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Explanation of Medical Literature Ratings

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Explanation of Medical Literature Ratings

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

DIVISION OF WORKERS’ COMPENSATION’ REFERENCES

REFERENCES

    ACOEM. Occupational Medicine Practice Guidelines, 2nd Edition. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 25 Northwest Point Blvd., Suite 700, Elk Grove Village, Illinois, 60007-1030 (www.acoem.org.). 2004:116.

    American Medical Association (AMA). Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, Fifth Edition. 2001: 566, 578.

    Engel G. L. (1997).‖ The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine.‖ Science 196: 12936

    Flor, H., T. Fydrich, et al. (1992). "Efficacy of multidisciplinary pain treatment centers: A meta-analytic flow." Pain 49(2): 221-230.

    Gatchel, R. J. and D. Bruga (2005). "Multidisciplinary Intervention for Injured Workers with Chronic Low Back Pain." SpineLine (Sept/Oct): 8-13.

    Guzman, J., R. Esmail, et al. (2001). "Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: systematic review." British Medical Journal 322(7301): 1511-6.

Hanson, R. and Gerber, K. ―Table2.1: Contrasting Pain Models‖ Coping with Chronic Pain: A

    Guide to Patient Self-Management. New York, NY, Guilford Press. 1993:30.

    Linton, S. (2000). ―A review of psychological risk factors in back and neck pain.‖ Spine 25 (9): 1148-56.

    Mackey, S. C. and F. Maeda (2004). "Functional imaging and the neural systems of chronic pain." Neurosurg Clin N Am 15(3): 269-88.

    Medical Board of California, Guidelines for Prescribing Controlled Substances for Pain, http://www.medbd.ca.gov/pain_guidelines.html

    Merskey, H. and N. Bogduk (1994). Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. Seattle, WA, IASP Press.

    Turk, D. and A. Okifuji, ―Chapter 2 Pain Terms and Taxonomies of Pain‖ in Loeser JD. Bonica‘s Management of Pain, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins:19.

    1

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Siddall P. J. and Cousins, M. J. Persistent pain: a disease entity. Journal of Pain Symptom Management. 2007; 33(2 Suppl): S4-S10.

OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES’ REFERENCES

HIGHER PRIORITY REFERENCES

Behavioral Interventions

    Complementary Alternative Medicine

    Early Return-To-Work

    Injections

    Low Back Pain

    Medical Treatment Guidelines

    Medications

    Pain Assessment and Management

    Pain Chronic

    Pain Miscellaneous

    Psychosocial Evaluation and Treatment

    Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy/ Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Therapeutic Intervention

    Spinal Cord Stimulation

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS

    Aetna Clinical Policy Bulletins. Chronic Pain Programs Number 0237. Reviewed: May 5, 2006

    Altmaier EM, Lehmann TR, Russell DW, Weinstein JN, Kao CF. The effectiveness of psychological interventions for the rehabilitation of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial evaluation. Pain. 1992 Jun;49(3):329-35.

    American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington: APA Press, 1994.

    Asfour SS, Khalil TM, Waly SM, Goldberg ML, Rosomoff RS, Rosomoff HL. Biofeedback in back muscle strengthening. Spine. 1990 Jun;15(6):510-3.

    Bendix AF, Bendix T, Labriola M, Boekgaard P. Functional restoration for chronic low back pain. Two-year follow-up of two randomized clinical trials. Spine.1998 Mar 15;23(6):717-25.

    2

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    BlueCross BlueShield. Utilization Management Section - Pain Rehabilitation Programs. Policy No: 5, Effective Date: 06/01/2004

    BlueCross BlueShield. Allied Health - Biofeedback as a Treatment of Chronic Pain. Policy No: 28. Effective Date: 08/03/2004

    Bigos SJ, McKee JE, Holland JP, Holland CL, Hildebrandt J. Back pain, the uncomfortable truth - assurance and activity problem. Schmerz 2001 Dec;15(6):430-4.

    Bush C, Ditto B, Feuerstein M. A controlled evaluation of paraspinal EMG biofeedback in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Health Psychol. 1985;4(4):307-21.

    Croce RV. The effects of EMG biofeedback on strength acquisition. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1986 Dec;11(4):299-310.

    Dysvik E, Natvig GK, Eikeland OJ, Brattberg G. Results of a multidisciplinary pain management program: a 6- and 12-month follow-up study. Rehabil Nurs. 2005 Sep-Oct;30(5):198-206.

