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GS1 Global User Manual

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GS1 Global User Manual

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     GS1 Global User Manual

     GS1

     Global User Manual

     Issue 11, Approved, Mar-2010

     Issue 11, Approved, Mar-2010

     All contents copyright ? GS1

     Page 1 of 58

     GS1 Global User Manual

     Document Summary

     Document Item Document Title Date Last Modified Document Issue Document Status Document Description Current Value GS1 Global User Manual Mar-2010 Issue 11 Approved Provides an introductory "user-friendly" and simple document describing the GS1 System with particular focus on the GS1 Bar Codes and Identification Keys.

     Contributors

     Name Lutfi ilteris Oney Organization GS1 Global Office

     Log of Changes in Issue 11

     Issue No. 11 Date of Change 10.03.2010 Changed By Lutfi ilteris Oney Summary of Change 2010 Update

     Forward

     The objective of the GS1 Global User Manual (GUM) is to provide an introductory "user-friendly" and simple document describing the GS1 System with particular focus on the GS1 Bar Codes and Identification Keys. This document is not exhaustive and does not replace the GS1 General Specifications, which remains the standard reference document.

     Disclaimer

     Please note that the bar code symbols used in this manual are only examples and are not intended to be scanned or used as references. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the GS1 standards contained in the document are correct, GS1, and any other party involved in the creation of the document HEREBY STATE that the document is provided without warranty, either expressed or implied, of accuracy or fitness for purpose, AND HEREBY DISCLAIM any liability, direct or indirect, for damages or loss relating to the use of the document. The document may be modified from time to time, subject to developments in technology, changes to the standards, or new legal requirements. In addition no warranty or representation is made that the standards will not require modification due to additions to the system and developments in technology.

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     All contents copyright ? GS1

     Page 2 of 58

     GS1 Global User Manual

     Table of Contents

     1. 2. Introduction ???? 6 Basics and Principles of the GS1 System ???? 7

     2.1. 2.2. Areas of Applications ???? 7 GS1 Identification Keys ???? 7 2.2.1. Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) ???? 7 2.2.2. Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) ???? 8 2.2.3. Global Location Number (GLN) ???? 8 2.3. Bar Code Symbologies ???? 8 2.3.1. EAN/UPC???? 9 2.3.2. ITF-14 ???? 9 2.3.3. GS1-128 ???? 10 2.3.4. GS1 DataBar ???? 10 2.3.5. GS1 DataMatrix ???? 10

     3.

     Identification of Trade Items ???? 11

     3.1. GTIN Numbering Structures???? 13 3.1.1. GS1 Company Prefix ???? 13 3.1.2. Item Reference ???? 13 3.1.3. Check Digit ???? 14 3.1.4. Indicator ???? 14 Who Is Responsible For Numbering Trade Items? ???? 14 3.2.1. The general rule ???? 14 3.2.2. Exceptions ???? 14 What to Consider When Numbering a Trade Item? ???? 15 3.3.1. Packaging Configuration ???? 16 3.3.2. The uses of the GTIN ???? 17 3.3.3. Pre-priced items ???? 17 What if the Legal Status of a Brand Owner Changes? ???? 17 3.4.1. Acquisition or Merger ???? 17 3.4.2. Partial Purchase ???? 18 3.4.3. Split or De-Merger ???? 18 Lead Time in Re-Using a GTIN ???? 18

     3.2.

     3.3.

     3.4.

     3.5.

     4.

     Small Products ???? 19

     4.1. 4.2. EAN-8 and UPC-E bar codes???? 19 A GTIN-8 Number may only be used: ???? 19

     5.

     Processing the GTIN ???? 19

     5.1. 5.2. The Content of the Database ???? 19 Transmission of Product Information ???? 20

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     GS1 Global User Manual

     5.3. 5.4.

     How Should the Information be Exchanged????? 21 When Should Communication Occur? ???? 21

     6.

     Symbol Marking Trade Items ???? 21

     6.1. Features of Bar Codes ???? 21 6.1.1. Sizes ???? 22 6.1.2. Quiet Zones ???? 22 6.1.3. Colours and Contrast ???? 22 6.1.4. Print Quality ???? 23 6.1.5. Symbol Placement Guidelines ???? 23 6.2. Bar Code Types Used In GS1 System ???? 27 6.2.1. EAN/UPC Symbols ???? 27 6.2.2. ITF-14 Symbol ???? 29 6.2.3. GS1-128 Symbol: ???? 30 6.2.4. GS1 DataBar Stacked Omnidirectional Symbol ???? 30 6.2.5. GS1 DataMatrix ???? 30 6.3. Considerations on the Use of the Symbologies ???? 31 6.4. Choosing Between Bar Codes ???? 31

     7. 8.

