,000 years.)

    Bibliography

    No one has published on the entire collection because it has never been available until now. However, there are numerous published sources describing various aspects and significance of the edited films. Three recommendations are:

Ruby, Jay (Ed.)

    The Cinema of John Marshall. Philadelphia: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1993.

Gordon, Robert (Ed.)

    Essays on A Kalahari Family. Visual Anthropology Review, 19(1,2), 2003.

Bishop, John

    Life by Myth: The Development of Ethnographic Filming in the World of John Marshall. In Beate

    Engelbrecht (Ed.), Memories of the Origins of Ethnographic Film, pp. 87-94. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2007.

    Referees

We would recommend the following three referees:

Dr. Robert J. Gordon

    Professor of Anthropology and African Studies

    The University of Vermont

    Anthropology Department

    509 Williams Hall

    Burlington, Vt.05405 USA

    Phone: (802) 656-3884

    Fax: (802) 656-4406

    Email: rgordon@uvm.edu

    Dr. Gordon is an anthropologist with an interest in visual anthropology who teaches at the University of Vermont, USA. He was born and raised in South West Africa and attended the Afrikaans-language University of Stellenboschand. He has worked among the Bushmen with particular focus on the roll of mass media‘s influence on how the world perceives indigenous peoples. He has also studied legal

    systems, human rights, violence, and genocide in third world nations and served as a consultant to a

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As a practical matter, it should be noted that the cost of duplicating such a collection is prohibitive

    with little apparent value for anyone to do so for the purposes of monetary gain or falsifying a

    documentary record.

The only changes that might threaten the integrity of the video originals would be the possibility that

    they will deteriorate at some point beyond playability. In standard archival practices, these materials

    are monitored and the original video would be preserved by migration to a new format. Reference

    video copies may also deteriorate or be replaced by copies that are superior and easier to access. Once

    the film is stored in the HSFA's sub-zero storage facility, which will be completed in 2010, it will last

    over 5,000 years (calculated by using the Image Permanence Institute‘s online preservation calculator

    for measuring archival longevity in different environmental conditions,

    www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org).

4.2 Is world significance, uniqueness and irreplaceability established?

    The John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Film and Video collection exists only in the Human Studies Film

    Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Non-archival electronic copies exist of the edited films at

    Documentary Educational Resources for distribution but the original pre-print materials are housed at

    the HSFA. As this collection exists nowhere else, deterioration, loss, disappearance would be

    permanent and irreplaceable (except for the electronic copies held at DER).

This collection visually documents 50 years of Ju/‘hoansi, an indigenous people living in the Kalahari

    Desert of southern Africa, from the time when they still maintained traditional lifeways to a time

    when their very existence was endangered by encroaching modernity. The earlier documentation

    which recorded indigenous way of life and the later footage which showed political organization and

    farming efforts were instrumental in the Ju/‘hoan political struggle to hold onto a portion of their

    traditional lands. Hence, this documentary heritage hadand will continue to have a tremendous

    impact on the current and future prospects of the Ju/‘hoansi and their self-determination. But the

    collection is equally important for its record of the foreign aid and non-governmental organizations

    that flooded into the newly-independent Republic of Namibia. Their altruistic visions, influence in

    local matters, challenges, and problems often seemingly insurmountable are issues shared with

    other global efforts to protect indigenous populations.

All documentary and ethnographic film is unique in that it records people and events at specific times

    and places. By extension, a longitudinal record of related people and events such as the Marshall

    collection is similarly unique, but more broadly so. The Ju/‘hoansi documentary heritage is of critical

    importance to any discussion about the course of anthropology and, in particular, the evolution of

    ethnographic and documentary filmmaking. Marshall‘s documentation of the Ju/‘hoansi is addressed

    in almost every piece of literature concerning ethnographic film and his edited films continue to be

    shown around the world in classrooms and festivals. Although his impact on the development of

    ethnographic and documentary filmmaking is well documented in literature, this record provides a

    unique opportunity to further explore, critique, and learn from such an influential filmmaker. Marshall

    as filmmaker and advocate serves as an historical precedent for any representational media enterprise

    conducted among indigenous groups world-wide. The footage certainly will be essential for future use

    for the Ju/‘hoansi in developing their own indigenous media and, hence controlling their self-

    representation.