    Flor H, Birbaumer N. Comparison of the efficacy of electromyographic biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and conservative medical interventions in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1993 Aug;61(4):653-8.

    Gatchel R., Polatin P. and Kinney R. Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis. Health Psychology 1995:14 (5);415-20.

    Gatchel RJ, Polatin PB, Noe C, Gardea M, Pulliam C, Thompson J. Treatment- and cost-effectiveness of early intervention for acute low-back pain patients: a one-year prospective study. J Occup Rehabil. 2003 Mar;13(1):1-9.

    Gatchel RJ, Clinical Essentials of Pain Management. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2005.

    Gatchel RJ, Mayer TG, Theodore BR. The pain disability questionnaire: relationship to one-year functional and psychosocial rehabilitation outcomes. J Occup Rehabil. 2006 Mar;16(1):75-94.

    Gross DP, Battie MC. Predicting timely recovery and recurrence following multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with compensated low back pain. Spine. 2005 Jan 15;30(2):235-40.

    3

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Haldorsen EM, Grasdal AL, Skouen JS, Risa AE, Kronholm K, Ursin H. Is there a right treatment for a particular patient group? Comparison of ordinary treatment, light multidisciplinary treatment, and extensive multidisciplinary treatment for long-term sick-listed employees with musculoskeletal pain. Pain. 2002 Jan;95(1-2):49-63.

    Hasenbring M, Ulrich HW, Hartmann M, Soyka D. The efficacy of a risk factor-based cognitive behavioral intervention and electromyographic biofeedback in patients with acute sciatic pain. An attempt to prevent chronicity. Spine. 1999 Dec 1;24(23):2525-35.

    Karjalainen K, Malmivaara A, van Tulder M, et al. Multidisciplinary Biopsychosocial Rehabilitation of Subacute Low Back Pain in Working-Age Adults: A Systematic Review Within the Framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine 2001;26(3):262-269.

    Keefe FJ, Block AR, Williams RB Jr, Surwit RS. Behavioral treatment of chronic low back pain: clinical outcome and individual differences in pain relief. Pain. 1981 Oct;11(2):221-31.

    Keel PJ, Wittig R, Deutschmann R, Diethelm U, Knüsel O, Löschmann C, Matathia R, Rudolf T, Spring H. Effectiveness of in-patient rehabilitation for sub-chronic and chronic low back pain by an integrative group treatment program (Swiss Multicentre Study). Scand J Rehabil Med. 1998 Dec;30(4):211-9.

    Kool J, Bachmann S, Oesch P, Knuesel O, Ambergen T, de Bie R, van den Brandt P. Function-centered rehabilitation increases work days in patients with nonacute nonspecific low back pain: 1-year results from a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Sep;88(9):1089-94.

    Kool JP, Oesch PR, Bachmann S, Knuesel O, Dierkes JG, Russo M, de Bie RA, van den Brandt PA. Increasing days at work using function-centered rehabilitation in nonacute nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 May;86(5):857-64.

    Lin EH, Katon W, Von Korff M, Tang L, Williams JW Jr, Kroenke K, Hunkeler E, Harpole L, Hegel M, Arean P, Hoffing M, Della Penna R, Langston C, Unutzer J; IMPACT Investigators. Effect of improving depression care on pain and functional outcomes among older adults with arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Nov 12;290(18):2428-9.

    Linton SJ. Occupational psychological factors increase the risk for back pain: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil. 2001 Mar;11(1):53-66.

    Maclaren JE, Gross RT, Sperry JA, Boggess JT. Impact of opioid use on outcomes of functional restoration. Clin J Pain. 2006 May;22(4):392-8.

    4

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ, Kishino N, Keeley J, Capra P, Mayer H, Barnett J, Mooney V. Objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury. A prospective study with comparison group and one-year follow-up. Spine. 1985 Jul-Aug;10(6):482-93.

    Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ, Mayer H, Kishino ND, Keeley J, Mooney V. A prospective two-year study of functional restoration in industrial low back injury. An objective assessment procedure. JAMA. 1987 Oct 2;258(13):1763-7.