     Application Identifiers (AIs) ???? 34 Logistic Units ???? 35

     8.1. 8.2. The SSCC ???? 35 The Logistics Label ???? 36 8.2.1. Representation of information ???? 36 8.2.2. Label Design???? 36

     9.

     Variable Measure Trade Items ???? 39

     9.1. 9.2. Retail Variable Measure Trade Items ???? 39 Non Retail Variable Measure Trade Items ???? 39 9.2.1. GS1 DataBar ???? 40

     10.

     Special Cases ???? 40

     10.1. Serial Publications, Books and Printed Sheet Music ???? 40 10.1.1. Serial Publications ???? 40 10.1.2. Books???? 41 10.2. Company Internal Numbering in a Store or Warehouse ???? 41 10.3. The Numbering of Coupons ???? 41 10.4. Other Special Solutions ???? 42

     11. 12. 13. 14.

     Global Location Numbers ???? 42 eCom ???? 43 Frequently Asked Questions ???? 44 Glossary???? 45

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     A.

     Appendices ???? 51

     A.1 Standard Check Digit Calculations of GS1 Data Structures ???? 51 A.2 GTIN-12 Identification Numbers in a UPC-E Symbol ???? 52 A.3 Dimensions of Modules and Symbols at Different Magnification Factor ???? 54 A.4 GS1 Application Identifiers in Numerical Order ???? 55 A.4.1. Metric** trade measures???? 58 A.4.2. Metric** Logistic Measures???? 58

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     GS1 Global User Manual

     1.

     Introduction

     Rapid evolution of roles in the value chain, new channels of distribution, shifting demand patterns and increased service expectations have raised the critical importance of information technology in business processes. The GS1 Standards facilitate national and international communication between all trading partners participating in that must be identified and demand chains, including raw material suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, retailers, hospitals and final clients or consumers. Many businesses are expanding their distribution channels towards markets and clients that may not be traditional for them, into other sectors of industry or are required to meet traceability requirements. A business that chooses an industry-specific standard will face the potentially high costs of maintaining multiple systems if it wants to sell its products or services or simply communicate outside its "closed-world". Many operations which are essential for the efficiency of trade and the optimisation of the supply and demand chains depend on the accuracy of identification of the products exchanged, services rendered, and/or locations involved. The GS1 System is a set of standards enabling the efficient management of global, multi-industry supply chains by uniquely identifying products, shipping units, assets, locations and services. It facilitates electronic commerce processes including full tracking and traceability. The identification numbers can be represented in bar code symbols to enable electronic reading at point of sale, when being received at warehouses, or at any other point where it is required in business processes. The system is designed to overcome the limitations of using company, organisation or sector specific coding systems, and to make trading much more efficient and more responsive to customers. These identifying numbers are also used in electronic commerce (eCom) and Global Data Synchronisation to improve the speed and accuracy of communication. This manual only provides information about the numbering system, bar codes, and scanning. For information about eCom or GDSN, please refer www.gs1.org. As well as providing unique identifying numbers, the system also provides for additional information such as best before dates, serial numbers and batch numbers to be shown in a bar coded form. These are particularly important to achieve traceability. Following the principles and design of the GS1 System means that users can design applications to process GS1 data automatically. The system logic guarantees that data captured from bar codes produces unambiguous electronic messages and the processing of them can be fully preprogrammed. The system is designed to be used in any industry, trade or public sector, and any changes to the system are introduced so that they do not disrupt current users. The application of the GS1 System can result in significant improvements in logistic operations, reduction of paperwork costs, shorter order

    and delivery lead times, increased accuracy and better management of the supply and demand chains. Enormous costs savings are realised daily by user companies who have adopted the GS1 System, because they apply the same solution for communicating with all their trading partners, while remaining entirely free to run internal applications at their own discretion.

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     2.

     2.1.

     Basics and Principles of the GS1 System

     Areas of Applications

     The GS1 System has different areas of application that include trade items, logistic units, assets and locations. These applications rely on data structures by which all relevant items and their data can be identified. The numbers are the keys to access databases and to identify unambiguously items handled, in all messages of a transaction. The data structures are used to ensure globally unique identification and do not give any meaning in the number. All information that describes a product or a service and its characteristics are to be found in databases. They are communicated from a supplier to a user once, before the first transaction either by using standard messages or by consultation of electronic catalogues. The numbers are represented in bar codes to allow automatic data capture at each point where an item leaves or enters a premises. Bar codes are usually included in the production process at the producer site; they are either preprinted with other information present in the packaging, or a label is affixed to the item on the production line. The same numbers are also used in eCom messages to allow all information on the transaction of the item to be transferred to the relevant trading partners. The data structures that are provided guarantee world-wide uniqueness within the relevant area of application.

