Panneau 4

By Kathryn Perry,2014-10-17 01:27
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Panneau 4

    Textes Science & Sport

    Version anglaise

Panneau 1 : Deciphering sports movements

To apply the laws of mechanics force, mass, speed and acceleration, trajectory… - to the polyarticulated body

    of the athlete requires a data record of athletic effort and a video based analysis.

    In order to understand sport movements , one must calculate and model in reverse flow the human joint actions that control and trigger the movement. These measurements can be taken in sport training facilities allowing the opinions of the athlete and the coach to be compared to actual scientific data.

Équipe “Mécanique du geste sportif”

    Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides

    CNRS/Université de Poitiers

Sauteur de haies - DigitalVision-Zinzoline

    Saut de cheval - Jacques Demarthon-stf?AFP

Panneau 2 : The champion under a magnifying glass

    3 - 2 - 1 - Go! The acceleration of the runner is measured by a filmed analysis taken under the starting blocks. The thrust thus calculated allows for observation in situ of the results of training efforts. Seoï Nage!!! Marker pens allow measurement through time of the movements of the judoka, his proximity to his opponent, the twisting speed of his hips and shoulders, and the angle and speed of the unbalanced body. Kayaker at training: A bodybuilding apparatus, equipped with force sensors, facilitates the exercise cycles of the feet, buttocks and arms. Infrared cameras capture the body movements.

Équipe “Mécanique du geste sportif”

    Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides

    CNRS/Université de Poitiers

Photos : DigitalVision-Zinzoline

Panneau 3 : Sports and Handicaps

    The handicapped person, like all persons, has the need and the right to access work, education, culture and leisure activities. Sport practice uniquely complements and highlights the athletic capacities of handicapped persons and eases the notion of being handicapped. Sport introduces young handicapped people to rules that are pragmatic and socially recognized. It develops the notion of surpassing one’s self and respect for others.

    The athlete is accepted for his performance and his individual capacities. Research in sports environment produces innovations in rehabilitation programs.

Pôle Ressources National Sport et Handicaps

    Creps de la région Centre - Bourges.

Arrivée 400m Aladji Ba - ?Benjamin Loyseau-FFH

    Frédéric Guyot - ?Benjamin Loyseau-FFH

Panneau 4 : Heavy weight, light weight!

The performance of an athlete is closely tied to the management of his weight.

    Body mass consists of:

    - 10% to 30% fat,

    - lean mass made of 25% extra cellular water and 37% cellular water, of proteins held in the muscles (16%) and minerals largely in the skeleton (6%). A precise knowledge of these elements allows an estimate of their effects on the athlete’s performance. Beyond these standard measurement techniques as the IRM, a portable

    measuring apparatus, based on a non-invasive ultrasonic techniques, permits a rational follow-up of the athlete throughout the sport season.-

Légende photo :

    Fat mass creates categories (boxing, judo) forms one body with the aesthetics

    (gymnasts, skaters) and influences

    anaerobic capacities (running cycling).

Laboratoire " Dynamique de l’évolution humaine " -

    CNRS - Département Médical de l’INSEP - Paris

Photos : DigitalVision-Zinzoline

Panneau 5 : The athlete in his environment

How to improve the interface of athlete, equipment and environment?

    How to analyze the fluid flow (air, water) around the subject in motion

    (skier, windsurfer, cyclist, rower...)?

    Researchers study the aero-biomecanic interactions of movement (speed, positions, penetration into the air, flow...) and produce kinematic and dynamic models. These analyses enable improved movement of the athlete and also improved equipment (board, ski, sails, tennis racket...) that requires a minimal amount of muscular effort.

Légende photo :

    Aerobiomechanical study of a speed skier's position in a blower.

Laboratoire d’Aérodynamique et de Biomécanique du Mouvement

    LABM-USR 2164 CNRS / Université de la Méditerranée

Skieur en soufflerie - ? cnrs Photothèque/LABM

    Javelot - DigitalVision-Zinzoline

Panneau 6 : The marathoner : a pile of oxygen !