    Mayer T, Polatin P, Smith B, Gatchel R, Fardon D, Herring S, Smith C, Donelson R, Wong D; North American Spine Society Committee; Contemporary Concepts Review Committee. Spine rehabilitation: secondary and tertiary nonoperative care. Spine J. 2003 May-Jun;3(3 Suppl):28S-36S.

    McGeary DD, Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ. High pain ratings predict treatment failure in chronic occupational musculoskeletal disorders. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Feb;88(2):317-25.

    McGeary DD, Mayer TG, Gatchel RJ, Anagnostis C. Smoking status and psychosocioeconomic outcomes of functional restoration in patients with chronic spinal disability. Spine J. 2004 Mar-Apr;4(2):170-5.

    Newton-John TR, Spence SH, Schotte D. Cognitive-behavioural therapy versus EMG biofeedback in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Behav Res Ther. 1995 Jul;33(6):691-7.

    Nouwen A. EMG biofeedback used to reduce standing levels of paraspinal muscle tension in chronic low back pain. Pain. 1983 Dec;17(4):353-60.

    Rome JD, Townsend CO, Bruce BK, Sletten CD, Luedtke CA, Hodgson JE. Chronic noncancer pain rehabilitation with opioid withdrawal: comparison of treatment outcomes based on opioid use status at admission. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Jun;79(6):759-68.

    Schonstein E, Kenny D, Keating J, Koes B, Herbert RD. Physical conditioning programs for workers with back and neck pain: a cochrane systematic review. Spine. 2003 Oct 1;28(19):E391-5.

    Schultz IZ, Crook J, Berkowitz J, Milner R, Meloche GR, Lewis ML. A Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention with High-risk Back-injured Workers-A Pilot Study. J Occup Rehabil. 2008 Jun;18(2):140-51. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

    Skouen JS, Grasdal AL, Haldorsen EM, Ursin H. Relative cost-effectiveness of extensive and light multidisciplinary treatment programs versus treatment as usual for patients with chronic low back pain on long-term sick leave: randomized controlled study. Spine. 2002 May 1;27(9):901-9; discussion 909-10.

    5

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Spence SH, Sharpe L, Newton-John T, Champion D. Effect of EMG biofeedback compared to applied relaxation training with chronic, upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. Pain. 1995 Nov;63(2):199-206.

    Stanos S, Houle TT. Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary management of chronic pain. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2006 May;17(2):435-50, vii.

    Stuckey SJ, Jacobs A, Goldfarb J. EMG biofeedback training, relaxation training, and placebo for the relief of chronic back pain. Percept Mot Skills. 1986 Dec;63(3):1023-36.

    Sullivan MJ, Ward LC, Tripp D, French DJ, Adams H, Stanish WD. Secondary prevention of work disability: community-based psychosocial intervention for musculoskeletal disorders. J Occup Rehabil. 2005 Sep;15(3):377-92.

    Vlaeyen JW, Haazen IW, Schuerman JA, Kole-Snijders AM, van Eek H. Behavioural rehabilitation of chronic low back pain: comparison of an operant treatment, an operant-cognitive treatment and an operant-respondent treatment. Br J Clin Psychol. 1995 Feb;34 ( Pt 1):95-118.

    Voerman GE, Vollenbroek-Hutten MM, Hermens HJ. Changes in pain, disability, and muscle activation patterns in chronic whiplash patients after ambulant myofeedback training. Clin J Pain. 2006 Sep;22(7):656-63. Links

COMPLEMENTARY ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

    BlueCross BlueShield, Durable Medical Equipment Section - Biomagnetic Therapy, DME Policy No: 55, Effective Date: 03/01/2005

    Casimiro L, Barnsley L, Brosseau L, Milne S, Robinson V, Tugwell P, Wells G, Casimiro L. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD003788.

    Corbin L. Safety and efficacy of massage therapy for patients with cancer. Cancer Control. 2005 Jul;12(3):158-64.

    Han JS. Acupuncture and endorphins. Neurosci Lett. 2004 May 6;361(1-3):258-61.

    Hasson D, Arnetz B, Jelveus L, Edelstam B. A randomized clinical trial of the treatment effects of massage compared to relaxation tape recordings on diffuse long-term pain. Psychother Psychosom. 2004 Jan-Feb;73(1):17-24.

    6

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Mitchinson AR, Kim HM, Rosenberg JM, Geisser M, Kirsh M, Cikrit D, Hinshaw DB. Acute postoperative pain management using massage as an adjuvant therapy: a randomized trial. Arch Surg. 2007 Dec;142(12):1158-67.