     2.2.

     GS1 Identification Keys

     The GS1 identification system provides the world a globally unique and unambiguous identification system through the GS1 Identification Keys. All GS1 standards shall incorporate at least one of the GS1 Identification Keys as mandatory identifiers. The GS1 Identification Keys are:

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     Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) Global Location Number (GLN) Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) Global Returnable Asset Identifier (GRAI)

    Global Individual Asset Identifier (GIAI) Global Service Relation Number (GSRN) Global Document Type Identifier (GDTI) Global Shipment Identification Number (GSIN) Global Identification Number for Consignment (GINC)

     Only the three most widely used GS1 Identification Keys are explained in any detail in this manual namely: Global Trade Item Number, Serial Shipping Container Code and Global Location Number. For full information on all the GS1 Identification Keys, please consult the GS1 General Specifications.

     2.2.1.

     Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)

     The GTIN is a number used for the unique identification of trade items world-wide.

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     Note: A trade item is any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve predefined information and that may be priced, ordered or invoiced for trade between participants at any point in any supply chain. The identification and symbol marking of trade items enables the automation of the retail point-of-sale (through price look up files), of products receiving, inventory management, automatic re-ordering, sales analysis, and a wide range of other business applications. Examples: A can of paint sold to a final consumer, a box of 6 cans of paint, a case containing 24 boxes of one kilo of lawn fertiliser, a multi-pack consisting of one shampoo and one conditioner.

     2.2.2.

     Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)

     The SSCC (Serial Shipping Container Code) is a number, which is used for the unique identification of logistic (transport and/or storage) units. Note: A Logistic Unit is an item of any composition established for transport and/or storage which needs to be managed throughout the supply chain. SSCC can be encoded in a GS1-128 bar code. Scanning the SSCC marked on each Logistic Unit allows the physical movement of units to be individually tracked and traced by providing a link between the physical movement of items and the associated information flow. It also provides the opportunity to implement a wide range of applications such as cross docking, shipment routing, automated receiving, etc. Examples: A box containing 12 skirts and 20 jackets in various sizes and colours is a Logistic Unit as is a pallet of 40 cases each containing 12 cans of paint.

     2.2.3.

     Global Location Number (GLN)

     The GLN is a number used to identify a company or organisation as a legal entity. GLNs are also used to identify physical locations. The use of location numbers is a pre-requisite for efficient eCom. Note: The Gs1 Identification Key used to identify physical locations or legal entities. The key is comprised of a GS1 Company Prefix, Location Reference, and Check digit.

     2.3.

     Bar Code Symbologies

     Five bar code symbologies are very widely used in the GS1 System:

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     EAN/UPC ITF-14 GS1-128 GS1 DataMatrix GS1 DataBar

     The General Retail Consumer Trade Item must carry a bar code from the EAN/UPC Symbology family and in limited circumstances a symbol from the GS1 DataBar Retail POS Family. In other applications, such as back-door receiving or in warehouses any of the three different symbologies can be used, EAN/UPC, ITF-14 GS1 DataBar or GS1-128.

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     GS1 DataBar ?C By the target date of 2014, GS1 DataBar standards including attribute information (using AI??s) can be used by all trading partners in an open environment. The global adoption of GS1 DataBar is an ongoing process and detailed information can be found on: http://www.gs1.org/productssolutions/barcodes/databar/ GS1 DataMatrix ?C which can encode all GS1 Application Identifiers and is considered key to emerging usage of GS1 Standards in Healthcare Supply Chains. There is a repository of reference information that can support the implementation of GS1 DataMatrix and detailed information can be found on:

    http://www.gs1.org/docs/barcodes/GS1_DataMatrix_Introduction_and_technical_overview.pdf Advice on choosing between them is given in Section 6.4 , Choosing Between Bar Codes

     2.3.1.

     EAN/UPC

     The EAN and UPC symbols can be read omnidirectionally. They must be used for all items that are scanned at the Point-of-Sale and may be used on other trade items.

     Figure 2-1 EAN/UPC Symbols

     EAN-13

     UPC-A

     4 512345 678906 >

     0

     12345 68789

     1

     EAN-8

     UPC-E

     < 3456 9870 >

     0 345678

     1

     2.3.2.

