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Urban Three-dimensional Expansion and Its Driving Forces A Case Study of Shanghai, China

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Urban Three-dimensional Expansion and Its Driving Forces A Case Study of Shanghai, ChinaA,of,a,Urban,and,Its,Case,Study,urban,its

    Urban Three-dimensional Expansion and

    Its Driving Forces A Case Study of

    Shanghai, China

    Chin.Geogra.Sci.2009I9(4)291-298

    D0I:10.1007/s117690090291x

    www.springerlink.corn

    UrbanThree-dimensionalExpansionandItsDrivingForces

    ——

    ACaseStudyofShanghai.China

    SHILongyu,SHAOGuofan,CUIShenghui,LIXuanqi,2L1NTao

    ,

    YINKai,2ZHAOJingzhu

    (.InstituteofUrbanEnvironment,ChineseAcademyofSciences,Xiamen361003,China,"2.Graduate

    UniversityofChineseAcademyofSciences,Beijing100049,China,'3.DepartmentofForestryand

    NaturalResources,PurdueUniversity,WestLafayette,IN47907,USA)

    Abstract:Urbanexpansionisaphenomenonofurbanspaceincrease,andanimportantmeasuringindexoftheprocess

    ofurbanization.TakingShanghaiasanexample,thechangesofurbanaverageheightandbuiltupareawerestudiedto

    representcity'sverticalandhorizontalincreasesrespectively,andstatisticalmethodswereusedtoanalyzethedriving

    forcesofurbanexpansion.Theresearchdrewfollowingconclusions:1)TheurbanexpansionprocessofShanghai

    from1985to2006hadaclearperiodicfeature,andcouldbedividedintothreestages:verticale

xpansionindominance,

    coordinatedverticalandhorizontalexpansion,andhorizontalexpansionindominance.2)Th

    eaverageheightand

    quantityofbuildingsincorecityweresignificantlybiggerthanthoseinsuburbs,butthechangi

    ngspeedofthelatter

    wasfaster.And3)urbanizationprocesswasthemajordrivingforceforthecity'shorizontalexp

    ansion,whileindustrial

    structureimprovementwasthekeydrivingfactorfortheverticalexpansion.Thosetwodrivin

    gforcesweresimultane

    ouslyaffectedbycity'spoliticalfactors.

    Keywords:urbanexpansion;three-?dimensionalspace;urbanization;urbanverticalexpans

    ion;urbanhorizontalex?-

    pansion;Shanghai;China

    1Introduction

    Urbanexpansionisaphenomenonofurbanspacein

    crease.andanimportantmeasuringindexoftheprocess

    ofurbanization(Zengeta1..2004).Thecharacteristics

    anddrivingmechanismofurbanexpansioninEurope

    andNorthAmericahavebeenwidelystudiedfAguilar.

    1999).Aligeta1.(2004)indicatedthattherewasanin

    creaseof34%intheareaofurbanconstructionIand

    between1982and1997intheUnitedStates.Thisin

    creasecamepredominantlyfromtheconversionofarable

    landandforestland.andthedrivingforcesforland

    transformationsignificantlyincreasedbothinpopulation

    densityandpersonajncome.Theprocessofurbanex

    pansioninChinesecitieswasalsoinvestigated(Xiaoet

    a1.,2006).SetoandFragkias(2005)usedthelandscape

    ecologymethodtoconductaresearchontheprocessof

    1andusechangeoffourcitiesinGuangdongProvinceof

    Chinabetween1988and1999.Theyfoundthatalthough withdifferenteconomicdevelopmentandpolicyhistory, thesimilarcharacteristicswereshownintheirurban expansionandspeedpatterns.Fan(1999)believedthat economicfactorsmightnotbetheleadingforcescon

    tributingtotheChina'surbangrowth;incontrast,social andpoliticalfactorscouldhaveplayedamoreimportant roleduringtheformingofChina'scurrenturbanstruc

    ture.

    Theresearchonurbanexpansionwasmostlyreferred asanabstractorsummaryofaseriesofdifferenturban spaceordersinacertainperiodandgeographicalenvi

    ronment(ChengandMasser,2003).Mostofthere. searchesabouturbanexpansionfocusedonthehorizon. taexpansion.butrelativelyittleconcernedaboutthe

    processofverticalexpansion.Urbanexpansionwasa threedimensionalprocessincludingbothhorizontaland veaicalexpansion.Currentresearchesaboutthreedim

    ensionalexpansionwerestillatanexplorationperiod.A fewstudieshadbeenmadeabouttheheight(Thomson. Receiveddate:20081215;accepteddate:2009--07--22 Foundationitem:UndertheauspicesoftheKeyDirectioninKnowledgeInnovationProgram

    sofChineseAcademyofSciences(No

    KZCX2YW-422),NationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChina(No.40701059)

