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American History Comp Review

By Chris Kennedy,2014-11-26 13:13
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American History Comp Review

    American History Comp Review

    Brought to you by J. King and Matt Labs

IMPERIALISM FOREIGN POLICY TO WWI thth19 Century Era of Impeialism During the 19 century, American Imperialism grew to new levels.

    President Roosevelt and other important political figures believed in “social Darwinism,” which meant that the world belonged to the strong nations.

    Alfred T. Mahan Wrote “The Influence of Sea Power upon History.” Argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance.

    American Base at Guantanamo Bay A U.S. held base located in Cuba. Inherited after the Spanish American War.

    American Casualties in Sp-Am War Only 400 men lose lives to combat, 5,000 to disease.

    Battle of Manila Bay May 1, 1898. Commodore Thomas Dewey leads 6 ships into Manila Bay and defeats the old Spanish fleet. No American lives lost compared to 400 Spanish casualties. Big Stick Diplomacy Teddy Roosevelt’s policy in the Caribbean. Policy that the U.S. would be the policeman of the Caribbean and make sure Europe did not interfere.

    Canal Sites in 1900 Three possible sites Nicaragua, Colombia, and Panama.

    Dollar Diplomacy The belief of President Taft that American investments in foreign countries would bring both security and prosperity to America.

    Drago Doctrine Sets forth the policy that no European nation can use force to collect debt from any American nation.

    Election of 1900 President McKinley, the incumbent, was nominated for the Republicans. His running mate was Teddy Roosevelt. William Jennings Bryan won the nomination for the Democrats. Teddy Roosevelt played a key role, with his inspiring oratory and appeal to the common people. Republicans rode a wave of support for Roosevelt to the victory.

    McKinley’s Running Mate in Election of 1900 – see Election of 1900

    Open Door Policy Secretary of State John Hay established this policy. In each countries sphere of influence in China, there would be a respect for fair trade and Chinese rights.

    Platt Amendment - says that America will not annex Cuba but we will intervene if needed. Any borrowing of money needs to be reviewed by the U.S., and we secure naval bases there (Guantanamo Bay). Portsmouth, New Hampshire site of the Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended the Russo-Japanese War. Teddy Roosevelt gives Japan southern half of the island of Sakhalin.

    Results of the S-A War - Spain loses much of its empire, including the Philippine islands and Cuba. We oppress the Philippines but liberate Cuba.

    Roosevelt Corollary a policy of “preventative intervention” where U.S. would intervene in Latin America in

    order to keep Germany and Britain away.

    Root Takahira Agreement - we agree to maintain the Open Door Policy in China.

    Russo-Japanese War Japan and Russia square off in Manchuria, where both were interested in Port Arthur. Japanese rout the Soviets and leads to Treaty of Portsmouth.

    Strong, “Our Country”- wanted Anglo Saxon domination; US would dominate civilization; use zeal of a White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Nation to spread the frontiers for Anglo Saxons TR Supports Panamanian Independence Roosevelt, seeing a outpost for the US in Panama, supports revolutionaries wanting to break from Colombia.

    US Annexation of the Philippines Not among the war benefits, America paid Spain 20 mil for the right to annex the Philippine Islands.

    Watchful Waiting President Woodrow Wilson’s policy in regards to the Mexican Revolution in 1914. He decided that he would not send troops to help the Mexicans, but also would not recognize General Huerta’s regime.

PROGRESSIVISM

    “The Triple Wall of Privilege” – Big businesses that have benefited from a high tariff. We have an inadequate monetary system.

    “Cease and Desist Orders” – Wilson set up the Federal Trade Commission to investigate and halt unfair and illegal business practices. The FTC could put a halt to these illegal business practices by issuing what is known as a "cease and desist order." th18 Amendment Prohibition Movement. th19 Amendment Women’s Suffrage.

    Clayton Anti-trust Act Otherwise known as the “Labor Magna Carta.” Labor Unions and farmer alliances

    were not considered illegal. Also, it legalized collective bargaining which could involve a third party/mediator. Unions began to make use of strikes and boycotts. Price discrimination was also banned, where a company would undercut prices to knock smaller companies out of business, then raise them when they obtained a monopoly.