    Tulder MW van, Cherkin DC, Berman B, Lao L, Koes BW. Acupuncture for low back pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2002. Oxford: Update Software.

    Uher EM, Vacariu G, Schneider B, Fialka V. Comparison of manual lymph drainage with physical therapy in complex regional pain syndrome, type I. A comparative randomized controlled therapy study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2000 Feb 11;112(3):133-7.

    Walach H, Guthlin C, Konig M. Efficacy of massage therapy in chronic pain: a pragmatic randomized trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Dec;9(6):837-46.

EARLY RETURN-TO-WORK

    Bernacki EJ, Guidera JA, Schaefer JA, Tsai S, A facilitated early return to work program at a large urban medical center, J Occup Environ Med 2000 Dec;42(12):1172-7.

    Boseman J. Disability management. Application of a nurse based model in a large corporation, AAOHN J 2001 Apr;49(4):176-86.

    Burleson AM. American Academy of Pain Medicine 24th Annual Meeting (Kissimmee, FL): Abstract 105. February 15, 2008.

    Melhorn JM. Workers' compensation: avoiding work-related disability. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2000 Oct;82-A(10):1490-3.

    Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, Morganstein D, Lipton R, Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce, JAMA. 2003 Nov 12;290(18):2443-54.

INJECTIONS

    Abejón D, Garcia-del-Valle S, Fuentes ML, Gómez-Arnau JI, Reig E, van Zundert J. Pulsed radiofrequency in lumbar radicular pain: clinical effects in various etiological groups. Pain Pract. 2007 Mar;7(1):21-6.

    Ackerman WE, Zhang JM. Efficacy of stellate ganglion blockade for the management of type 1 complex regional pain syndrome. South Med J. 2006 Oct;99(10):1084-8.

    7

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Aetna Clinical Policy Bulletins. Electrical Stimulation for Pain. Number 0011. February 22, 2005

    Alvarez DJ, Rockwell PG. Trigger points: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Feb 15;65(4):653-60.

    Aydin G, Tomruk S, Keles I, Demir SO, Orkun S. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus baclofen in spasticity: clinical and electrophysiologic comparison. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 Aug;84(8):584-92.

    BlueCross BlueShield, Surgery Section - Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (PENS), Policy No: 44, 08/03/2004

    BlueCross BlueShield, Durable Medical Equipment Section - Electrical Stimulation Devices for Home Use, DME Policy No: 11, Approved Date: 04/05/2005

    BlueCross BlueShield, Durable Medical Equipment Section - Sympathetic Therapy for the Treatment of Pain, DME Policy No: 65. Effective Date: 03/01/2005

    BlueCross BlueShield, Durable Medical Equipment Section - Interferential Stimulation, DME Policy No: 66. Effective Date: 03/01/2005

    BlueCross BlueShield. Medicine Section - Trigger Point Therapy. Policy No: 39. Effective Date: 11/01/2004

    BlueCross BlueShield. Medicine Section - Prolotherapy. Policy No: 40. Effective Date: 06/01/2004

    Breit R, Van der Wall H. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for postoperative pain relief after total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2004 Jan;19(1):45-8.

    Brinkhaus B, Witt CM, Jena S, Linde K, Streng A, Wagenpfeil S, Irnich D, Walther HU, Melchart D, Willich SN. Acupuncture in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Feb 27;166(4):450-7.

    Burton AW, Interventional Therapies. In: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Treatment Guidelines. Ed. Harden N. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome Association. 2006. Retrieved July 2008.

    California Technology Assessment Forum. Interferential stimulation for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. 2005.

    8

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Cepeda MS, Lau J, Carr DB. Defining the therapeutic role of local anesthetic sympathetic blockade in complex regional pain syndrome: a narrative and systematic review. Clin J Pain. 2002;18:216-33.

    Cheshire WP, Abashian SW, Mann JD. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. Pain 1994;59:65-9.

    Chong MS, Bajwa ZH. Diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003 May;25(5 Suppl):S4-S11.