     ITF-14

     The use of the ITF-14 (Interleaved 2 of 5) Symbology is restricted to the bar coding of identification numbers on trade items NOT passing through retail checkouts. This symbology is better suited for direct printing onto corrugated fibreboard.

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     Figure 2-2 ITF-14 Symbol

     1

     2.3.3. GS1-128

     89

     31234

     56789

     4

     The GS1-128 Symbology is a variant of Code 128 Symbology. Its use is exclusively licensed to GS1. It is not intended to be read on items passing through retail checkouts. GS1-128 can encode the GTIN and additional data using the GS1 Application Identifiers.

     Figure 2-3 GS1-128 Symbol

     ( 01) 04601234567893

     2.3.4. GS1 DataBar

     GS1 DataBar is a family of linear symbologies. Its use is exclusively licensed to GS1 and by 2010, GS1 DataBar standards will be available for bilateral agreement between trading partners for all trade items. The specific focus will be on Fresh Products scanned at POS. By the target date of 2014, GS1 DataBar standards including attribute information (using AI??s) can be used by all trading partners in an open environment.

     Figure 2-4 GS1 DataBar Omnidirectional

     (01)20012345678909

     2.3.5.

     GS1 DataMatrix

     GS1 DataMatrix is a variant of Data Matrix ISO version ECC 200. The Function 1 Symbol Character in the first position ensures GS1 System compatibility. GS1 DataMatrix can encode the GTIN and

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     additional data using the GS1 Application Identifiers. It is currently being implemented for the bar coding a GTIN (and additional data) on small medical / surgical instruments and healthcare items.

     Figure 2-5 GS1 DataMatrix Symbol encoding a GTIN and Serial Number (AI (21))

     There is a repository of reference information that can support the implementation of GS1 DataMatrix and detailed information can be found on:

    http://www.gs1.org/docs/barcodes/GS1_DataMatrix_Introduction_and_technical_overview.pdf

     3.

     Identification of Trade Items

     A trade item is defined as any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve predefined information and that may be priced, ordered or invoiced at any point in any supply chain. This definition covers raw materials through to end-user products and also includes services, all of which have pre-defined characteristics. The trade items are numbered by a GTIN using four data structures: GTIN-8, GTIN-12, GTIN-13 and GTIN-14. The choice of data structure depends on the nature of the item and on the scope of the user??s applications. A major application of the GS1 System is the identification of items intended for scanning at the retail point of sale ?C retail items. These are to be identified with a GTIN-13 or GTIN-12 Number. If they are very small a GTIN-8 Number (or a zero-suppressed GTIN-12) is used. Since January 2005, North American users accept GTIN-13 Identification Numbers and EAN-13 Bar Codes. Prior to this time, companies selling goods in the American and Canadian markets were required to use a GTIN-12 data structure represented in a UPC-A or UPC-E Symbol. A trade item which can be sold in different measures is known as a Variable Measure Trade Item, for example pre-packed fruit and vegetables or meat products sold by weight, and such trade items are subject to specific rules described in Section 9, Variable Measure Trade Items. Specific rules also exist for books, serial publications or products that are not sold in open environments. These special cases are treated in Section 10, Special Cases. Trade items not sold through retail outlets may be packaged in a wide variety of ways such as a fibreboard case, a covered or banded pallet, a film-wrapped tray, a crate with bottles, etc. Such items can be identified in different ways:

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     By allocating a specific GTIN-13, or GTIN-12 Number. Alternatively,

by allocating a GTIN-14 Number. This is formed by taking the number

    allocated to the trade item contained, and preceding the number by an

    indicator, which can take the value 1 to 8. This solution is only available for homogeneous groupings of standard trade items, where all

    units contained in the group are identical.

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     Figure 3-1 GTIN Numbering Examples

     GTIN-13: 5412150000154

     either: GTIN-14: 15412150000151 or: GTIN-13: 5412150000161

     either: GTIN-14: 25412150000158 or: GTIN-13: 5412150000178

     Note: These examples show both numbering solutions.

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     3.1.

     GTIN Numbering Structures

     There are four numbering structures exist for GTIN. They??re described below.

     GTIN-13 Data Structure

     GS1 Company Prefix

     Item Reference

     Check Digit N13

     N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N10 N11 N12

     GTIN-12 Data Structure

     U.P.C. Company Prefix

     Item Reference

     Check Digit N12

     N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6 N7 N8 N9 N10 N11

     GTIN-8 Data Structure

     GTIN-8 Prefix

     Item Reference

     Check Digit N8

     N1

     N2

     N3

     N4

     N5

     N6

     N7

     GTIN-14 Data Structure

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