    Contribution of the Muckrakers Muckrakers enlightened the American people about the horrible working, living, and other conditions that laborers and common people had to deal with. Many books led to the passing of Humanity Laws such as the Meat Inspection Act.

    Desert Land Act The federal gov’t would sell barren land on the condition that the buyer would irrigate the land in the next 3 years.

    Election of 1912 and TR The top 3 candidates for Election of 1912 were Woodrow Wilson (Democrat), William Howard Taft (Republican and incumbent) and Teddy Roosevelt (Progressive). Also representing the Labor Party was Eugene V. Debs, who at the time was in jail. Wilson wins by a landslide, winning 40 of the 48 electoral states. Key supporter of Wilson was William Jennings Bryan, who eventually got Secretary of State. Thomas Marshall was Wilson’s VP. Roosevelt heads the Progressives because of a dispute with Taft

    over trust-busting.

    Eugene V. Debs Headed the Labor Party Ticket, got 9% of vote while in jail.

    Federal Reserve Act of 1913 most important economic legislation until the New Deal. The Federal

    Reserve Board would oversee 12 regional economic districts, each with a central bank. Also enabled the use of paper money, so more money could be circulated if needed.

    Federal Reserve System see above ^^

    Federal Trade Commission 1914. A body that would investigate business practices and make sure there was no foul play. Bank was exception b/c it is governmentally run.

    Frances Willard Founder of the Woman’s’ Christian Temperance Union. Promoted anti liquor campaigns. She would kneel in prayer on saloon floors to try and stop drinking.

    Progressive Movement: Objectives, Successes, Failures, Decline

    o Objectives- antimonopoly, get people involved, control railroads; regain the power that had slipped

    from people into those of the “interests” (initiative, recall, etc.); rooting out graft; direct election of US

    senators; a constitutional amendment to bring about the popular election of senators; women’s

    suffrage

    o Successes- party primary, recall, referendum, initiative; city manager system; settlement houses;

    conservation; Elkins and Hepburn acts (railroads); women’s suffrage; 3 strong presidents in TR, Taft,

    and Wilson

    o Failures- panic of 1907; no women’s suffrage amendment; did not fix segregation of blacks; no child

    labor laws

    o Decline- began with the election of Wilson in 1912 and the Democrats taking over, ended with

    Roosevelt’s refusal to run in the election of 1916

    Gospel of Wealth the notion that the rich were entrusted with society’s riches, therefore would have to prove themselves morally responsible to them.

    Ida Tarbell attacks the oil industry and Rockefeller family, who tried to get monopolies. Initiative gives people an opportunity to propose laws; must sign petitions and submit them to the state legislatures

    Referendum- people voting on a proposal made by a state legislative body- the people decide Recall- gives people the opportunity of dismissing an elected official before his term of office expires Insurgent Revolt Teddy Roosevelt’s break from the Republican Party. This was in response to the firing of Gifford Pinchot, chief of the Division of Forestry. Roosevelt creates the Progressive Party and proclaims “New Nationalism.”

    Interstate Commerce Commission Widely ineffective because railroad barons appealed to the courts on its decisions, which often took up to ten years.

    Meat Inspection Act Decreed that meat shipped over state borders were subject to inspection. Northern Securities Case Case in which Roosevelt dissolves railroad monopolies of the West. Old Guard Conservative Republicans who opposed Roosevelt and supported Taft.

    Plessy v. Ferguson ruled that “separate but equal” facilities were constitutional

    Pure Food and Drug Act Act passed by Roosevelt that basically checked on food to make sure they were edible. Not really enforced, making it a failure.

    Report of the Pujo Committee Findings by Congressman Arsene Pujo that money was being misused by American banking and business.

    Robert LaFollette Leading candidate for Progressive Party nomination until Roosevelt pushed him aside. Samuel Gompers Union leader, praised the Clayton Anti-Trust Act = Magna Carta of Labor. Social Gospel Notion that people deserved better living conditions, very religious. Square Deal “equal for all Americans.”

    3-C’s” Program of Teddy Roosevelt – controlling corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of our resources. This leads to the FDA and the Meat Inspection act.

