By Lee Carter,2014-04-22 09:37
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Ernest Hemingway

    ??1??As the leading spokesman for the " lost generation" he expressed the feelings of a war-wounded people disillusioned by the loss of faith and hope, and so thoroughly defeated by the collapse of former values that, their atrophied nerves not permitting them to attack their betrayers, they could turn only to a stoic acceptance of primal emotions. ??2??His writing technique

     1. His basic principles of narration are: leaving key elements of plot out of a story but contriving to have them affect the reader nonetheless; developing a plot on two levels simultaneously, one explicit and one implicit; restricting the narrative perspective to objective descriptions and matters of fact that a sensitive reader could use to infer the psychological conflicts at the heart of the story. 2. His " iceberg" theory: only a fraction of the meaning of a scene shows on the surface, the rest must be inferred from the individual details.

    3. His use of multiple narrators.

    ??3??His style

    The whole art of writing was concision, or saying what you mean in the fewest and clearest words. His prose was simple and apparently natural, having an effect of directness, clarity and freshness. He always manages to choose words concrete, specific, more commonly found, more Anglo-Saxon, casual and conversational, and employ them often in a syntax of short, simple sentences, which are orderly and patterned, conversational, and sometimes ungrammatical. His strength lies in his short sentences and very specific details. His short sentences are powerfully loaded with the tension which he sees in life.

    Hemingway??s view was shaped by his experience as a young man in the First World War. Many of his stories dealt with war or injury, and nearly all of them examined the nature of courage. His exploration of courage took many forms.

    He wrote about courage as ??an instinctive movement toward or away from the centre of violence, with self-preservation and self-respect??. He denied the romantic idea that courage was a noble emotion which could govern a man??s action or prepare him to perform a brave act. He also wrote about the courage with which men face the tragedies of life that can never be remedied.

    The Hemingway Code Hero

    The ??Hemingway Code?? of manhood does not involve mere physical strength, sexual potency, or ability to accumulate wealth. According to this code, a man is defined by will, pride, and endurance: the endurance to accept pain, even loss---when the loss cannot be avoided; the pride of knowing that one has done one's best, with the courage

    to act truly according to one's own nature; and the will to face defeat or victory without whining on one hand or boasting on the other.

Grace Under Pressure??


    Under the influence of Mark Twain and with the help of Gertrude Stein, and Pound, Hemingway developed a new colloquial style characterized by directness, freshness, simplicity and apparent naturalness. Hemingway always managed to choose words concrete, specific, common, casual and conversational; and employ them often in a syntax of short, simple sentence.

    But his style is deliberate and its simplicity can be deceptive. It is highly suggestive and connotative.

    This style is a reflection of Hemingway's view of good writing. He said that "I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg".

Iceberg Theory

    After the publication of his last major work, The Old Man and the Sea, Ernest Hemingway explained his "iceberg" theory of fiction writing in a Paris Review interview: ??If it is any use to know it, I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg. There is seven-eighths of it underwater for every part that shows. Anything you know you can eliminate and it only strengthens your iceberg.?? Hemingway's "iceberg theory" of prose style suggests that the writer should leave unsaid the vast majority of what might be written on a subject. The writer gains power by knowing what to leave out.

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