Also, given the scope of this collection, it is a valuable resource for studying health, medicine,

    genetics, political science, geography, environmental change, music, and social political and film

    history.

4.3 Is one or more of the criteria of (a) time (b) place (c) people (d) subject and theme (e) form

    and style satisfied?

(a) Time

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As noted above, all documentary or ethnographic film is unique in that it records people and events at

    specific times and places. John Marshall‘s Ju/hoan Bushmen Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000

    documents a time of crisis in the lives of an indigenous people who must make the transition from

    their traditional ways of life to a contemporary economy in order to survive. The enormity and

    complexity of this cultural change and the disastrous effects on their social fabric in the latter half of

    the 20th century mirrors dislocations and social and political changes that were taking place across

    southern Africa. The scope of these changes, and their grounding in a broader political economy of

    state systems, reflects the types of impacts affecting indigenous peoples elsewhere.

John Marshall is the only ethnographic filmmaker who fulfilled what was once considered a goal for

    visual anthropology: a singular and long-term filmic record of a group of indigenous people

    confronting cultural change. In doing so, he has influenced not only the history of ethnographic and

    documentary filmmaking but the history of the Ju/‘hoansi in their struggles for survival.

(b) Place

Geography is both captured in place and in politics. Marshall‘s documentation begins at Gautcha

    waterhole in Nyae Nyae (also known as Bushmanland), a small desert pan situated in the interior of

    the Kalahari Desert of southern Africa. As the visual documentation progresses through time, so does

    the geographical coverage which moves outward to encompass the surrounding world. This includes

    adjacent areas of the Kalahari influenced by the encroachment of other African peoples, incursions by

    the South African state, impacts of labor recruitment and ‗black-birding‘, and related conditions of

    modernity that impact that previously isolated desert land and its indigenous people.

The story that unfolds in this fifty years of documentary recording traces the division of Nyae Nyae by

    the South African colonial administration in Southwest Africa into three sections: the southern part to

    the Herero for their cattle, the northern part as a game reserve and a small, and most arid, middle

    section to the Bushman. After World War II, this area of southern Africa became the League of

    Nations Mandated Territory of South-West Africa under South African rule. With the demise of the

    League of Nations, and the establishment of the United Nations, and South Africa‘s refusal to

    acknowledge the United Nations, in 1966 SWAPO (South-west Africa People‘s Organization) began a

    military campaign to free South West Africa from South African colonial rule. South African Defense

    Force, or SADF, fought back; both recruited Bushmen. In 1989 under U.N. election watch, a

    democratic election was held and independence from South Africa was won. With independence and

    a newly elected government in place, international monetary aid flowed into Namibia and down to

    what was once an isolated waterhole at Gautcha. Failures of various organizations to support the

    farming efforts of the Ju/‘hoansi and empty promises of town living caused the Ju/‘hoansi to once

    again abandon their ancestral lands for the Nyae Nyae adminstrative town of Tsumkwe. By 2000, as

    in 1978, the Ju/‘hoansi were trapped in a cycle of welfare-dependency, drinking, fighting, disease, and

    dying.

    As yet unexplored, there is much potential in this collection to study man‘s interaction with an inhospitable environment for survival, changes in land use as encouraged by man, and the impact of

    global warming.