    Correspondingauthor:ZHA0Jingzhu.Email:jzhao@rcees.ac.cn

    292SHI0ng',SHAOGuqfan,CUIShenghuietal

    1966),layoutstructure(Wright,1971)andtheenviron

    mentaleffectsofurbanthree.dimensionalexpansion (Hoch,1968).JohannKohlwasthefirsttobringupthe ideaofsphericalshapecityrPeucker,1968).Hebe-

    1ievedifwecouldbuildhousesontopofeachotheras easilyassidebyside.andlightandfleshairaswellas trafficcommunicationscouldbeprovidedatconsider

    abledepthsundergroundaseasilyasatuppertownlev- els,theneverytownwouldtakeonsphericalshapeand extenditsroadsinalldirectionslikeacupola(Peucker, 1968).Alfred(1890)analyzedthebuildingheightusing diminishingmarginalreturnandlandrent.Hebelieved mattheheightofbuildingscannotincreaseendlessly, becauseatlastitisfoundthattheextraexpensesfor foundationandthickwall.andforhis1ifl,togetherwith someresultingdepreciationofthelowerfloors.which makeitstandtolosemorethanitgainsbyaddingone morefloors.

    ThehorizontalurbanexpansionpatterninChinawas similartothatinUSAandEurope.buttherewerebig direncesiutheirve~icalpatterns.Forinstance. groupsofsingle.anddouble..flooredhousescouldbe seenalmosteverywhereinAmericaandEuropecities. However,inChina,underthepressureofhugepopula- tion.citizenscommonlyresidedintalIbuildingswhich ledtotheChinesecities'distinctfeatureofverticalex. pansion.Therefore,thispapertookShanghaiasanex

    ampletoanalyzethethree.dimensionalurbanexpansion processfrom1985to2006.usingthechangeofbuild

    ingsaverageheighttorepresenttheverticalincrease. Forhorizontalexpansion.theresearchmainlyconsid. eredtheexpansionofbuiltuparea.Furthermore,we

    investigatedthesocioeconomicdrivingforcesaffecting Shanghaisspatialexpansion,suchaspopulationgrowth,

    economicincrease,industrialstructureimprovement, socialdevelopmentandtransportationextension.aiming toacceleratethedevelopmentofquantitativestudyon urbanization.andexplaintheactua1urbanstructure comprehensively.

    2StudyAreaandMethodology

    2.1Studyarea

    Shanghai(3o12'N,121.30E)isthelargestcityinChina intermsofpopulation,with13.68x10registeredperma. nentresidentsandmorethan3x10ofafloatingpopula

    tionbytheendof2006.LocatedinChina'scentraleastern coastatthemouthoftheChangjiang(Yangtze)River, contiguoustoJiangsuProvinceandZhejiangProvince, themunicipalityasawholeconsistsofapeninsulabe. tweentheChangjiangRiverandHangzhouBay,Chong

    mingIslan(卜一China'sthird1argestisland.andanumber ofsmallislands(Fig.11.ThevastmajorityofShanghai's landwithanareaof6.340kmisflat.apartfromafew hillsinthesouthwestcorner,whoseaverageelevationis 4m.Shanghaihasahumidsubtropicalclimateandex. periencesonaverage1.778hoursofsunshineperyear, withthemeanannualtemperature18.4.C.Theaverage numberofrainydaysis112peryear,andtheaverage annualprecipitationis1.042ram.withthewettestmonth beingJune.Theaveragefrost.freeperiodis276days. 120.48l2l.00El21l2'El21.24El2l.36l2l.48E

    31.48N

    31.36'N

    3124.N

    31.12N

31.00.N

    30.48N

    31.48N

    31.36'N

    31.24

    31.12N

    31.00.N

    30.48N

    121.00.E121.l212124.E12l.36.E12l.48.E122.0O.E 一一

    Provincefmunicipality1boundary0LakeRiver ——

    Districtandcountyboundary

    嘲圈CorecitySuburb[]Outersuburb

    1Yangpu,2Hongkou,3Zhabei,4Putuo,5.Changning, 6.Xuhui,7.Huangpu,8.Jing'an,9Luwan

    Fig.1LocationandadministrativedivisionofShanghai Shanghaiisadministrativelyequaltoaprovinceand isdividedinto19county.1eve1divisions:l8districtsand onecounty.Nineofthosedistrictsarecollectivelyre

    ferredtoShanghaiProperorthecorecity,including Huangpu,Luwan,Xuhui,Changning,Jing'an,Putuo, Zhabei.HongkouandYangpudistricts.Fourdistrictsare inthesuburbs,whichareJiading,Baoshan,Minhang, andPudongNewDistrict.Theoutersuburbsaregov

    ernedbyQingpu,Songjiang,Jinshan,Fengxian,and UrbanThreedimensionalExpansionandItsDrivingForces Nanhuidistricts.aswellasChongmingCounty. Originallyafishingandtextilestown,Shanghaigrew

toanimportantcityinthe19thcenturyduetoitsfavor

    ableportlocation.Asaresultofeconomicreformsin the1970s.urbandevelopmentwasstimulatedtoroarat veryfastspeed.andsince1992Shanghaihasrecordeda double.digitgrowthfor15consecutiveyears.In2006. ShanghainominalGDP(sumofrealGDPandinflation rate)posteda13.1%growthto1.04x10"yuan(RMB). AsmanyotherareasinChina,Shanghaiisundergoinga buildingboom,wherethebulkofbuildingsbeingcon- structedarehighriseapartmentsofvariousheight,color anddesign.Thereisnowastrongfocusbycityplanners tomakesensiblecountermeasuresabouturbanization issues,suchastodevelopmore''greenareas"(public parks)amongtheapartmentcomplexesinordertoim

    provethequalityoflifeforShanghai'sresidents,quitein accordancetothethemeof"BetterCity--BetterLife"of Shanghai'sExpo20l0.

