Does the modernisation process contribute to
1. Explain: What is the ‘modernisation process’?
Since ‘reform and opening up’ in the late 1970s, China has embarked upon a process of modernisation.
This has involved:
; Construction/Development of infrastructure
; More vehicles
; More material goods
2. Explain: What are ‘environmental problems’?
Some people think/consider that this modernisation process is responsible for a range of different environmental problems which confront/face China and the world.
; Air pollution
; Water pollution
; The Greenhouse Effect
; Global warming
; Climate change
3. Give your answer: Does the modernisation process contribute to environmental problems?
(a) Introduce the debate
It is a subject of debate … /People argue about … /People disagree about …
… whether the process (of modernisation) contributes to environmental problems.
(b) State your opinion
As for me …
I take the view that …
I am of the view that …
In my opinion …
As far as I see it, …
As far as I know, …
Without doubt/Without the shadow of a doubt, the modernisation process has been a major factor in causing environmental problems.
; An increased number of cars and other vehicles on the road has resulted in
; Increased industrial output from factories has resulted in a huge decline in
air quality, as well as water pollution from factory waste. ; As a result, a smog hangs over many of our cities.
; Emissions have also resulted in acid rain falling over China’s cities.
; Construction has resulted in dust causing air pollution, as well as destruction
of natural habitats and ecosystems.
; Our natural resources are becoming depleted as more and more of them are
used in construction and industrial production.
; Deforestation (for wood) has also had a negative impact on the ecosystem. ; Endangered species have been put at greater risk.
The modernisation process has contributed only a little to environmental problems. Modernisation has also helped to bring about more protection for the environment and more awareness of the risks.
; Increased modernisation has resulted in greater attempts to improve the
; For example, recycling and the use of energy efficient products have been
encouraged by the government.
; Environmental legislation has also been passed to ensure factories cause less
; Globalisation has resulted in increased efforts by governments around the
world to tackle environmental problems/threat, such as the signing of the
Kyoto Agreement or the Copenhagen summit.
; Increased modernisation has resulted in the development of environmentally
friendly technologies and clean sources of energy (such as solar and wind
energy) which has helped to alleviate environmental problems.
(iii) To some extent
The modernisation process is, to an extent, responsible for environmental problems. It has had both positive and negative impacts on the environment ….
On the one hand, …
On the other hand, …
For arguments for and against, see above.