    Stamina- the capacity to run at a very high speed for a long duration: from 10,000 meters to a marathon. These athletes are very resistant to muscle fatigue.

    The muscles require oxygen consumption at a high rate, and one speaks of VO2.

    The muscle cells of these athletes possess many small “power plants”, mitochondria, which produce the energy indispensable for muscle contraction.

    Still it is necessary that sufficient oxygen be transported to the muscles. This is done very successfully by the numerous capillaries in the muscles that distribute the blood circulated by the heart.

Laboratoire CREET. CNRS /Université Paris V

    Faculté des Sciences- Créteil,

    UFRSTAPS/Université Paris V

Marathon - ? Greg Wood-str - AFP

    Course - DigitalVision-Zinzoline

Panneau 7 : Swimming against the current !

    Swimming against a current is an excellent tool to analyze precisely the physical performance of a swimmer. The movements of the arms and legs are filmed by fixed cameras from many angles and analyzed. The energy expended and the hydro dynamic resistance are directly measured.

    The system of counter current swimming, the only one of its type, is located at the University of Otago in New Zealand.

Faculté de Médecine - Université de Saint-Etienne.

Plongeon - Christophe Simon-stf?AFP

    Zinzoline - DigitalVision

Panneau 8 : Modeling the sports movements

    Free kick in football, interactions goalkeeper-shooter in handball, aerial movements in acrobatics. How to analyze and simulate the sports movement? From the 3D movements, one calculates the mechanical parameters of the performance (forces, moments, accelerations, energies) and the risks of trauma. Thanks to mathematical modeling, software-simulated movements allow testing initial movement modifications to observe their impact on performance. The results are presented as computer generated images. This research allows development of teaching aids for training at a very high level.

Légende photo :

    Evaluation of the visual elements which allows the goalkeeper to anticipate a parry.

Laboratoire “Physiologie et Biomécanique de l’exercice musculaire”

    UFRAPS Université de Rennes 2

    Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Systèmes Aléatoires, Rennes

Handball - ?INRIA/Photo J.-C. Moschetti-REA

    Basket : DigitalVision - Zinzoline

Panneau 9 : Sports and health among young people

    Among young people, food disorders and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle constitute a threat for society. Adolescence is a crucial period, often associated to a decline in physical activity and to dietary errors. These two factors play a determining role in the appearance of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. A vast study aims to estimate and to compare the evolution of the physical capacity for prolonged exercise and for sprint among young healthy subjects and diabetics and to measure their nutritional intake, to test the effects of training on physical capacity.

    The prevention of these pathologies requires a greater individual and collective awareness.

Laboratoire “Physiologie et Biomécanique de l’exercice musculaire”

    UFRAPS Université de Rennes 2

    Service d’endocrinologie pédiatrique, en collaboration avec l’Association des jeunes diabétiques.

Vélo : Zinzoline-DigitalVision

     Panneau 10 : From the brain to a perfect movement

The success of our movements requires a fine tuning of the forces at work.

    For a better understanding of these actions, a computer modeling of kicking a football or putting a golf ball provides valuable data.

    The player passes on a specific amount of energy to the ball to direct it to the goal or to the cup. To succeed, he must control the timing and effort of his movement. This is achieved through a close link between the central nervous system and the physical movement. These modelings provide a better understanding of how our movements are organized.

Légende photo :

    Virtual reality is used to study the soccer goalkeeper’s behavior.

Laboratoire Mouvement et perception

    CNRS-Faculté des Sciences du Sport de Marseille

Golf : Michael Kienzler-str - ? AFP

Gardien de but virtuel : Médard Laurence ? CNRS Photothèque

Panneau 11 : Young people facing doping

    According to recent studies, 5% of 17-18-year-old athletes take enhancing drugs (tonics, steroids, corticoids...) to improve their sports performance. Doping behavior must be considered a problem by the leaders and other supporters of young athletes. Underestimating their existence and prevalence has heavy consequences for preventing their usage. To bring about change, the prevention program must take into account the social environment of the young people and provide scientific data to support relevant programs. It is the same for school performance with vitamins, mineral salts or oligo-elements.