    2.2Dataandmethod

    Thedatausedtodemonstratethespatialcharacteristics ofShanghaiincludethesizeofbuilt.uparea,quantityof high.risebuildingsobtainedfromShanghaiStatistical Yearbookbetweenl985and2006(ShanghaiStatistical Bureau.1985-2006).Socialandeconomicindexesused fordrivingforcesanalysisarealsoobtainedfrom ShanghaiStatisticalYearbook.

    2.2.1Averagehighrisebuildingheights

    TheaveragehighrisebuildingheightsofShanghaiand eachdistnctwerecalculatedbyEquation(1): H=

?(×

    f=1

    ??i=1

    293

    whereVisthevelocityvariationrate;andX0arethe lastandinitialvaluesofurbanspace(horizontalorver- ticaldimension)inagivenperiod.Horizontalspacewas expressedasthebuiltuparea,andverticalspacewas

    expressedasthesquarevalueofaverageheight,inorder tobeinaccordancewiththeunitofbuiltuparea.mis

    thechangingperiod(year).Itwasbelievedthattheur

    banspacewasincreasingwhen0:urbanspacewas decreasingwhenV<0.Theurbanspaceexpansiontypes weredefinedaccordingtothedifferencesofVvalue:if V>10%,urbanspaceexpansiontypewashighspeed

    growth;4%<r<l0%,waslowspeedgrowth;0<4%,

    wasslowgrowth;Similarly,whenV<-10%.l0%<

    _4%,and-4%<V<0,urbanspaceexpansiontypescor

    respondedtohighspeeddecline,low-speeddeclineand slowdeclinerespectively.

    2.2.3Three-dimensionspatialvariation

    Athreedimensionspatialindexwasintroducedtode- scribethethreedimensionspatialvariationofacity. Theindexexpressedaproportionalrelationshipbetween urbanverticalexpansionandhorizontalexpansion, whichcanbecalculatedbyEquation(3):

    C:(1000x

    H)2(31

    一?,

whereCisathree-dimensionspatialindex,dimen

    sionless;Histheaveragehigh-risebuildingheight(m); Aisthebuiltuparea(km).Duringagivenperiod,if thevalueofCincreases,itmeansthattheurbanspace expandsmoreintheverticaldirection.butifthevalue ofCdecreases.itmeansthattheurbanspaceexpands moreinthehorizontaldirection.

    (1)3Results

    where,istheaveragehighrisebuildingheight(m);hi

    istheheightofthebuildingwithistories(m),assuming thateachstoryis4mhigh;Nisthequantityofbuildings withistories;nisthenumberofthehigheststowina certainarea.

    2.2.2Extentofurbanexpansion

    Thevelocityvariationratewasusedtoevaluatetheex- tentofurbanexpansionacrossagivenperiod.Thisin

    dexwascalculatedbyEquationf2):

    V=

    XtX

    ×100%

    3.1Urbanexpansionprocess

    Figure2showedthecompositionstructureofhigh-rise buildingsinShanghaifrom1985to2006.Thetotal amountofhighrisebuildingsrosefrom225tonear

    12.000in19852006.increasing53times.From1985 tol992.theconstructionspeedofhigh.risebuildings wasslow;however,itbegantospeedupafter1992. From1992to1999.theincreaseofhigh.risebuildings concentratedintheskyscraperswiththeheightrange from80mto120m;duringl999and2006.thegrowth

    ofbuildingsover80msloweddown,butthe40-60m buildingsexpandedrapidly.Thisalterationincompo

    nentstructureofhighrisebuildingshasbroughtobvious 294SHILong)~,SHAOGuofan,CUIShenghuietal changeinbuildingsaverageheight(Fig.2, 9

    6

    3

    0

    _

    u3040m?4060m6080m8O120mI1>l20m I

    _

    ?

    一?

    _

    -

    8lI

    一一-?-?嗣嗣昼目liiiIi.!Il.^卜?0~-4nln

    ?oo???

    …………

    Ycat

    8ggg苎昌

    2S

    Fig.2Compositionofhighrisebuildingsin

    Shanghaiin19852006

    AccordingtoEquation(1),theaveragehighrise

    buildingheightsofShanghaifrom1985to2006were calculated(Fig.3).Shanghai'shorizontalexpansionwas

    graduallyincreasing,buttheverticalexpansionwas

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