    Upton Sinclair muckraker who wrote “The Jungle,” which exposed terrible conditions in the meat packing plants. Led to Meat Inspection Act.

    New Freedom Wilson - favored small enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets. It pinned the markets on competition.

WORLD WAR ONE

    “He kept us out of War” – slogan for the Wilson campaign in the Election of 1916

    “A War to end all War” – Wilson’s slogan right before the US entry into WWI. Said the US was fighting for democracy and if victorious, would prevent all future wars.

    “Big Four” of WWI – President Woodrow Wilson (US), Premier Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Prime Minister David Lloyd George (Britain), Premier Georges Clemenceau (France).

    German Resumption of SUB Warfare January 22, 1917, Germany announces they will resume

    unrestricted sub warfare. This violates the Sussex Pledge and brings US into the war. A War to make the world safe for democracy.” – see “A War to end all War.” ^^

    American Military Expedition, Mexico After Pancho Villa kills Americans on American soil, General John Pershing leads a force into Mexico and battles with Villa’s forces.

    Bolshevik Revolution Communists in Russia topple the tsars and set up a Communist regime. Causes of US Entry into WWI British propaganda was very effective at this time, depicting the German Kaiser as a dictator and a bad person. German spy found in America, meaning that the Germans had already infiltrated the country. Main reason, however, was the German use of unrestricted submarine warfare. The Lusitania, a US passenger ship, was sunk by subs and 130 Americans die. French vessel Sussex is sunk, 2 Americans die. This leads to the Sussex pledge, where Germany agrees to stop unrestricted sub warfare. However, months later, German resumes warfare. Also, the Zimmerman telegraph is intercepted, which tells Mexico that Germany will help them get US land if Mexico declares war on the US. Wilson then declares war, saying it is “A War to End All Wars.”

    Committee on Public Information A group founded by George Creel whose main goal was to deliver propaganda across America promoting the War.

    Ferdinand Foch Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces.

    General Huerta Led the Mexican revolution and was placed as President. His regime was marked by bloodshed and was eventually replaced by Carranza.

    George Creel - He was a famous propagandist, who was on the Committee of Public Information. The Creel Organization sent out “four-minute-men,” people who were sent out to speak for the war. Also used art, posters, and other propaganda.

    Henri Petain Commander-in0chief of the French Army for a time. Very defensive minded. John J. Pershing, Expedition see American Military Expedition above ^^

    League of Nations The most important part of Wilson’s 14 Points. Unfortunately, Wilson sacrifices many of the 14 points in order to establish a weak League of Nations.

    Lodge Reservations Henry Cabot Lodge’s “amendments” to the Treaty of Versailles. Did not pass through the Senate, which was the same fate as the original treaty.

    Meuse-Argonne Offensive American force under General John Pershing launches the last mighty Allied assault. Cuts off the German supply lines.

    Norris, “Speech against…War”- says that war only brings prosperity to stockholders on Wall Street, not the common people

    Pancho Villa’s Killing of Americans – Pancho Villa and his troops kill 16 Americans in the hope of a battle between President Carranza and US forces.

    Paul von Hindenburg Supreme Commander of the German Army in 1916. He was more important than the Kaiser, as he had control over the German forces.

    Role of US Military in spring 1916 Although American troops arrived late, they provided a moral boost for the Allied forces. However, they were not the best caliber and did not provide great military strength. Their

    main contribution was just extra forces and morale.

    Schneck vs. US Affirmed that during periods of war, freedom of speech can be revoked. Sinking of Lusitania The British passenger ship Lusitania was torpedoed by German U-Boats. 1,198 people died, including 128 Americans. Angered the US greatly.

    Tampico Inicident A small party of Americans were arrested at the seaport of Tampico, Mexico. The Mexicans apologized, but did not salute 21 guns.

    US Economic Mobilization during WWI Mostly led by volunteers of the war cause, American economy strived to help the Allies, such as the Food Administration, which supplied food for the starving people of Belgium.

    US Senate and the League of Nations The Senate rejected the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles because it would bind America to European affairs. Also, the Republican Senate was angered by the fact that Wilson did not bring any Republican representatives to negotiate. Wilson, Speech...for War Wilson’s speech claiming that it was a war to end all wars, and a war to protect democracy

    Wilson’s Goals at Versailles – Basically, Wilson’s ultimate goal was to secure the League of Nations. He sacrificed many of his other policies for this cause.