DRJS Lorraine

Photos : Vincent Burille Cinergie

Panneau 12 : Winning ball !

    Golf, tennis, football the balls are not smooth. Why? They allow the player to control better the trajectory. In big speed, the friction of air on the front of a moving ball increases pressure, but with the irregularities of surface, zone of trails behind decreases strongly and compensates widely for the first effect. The property allows considerable improvement in shot precision

    and even an earning reach. If one adds the ball’s rotation, one obtains a curved trajectory that makes for the success of kicks otherwise stopped in football (Platini, Carlos, Zidane...).

    It is "the Magnus effect" that creates the lift of an airplane wing and the push on a boat’s sail.

Légendes photos :

    The free kick in football: behind the ball stroked it at more than 100 km/h, the air flow is weak (1), then it becomes more turbulent (2) and increases strongly at very low speed(3), bringing down the ball. When a soccer puts spin on a ball, the ball undergoes an upward force (4), which bends its trajectory.

Flows behind a ball of baseball


Zidane 2oo4 : Adrian Dennis-stf ?AFP

    Sur une idée d’Etienne Guyon, Jean-Pierre Hulin, Luc Petit

    Livre à paraître aux Editions Belin, Paris 2oo4

Panneau 13 : Trim the sails !

    Why does a sailboat go into the wind?

    With a well adjusted sail, the wind speed at each point of a sail’s exterior is greater than on the corresponding interior point. This results in a low pressure area on the external face. The result of these forces inflates the sail forward and advances the boat. This effect of lift, studied by Bernoulli, is increased by the interactions between the main sail and the foresail, interactions that are also present in the rotation of balls with the Magnus effect. To understand the movement of sailboats, one also analyzes the structural elements: the hull and the keel.

Légende photo :

    Model of a fluid flowing around ACC's hull (America Cup Class).

Sur une idée d’Etienne Guyon, Jean-Pierre Hulin, Luc Petit

    Livre à paraître aux Editions Belin, Paris 2004.

Ecoulement des fluides - ? cnrs Photothèque

    Voilier Géronimo - ? René Tanguy-Capgemini

Panneau 14 : Materials from head to feet !

    The constraints of sport - performance, comfort, pleasure, aestheticism, health and safety - contribute strongly to the evolution of materials. All products, from the tee shirt to the Formula 1, are involved.

    New textiles allow the evaporation of perspiration (breathability) while preventing rain from entering (impermeability). Synthetic furs reproduce the very complex characteristics of animal coats and improve insulation values. The use of such polymers as EVA and PU brings to the shoes’ soles a good balance between adhesion, cushion, protection, suppleness, durability and lightness.

Légendes photos :

    - Competition shoes which privileges the thoughtlessness for the performance.

    - Trailing shoes for a good adhesion and a maximal protection.

Décathlon création-Centre technique de la chaussure

    Réseau Français d'Ingénierie du Sport

Chaussures : ?decathlon-domyos

    Course - DigitalVision-Zinzoline

Panneau 15 : A bicycle…

    1817: Karl Drais covered 14 km in less than one hour. Today, the best riders cover about 56 km in one hour. Composite materials and innovative manufacturing processes create a competition bicycle that often weighs less than 8 kg. The frames are made of steel, aluminium, composites or titanium. The frame’s tubing varies according to location to assure rigidity, lightness and aerodynamics. It is not uncommon that the thickness of the tubing is less than one millimeter. The wheels use flat, straight spokes and tires with a silicate base for rolling ease and Kevlar for puncture resistance.

Légendes photos :

    - Cycles with suspensions allow to keep control and motricity in any grounds.

    - The use of aluminium with carbon’s materiels brings to the cycle more lightness, rigidity, nervousness and aerodynamics.

Décathlon création - Réseau Français d'Ingénierie du Sport

Cycliste - DigitalVision-Zinzoline

    Vélos : ? Décathlon-Cycle

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