    CMS National Coverage Policy, Part B Supplemental Instructions Article (SIA): Epidural Injections: Transforaminal, Indications and Limitations of Coverage and/or Medical Necessity, CMS Coverage Database ID Number A21834. 08/05/2004

    Condon JE, Borg-Stein J, Revord J et al. A multicenter trial of percutaneous neuromodulation therapy for low back pain patients with a subacute duration of lower extremity pan. Presented at the American Academy of Pain Medicine Annual Meeting. San Francisco, CA, March 1, 2002

Day M. Sympathetic blocks: the evidence. Pain Pract. 2008. 8:98-109

    Erdogan M, Erdogan A, Erbil N, Karakaya HK, Demircan A. Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study of the Effect of TENS on postthoracotomy pain and pulmonary function. World J Surg. 2005 Dec;29(12):1563-70.

    Ezzo J, Berman B, Hadhazy VA, Jadad AR, Lao L, Singh BB. Is acupuncture effective for the treatment of chronic pain? A systematic review. Pain. 2000 Jun;86(3):217-25.

    Finsen V, Persen L, Lovlien M, Veslegaard EK, Simensen M, Gasvann AK, Benum P. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after major amputation. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1988 Jan;70(1):109-12.

    Foster L, Clapp L, Erickson M, Jabbari B. Botulinum toxin A and chronic low back pain. A randomized, double blind study. Neurology 2001;56:1290-93.

    Forouzanfar T, Köke AJ, van Kleef M, Weber WE. Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I. Eur J Pain. 2002;6:105-22.

    Furlan AD, Sjölund BH. Igniting the spark? Pain. 2007 Jul;130(1-2):1-3. Epub 2007 May 22.

    Ghoname EA, Craig WF, White PF, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Henderson BN, Gajraj NM, Huber PJ, Gatchel RJ, Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: a randomized crossover study, JAMA 1999 Mar 3;281(9):818-23

    9

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

Title 8, CALIFORNIA CODE OF REGULATIONS, SECTION 9792.20 ET AL.

    APPENDIX DCHRONIC PAIN MEDICAL TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    DIVISION OF WORKERS‘ COMPENSATION AND

    OFFICIAL DISABILITY GUIDELINES‘ REFERENCES

    October 23, 2008 version of ODG Chapter on Pain

    Hartrick CT, Kovan JP, Naismith P. Outcome prediction following sympathetic block for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Pract. 2004;4:222-8.

    Hong CZ, Simons DG. Pathophysiologic and electrophysiologic mechanisms of myofascial trigger points. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Jul;79(7):863-72.

    Humana Coverage Issues, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) or Interferential Current Stimulation (ICS), 06/14/04

    International Research Foundation for RSD/CRPS. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome. 3rd ed. Tampa (FL): International Research Foundation for RSD/CRPS; 2003 Jan 1. Retreived July 2008.

    Jadad, A., et al. Intravenous Regional Sympathetic Blockade for Pain Relief in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A Systematic Review and a Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study. Journal of Pain Symptom Management. 1995; Volume 10:13-20.

    Johnson M, Martinson M. Efficacy of electrical nerve stimulation for chronic musculoskeletal pain: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain. 2007 Jul;130(1-2):157-65. Epub 2007 Mar 23.

    Kalauokalani D, Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Koepsell TD, Deyo RA. Lessons from a trial of acupuncture and massage for low back pain: patient expectations and treatment effects. Spine. 2001 Jul 1;26(13):1418-24.

    Koke AJ, Schouten JS, Lamerichs-Geelen MJ, Lipsch JS, Waltje EM, van Kleef M, Patijn J. Pain reducing effect of three types of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in patients with chronic pain: a randomized crossover trial. Pain. 2004;108:36-42.

    Lew MF, Adornato BT, Duane DD et al. Botulinum toxin type B: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, safety and efficacy study in cervical dystonia. Neurology 1997;49:701-7.

    Linde K, Streng A, Jurgens S, Hoppe A, Brinkhaus B, Witt C, Wagenpfeil S, Pfaffenrath V, Hammes MG, Weidenhammer W, Willich SN, Melchart D. Acupuncture for patients with migraine: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 May 4;293(17):2118-25.

    Lundeberg T. Relief of pain from a phantom limb by peripheral stimulation. J Neurol. 1985;232(2):79-82.

Medicare National Coverage Determinations Manual. Chapter 1, Part 2. 2006.

    10

    Title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 9792.20 et seq.

    Appendix DChronic Pain Medical Treatment Guidelines

    DWC and ODG‘s References

    (Final Regulations Effective July 18, 2009)

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