1920’s

    “Red Scare” of 1919-1920 Scare across the country due to Communism and Socialism. Started with the Sedition and Espionage Acts of 1917, and many were deported of suspected Communism. American Gangsterism in the 1920s Due to the prohibition act, many police were bribed into letting alcohol smugglers off the hook. Also, mobsters would kill bootlegging competitors, leading to about 500 deaths.

    Bonus Expeditionary Army March About 20,000 war veterans and unemployed workers marched to Washington in an attempt to intimidate Congress. Eventually the army was ordered to evacuate them and two died.

    Harley-Smoot Tariff The highest protective tariff in peacetime. Almost a 60% tax on goods. “Rugged Individualism” – “Not what the country can do for you, but what you can do for the country.” The belief that industry, thrift, and self-reliance were the key out of the Depression. Industrial Workers of The World - did not support the war cause, mainly because of unfair working conditions. Many leaders were arrested.

    Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 Agreement between 62 nations that they would only use war in self-defense. Ineffective because any aggressor could cook up a false story of self-defense. Ku Klux Klan of the 20s A Pro Anglo Saxon group that was basically anti-everything. They spread fear throughout the country but fell after the 20’s.

    Margaret Sanger Feminist who openly championed the use of contraceptives.

    National Women’s Party – Created by Alice Paul, this group fought for women’s rights and played an important role in WWI.

    Women’s Rights Movement – Women worked hard during WWI and were a key part of the economy. President Wilson supported women’s suffrage and they eventually got it in 1920.

    Sacco-Vanzetti Case Two working men were charged with the murder that they did not commit because they were Italian atheists and anarchists. Eventually put to death.

    Scopes or “monkey” Trial of 1925 – Trial between John T. Scopes and William Jennings Bryan, who joined the prosecution. Scopes was indicted for teaching evolution, and was eventually found guilty and fined $100. William Jennings Bryan died 5 days later, most likely because of being humiliated at the witness stand and the extreme heat

    Stock Market Crash of 1929 October 29, 1929, the stock market crashes. People began to sell all their stocks before they were worthless, and stock holders lost an estimated 40 billion in the crash. Teapot Dome Scandal Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall leases private oil reserves to friends in exchange for money.

NEW DEAL

    “Brain Trust” – a group of unofficial advisors, many of them scientists and educated men, who helped FDR make crucial decisions about the New Deal.

    “Share Our Wealth” – Senator Huey Long of Louisiana created this program. Basically, this program would give $5,000 to every family at the expense of the rich. th20 Amendment Changed calendar of congressional sessions and moved the Presidential inauguration date in order to eliminate the “lame duck” period of Presidency. st21 Amendment Repealed the widely unsuccessful Prohibition amendment.

    Alice Paul Leader of the National Woman’s Party

    Banking Holiday A day where FDR closed down all the Banks in the US and then re-opened the banks that he believed were stable and would not close down.

    Civilian Conservation Corps - the most popular of all New Deal Programs. This law provided employment to the unemployed in governmental jobs such as road building.

    FDR, First Inaugural Address This address provided the American people with an inspirational new hope. Said that he would wage war on the “money changers” who brought the Great Depression. Most famous line “Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”

    FDR’s Court Packing Scheme – FDR wanted to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every justice over 70 who would not retire. He wanted this because of the very conservative approach of the old justices. Eventually, this scheme was rejected.

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation The FDIC insured all deposits to banks up to $5,000.

    Frances Perkins First woman Cabinet member. She served as Secretary of Labor under FDR. New Deal FDR’s famous program which was designed to get rid of the Depression. It had three periods –

    Relief, Recovery, and Reform.

    George Norris Senator of Nebraska who headed the revolutionary Tennessee Valley Authority. Glass-Steagall Act Created the FDIC. See above ^^

    Huey Long Senator of California, also known as the “Kingfish.” He founded the “Share Our Wealth” program, which would give every poor family $5,000 dollars, usually taken from the prosperous. This program did not work out well.

    John Maynard Keynes British economist who’s scheme of “planned deficit spending” was followed by FDR and became the economic norm for decades.