(c) People

As is noted in various UNESCO documents, there are people whose intangible living heritage and

    collective memories do not exist in any documentary form or medium. This is precisely why the

    Marshall collection is both unique and important as a ―world memory‖ treasure. In the case of the

    Ju/‘hoansi, John Marshall has memorialized in image and sound a way of life that is now forever gone. Such film records (upon which the HSFA is based to a large extent), are part of a world heritage that

    needs to be ―re-membered‖, i.e., as in making whole. The collection also poignantly—and painfully--

    captures a lived perspective and experience of real people with whom we can identify and

    connect. The empathetic depth of this documentary heritage has the potential to move us beyond

    mythic projection and the perceptions which most outsiders have about Ju/'hoansi or 'Bushmen' and

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portray the very real survival struggles which people face as external forces impinge upon their

    aspirations for an independent future. ―To paraphrase Jawaharlal Nehru, the Marshall record enables

    the soul of a people, long suppressed, to find utterance.‖ (From email exchange between Adrian

    Strong and Karma Foley.)

Again, we emphasize that there is no other visual record of the Ju/‘hoansi or any other indigenous

    group that has been created continuously over a 50 year span of time. There is no other record which

    so thoroughly and eloquently documents the struggle for survival and retention of cultural heritage.

    This collection represents not a snap shot in time but a history that has been visually recorded over 50

    yearsthe last half of the twentieth century.

     (d) Subject and Theme

The John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000 is peerless as an

    ethnographic documentary record; it is the most comprehensive visual picture of any single group of

    people, covering all facets of their life, and it is unique in the annals of anthropology and visual history

    because of the filmmaker‘s long-term relationship to the people he filmed. All the film and video was

    filmed by or under the direction of John Marshall.

A study of this extensive record also reveals a half century of changing focus of anthropological

    research, which valued the study of cultural isolateswith minimal contact with the outside worldto

    cultures undergoing transformation due to economic and political pressures. As a kind of ―cultural isolate‖ in the 1950s, the Bushmen engendered excitement in the anthropological world because they

    were perceived as ―pristine‖--a window on the Pleistocene era, when man survived by hunting and

    gathering. By the early 1970s their life had undergone such dramatic change that they were at risk of

    dying out due to the effects of oppression and assimilation, as were many other of the world‘s

    indigenous peoples.

(e) form and style

The John Marshall Ju/‘hoan Bushman Film and Video Collection, 1950-2000, provides a unique

    opportunity for study of the rapid development in techniques and changing ethical standards of

    documentary filmmaking, particularly ethnographic filmmaking in the latter half of the twentieth

    century. The footage reveals a changing focus in documenting ―processes‖ and events to the

    challenges of documenting human dynamics and self reflection on the moral bond between filmmaker

    and subject. All the visuals are supported by production records which provide important contextual

    technical information for the study of this collection.

John Marshall is acknowledged as a pioneer in the field of anthropological filmmaking. Marshall took

    his first film with a Kodak wind-up camera guided only by a Kodak instruction booklet. Over the next

    50 years he employed the latest advancements in film stock and, later, videotape, and equipment,

    including the crucial development of synchronous sound, to create a collection of hundreds of hours

    about the same people in the same place. Often he pioneered alterations to existing equipment or

    ―work-arounds‖ to technical limitations to achieve his goals. His work influenced and was influenced

    in return by practioners of cinema verité, direct cinema and observational cinemaall forms of

    documentary film styles that were made possible by these very technological advances. In time he

    developed a more participatory approach to filming which focused on presenting the subjects‘ point of

    view, a concern of the larger argument of indigenous media and self-representation.

    John Marshall‘s edited films are among the most widely-used in the teaching of anthropology. Many students and professionals claim that Marshal‘s films have had a considerable influence on their

    perception of indigenous people in general and ‗Bushmen‘ in particular (from anthropologist Robert J. Gordon‘s ―Introduction : A Kalahari Family,‖ Visual Anthropology Review, vol 19, Numbers 1 & 2,

    Spring-Summer 2003). In addition, there is virtually no ethnographic film literature which does not

    address Marshall and his films. In 2003, John Marshall‘s first film, The Hunters, was selected for the

    Library of Congress‘ National Film Registry as a film having significant cultural, historical and

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