    Social Security Act This act enabled those of old age to get some compensation in order for them to live. These payments were paid for by taxes on the current workers.

    Tennessee Valley Authority this agency was designed to find the exact cost of electricity in order to make sure fair rates were being used. This brought full employment and cheap electricity, and once barren towns became prosperous.

    US Policy of Isolationism The US did not want to get involved with and European conflict. Right before WWII, many of the people opposed the War.

    Wagner Act The Wagner, or National Relations Act created a National Labor Relations Board that reasserted the right of labor to self-organization and collective bargaining.

    Works Progress Administration An administration that gave the unemployed jobs and was headed by Harry Hopkins.

WORLD WAR TWO

    “Get Hitler First” – The Allied plan to focus its war efforts on Germany and then deal with the Japanese in the Pacific.

    “Lend lease Law” – Brought up by Roosevelt, this scheme planned to lend the Allied forces in WWII guns and tanks, which would be returned after the War. There was much debate over this law in Congress and was eventually approved in March 1941.

    African-American Migration during WWII Despite economic prosperity in the South, many African-

    Americans left in order to get jobs in war plants in the North and West.

    Allied Strategy after Pearl Harbor The Allies stuck with the “Get Hitler First” policy and concentrated much of the troops to Europe.

    Atlantic Charter Endorsed by the US and Britain, this outlined the aspirations of democracies after WWII. Opposed territorial annexations, supported democracy and self-determination, and supported a new League of Nations.

    Chiang Kai-Shek Chinese Leader who resisted Japan in WWII.

    Destroyers for Base Agreement On Sept. 2, 1940, Roosevelt decides to send 50 destroyers to Britain in return for 8 valuable defense sites across the world.

    Dwight Eisenhower American general who led a secret attack on North Africa. This enabled the Allies to attack the Axis Powers from the soft underbelly of Italy.

    FDR’s Press Conference on Lend-Lease In his support for lend-lease, (see above^^), FDR promotes America as the “arsenal for democracy.”

    FDR’s Support for Britain in WWII – Even before American combat in WWII, FDR sent supplies and

    money over to Britain in support of the war cause.

    Hideki Tojo A general in the Imperial Japanese Army, he was said to have sent the bombings of Pearl Harbor. Sentenced to war crimes after the war.

    Munich Conference A conference held in Munich where the Western democracies, mainly France and Britain, appease Hitler by letting him take the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia. Nye Commission Report Senator Gerald Nye and his probers investigate the possible war and put most of the blame on American bankers and arms manufacturers instead of German U-Boats. This causes Congress to pass the Neutrality Acts in order to stay out of war.

    Policy of Appeasement Policy followed by Western Democracies to try and stay out of war. Famous words “Peace in our time.” – Neville Chamberlain.

    Prime Minister Chamberlain PM of Britain who followed the policy of appeasement.

    Truman’s Decision to use Atomic Bomb – The Allies give a warning to Japan that if they do not surrender, the US would take nuclear action. On August 6, 1945, Truman decides to fulfill his promise and orders atomic bombing of Hiroshima.

1940’s and 1950’s

    “Dixiecrats” – In 1948, the “Dixiecrats” were one of the three Democratic parties in the Election. They nominate J. Strom Thurmond on their State’s Rights Party Ticket.

    “McCarthyism” – Senator Joseph McCarthy of the Republican Party attacks many Democrats and accuses them of appeasing Communists and hiring them. He played on the fear of the American people of Communism and destroyed countless people’s lives. Eventually goes to far when he accuses the US Army of Communism

    and they strike back. th38 Parallel The unofficial divider of North Korea (Communists) and South Korea (Democracy). Chief Justice Earl Warren This justice shocked traditionalists and conservatives with his intervention in social problems, such as civil rights. Led to desegregation of America.

    Cold War The long standoff between the Soviet Union and USA. Although there was no organized fighting, this standoff between Communism and Democracy led to many problems (Vietnam and Korean Wars, Cuban Missile Crisis).

    Containment American policy against Communism. America decided to not totally destroy Communism and create another War, but we would make sure Communism does not spread too far across the world. thDave Beck A leader of the Teamsters Union, this corrupt leader of labor invoked the 5 Amendment 209

    times to avoid telling what he did with $320,000. He was eventually sentenced to prison for embezzlement. Dienbienphu A French held fortress in Northwestern Vietnam. This fortress was taken by Communists after President Eisenhower decided to hold back forces.

    Dwight Eisenhower President from 1953-1961, this former President was greatly admired for his work. Among his accomplishments were the adding of Alaska and Hawaii as states and the economic prosperity of America during his tenure. However, he failed to take action for the civil rights movement in America. Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis After President Nasser of Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, France and Britain threatened to send troops to Egypt. Also, the Soviet Union threatened to help Nasser and possibly send nuclear bombs on France and Britain. However, France and Britain were banking that the US would provide the Allies with oil, which Eisenhower held back. Eventually, France and Britain withdrew their troops because of lack of oil supply.

    Eisenhower Doctrine In 1957, this doctrine pledged help to any Middle Eastern country that was being threatened by Communism.

    Formation of NATO President Truman decides to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which protected included 11 other Europe.

    Formation of SEATO In 1954, the US, France, and Britain sign a pact with various Southeast Asian nations in an effort to prevent the spread of Communism.

    General McArthur’s Resignation – After leading US forces into North Korea, McArthur wanted to proceed into invading Communist China. However, this was not supported by President Truman, and McArthur responded with criticism of the Presidency. Truman then forced the angry McArthur to resign from his position.

    Goals of the Fair Deal This plan called for improved housing, full employment, a higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs, and an extension of Social Security.

    Ho Chi-Minh Vietnamese leader who called for self-determination in Southeast Asia. He eventually became a supporter of Communism, which led to the Vietnam War.

    James R. Hoffa Elected leader of the Teamster’s Union. After his election, the AF of L expelled the Teamsters from their labor union. Hoffa was eventually jailed and disappeared, evidently the victim of gangsters whom he had crossed.

    John Foster Dulles Secretary of State who aimed to liberate the victims of Communism and “roll back” Communist gains. Eventually a part of the Suez Crisis after he dramatically repealed his offer to help President Nasser of Egypt and his dam.

    Mao Zedong Communist leader in China who led uprisings against the Nationalist government. Marshall Plan Called for the spending of $12.5 billion for European relief after WWII. At first, this plan was not supported, but was eventually passed because of pity for Europe. Haha.

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Reverend MLK, Jr. was a champion of the downtrodden and disfranchised. His oratorical skill and his passionate devotion to peace thrust him to the forefront of the black revolution. He formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which planned to mobilize the power of black churches. MLK led many peaceful revolts, such as the sit-in movements and boycotts.

    Nikita Khrushchev Became the new premier with Josef Stalin’s death in 1953. A big part of the Cold War, Khrushchev caused fear in the US with the Cuban Missile Crisis and other pro-Communist acts. Post WWII Policy in Middle East Because of the need for oil, the US tried to protect the Middle Eastern countries from Communism (Eisenhower Doctrine).

    Security Council of the UN

    Sherman Adams White House Chief of Staff under President Eisenhower

    Strom Thurmond Governor of South Carolina who was nominated to represent the State’s Rights Party in the Election of 1948.

    Syngman Rhee First President of South Korea. He opposed communism and was extremely pro-Western. Led the South Koreans during Korean War.

    Taft-Harley Act “Anti-labor” act, it outlawed the all-union shop, made unions liable for damages that

    resulted from disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a non-communist oath.

    Thomas Dewey Republican nominee in the election of 1948. He was predicted to win by a landslide, especially because of the split in the Democratic party. However, he somehow lost, and Harry Truman took the Presidential Election.

    Thurgood Marshall NAACP chief legal counsel who fought the High Court and established a ruling where separate schools for blacks did not meet the test of equality.

    Truman Doctrine President Harry Truman asks for $400 million in order to bolster Greece and Turkey. He said it is the US policy to help free nations who are resisting outside pressures (Communism). Truman Plan Also known as the Marshall Plan, supported European Nations with tons of money. It pumped reviving blood into the European economy and produced an economic miracle.

    Vo Nguyen Giap A General during the Vietnam War, he was second in command to Ho Chi Minh.

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