DOC

Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soil

By Anita Grant,2014-02-18 23:42
7 views 0
Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soilon,of,Fast,Soda,Soil,soil,fast,soda

    Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda

    Meadow Alkaline Soil

    Dec.2010JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversity(EnglishEdition)Vol_l7No.41-7 StudiesonFastRemediationofSodaMea(1owAlkalineSoidowaineoll

    ZHOULianren,SUNYankun,andLIDawei

    ResourcesandEnvironmentalSciencesCollege,NortheastAgriculturalUniversity,Harbin150030,China

    Abstract:Researchesonmodelsofremediationquicklyinsodameadowalkalinesoil,anddynamicvariationofwatersaltin

    salinesoilofZhaozhouCountywerestudiedsystematicallyfrom2001to2006.Realizethevegetationcoverofthoseyearsthrough

    theartificialplanting,mixedseedinglymegrass(ElymusdahuricusTurcz)andmelilotinthemodeofrotarytillageanddeep

    looseninginlowerandmediumsalinesoils.Theresultsshowedthattherewasremarkablerelationshipbetweennetevaporation

    (differenceofprecipitationandevaporation)andtotalsaltcontentinthesoil.Thenetevaporationcouldbeusedasanewmethodto

    forecastthedynamicsvariationofsalttoensurethepastureoptimumsowingtime.Realizetheautumnalvegetationcoverofthose

    yearsthroughdirectplantingonthebourgeonlayerofsodameadowalkalinesoil,ontheotherhand,thecoveredpasturemadethe

    functionofrestrainingsaltandalkalinecontenttorealizethebiologyreversesuccessionquickly.Forageseedswereseededdirectly

    ontheseedingbedofsodaalkalinemeadowattheendofJuly.Infallofthesameyear,acertainamountofbiomasswasobtained.

    Themodel,whichhasremarkableeconomicalefficiencyandusewidely,representedtheinnovativemodelforthefastvegetation

restorationonthesodaalkalinemeadowsoil.

    Keywords:sodaalkalinemeadowsoil,rapidremediation,netevaporation,compost

    CLCnumber:S155.292Documentcode:AArticlelD:10068104(201O)-04-000107

    IntrOduCtiOn

    Accordingtotheinformation,thesalinesoilareais 320~10hmofNortheastSongnenplain,andithas beenenlargingby2x10hmperyearIJ.Firstofal1.the

    newsalinesoilisduetothesalinizationofgrassland; thenthesalinizationofcultivatedlandandmarsh becauseofunreasonabledevelopmentandutilization[. Inaddition,theexcessivei~igationishazardousasthe waterpossesaresidualpositivecalcitealkalinityinthe Sahel3_4andintheSahelianzoneofMauritania~.Itis oneofthemostmischiefstosustainableirrigatedrice croppingwithsoilsalinizationandalkalinizationinthe Sahel[_81.

    Alkalinespecklewasmoreunavailable,whichwas dimculttoutilizeandincreasedwithsoilsalinitication increase.Thus,atpresent,therewereincreasingly conflictsamongpopulation,foodsupplies,landuseand survivalenvironment,thus,salinificationsoilresource shouldbereasonableexploited,especiallyhowto developthebiomassyieldonsalinificationsoil.Nowa

    days,sodameadowalkalinesoilisstillpreservefor agriculturalutility,andblanktacheforfastremediation withlowcostandeasyspread.Besides,itisaconun- drumoftheworldtosalinificationsoilremediationt01.

    MaterialsandMethods

    Naturalprofileinexperimentalarea

    TheexperimentalareaislocatedatTuoguvillage

    inZhaozhouCountyofHeilongJiangProvince,at Received5Mrdy2010

    SupportedbySpecialFundforAgroscientificResearchinthePublicInterest(200903001

    066)

    ZHOULianren(1954

    ),male,professor,engagedintheresearchofsustainableutilizationinaridland,soilfertility

    andrestorationofdegraded

    ecosystems.Email:zhxyzlr@sina.com

    http://publish.neau.edu.crl

    2'JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversity(EnglishEdition)Vol_17No.4201O

    45.4645.48Nand124.47.124.50E.withan

    elevationof140m.Theaverageannualtemperatureis 3.6?,thetemperaturesofJanuaryandJulyare19.

    3?

    and22.9?.?10?theannualaccumulatedtern

    peratureis2800?.About143daysarethefrostfree

    period.Theannualsunlightandprecipitationare2900h Table1Chemicalquali~ofsodameadowalkalinesoil and435mm.69%ofthisfallingisfasteningfrom JunetoSeptember.Theannualevaporationwas 1800.0nun;andtheannualfloodismApriltoJuly. Thesoilintheresearchareaistypedsodameadow alkalinesoil.Thebasiccharactersareshowninthe followingTable1.

    Experimentaldesign

    Salinitydynamicmonitor

    ECandalkalinitychangeofsoilsurfacelayer(0. 15cm)wasmeasuredonthefirstandlasttendaysin amonthfrom2001to2003.andcollectedthedataof precipitationandevaporationamongthesethreeyears

    intheexperimentalarea(providedbytheobservatory ofZhaozhouCounty),thenreductionandanalysisof thedatawasstudied.

    Confirmthebestremediationmodel

    IntheearlyJuly,2004,thelivestockdejectionwas compostedandfleshgrasswascoveredonalkaline speckle.Mostcompostwasremoved,

    leavingpartsof

    themturnedoverwithsoilat10cmlayer.Removed therefreshgrassandmovedoverthesheepgrass. Plantedandcoveredsheepgrassandalkaliwithlcm soil.Theratioofsheepgrasstoalkalimadwasfrom8 to2.Theexperimentaldesignedacompletefactorial withfivetreatments.Treatmentswerereplicatedthree timesandcompletelyrandomized.Thetotalnumberof thesmalldistrictwas18.

    Experimentaltreatments:

    A:Compost30%sheepgrassand70%livestock dejection(chickendejection).Compostfreshsheep grassandchickendejectionprorata.Decomposite Email:xuebaOengIish@neau.edu.ca

    chickendejectionwhichhasathicknessof8cmand soilat0?15cmlayer.

    B:Compost30%cloverand70%livestockdejec

    tion(chickendejection).Compostfleshcloverand chickendejectionprorata.Decompositechicken dejectionwhichhasathicknessof8cmandsoilat0

    15cmlayer.

    C:CoverthefleshgrassI(sheepgrass),shearedthe freshsbeepgrassandcovered8cmearthsurface.

D:Coverandcrossburyingfleshgrass?(clover),

    shearedfleshsheepgrassandcoveredtheearthsurface 8cm.Blendingthemwithsoilat0-15cmlayer. E:Compostandcrossburyinglivestockdejection (chickendejection).Removechickendejectionafter themfullycorrupted,decompositethechickendejec

    tionwhichhasathicknessof8cmandsoilat0.15cm layer.

    "restandanalysisofdata

    Soilphysicalandchemicalcharacters

    Organicmatter,pH,alkalinity,conductanceandeight ionsetc.weremeasuredwithassaymethoddescribed byBadl11.

    Biomassmassure

    Samplingthreeshapes(0.5mx0.5m)ineachdistrict on18August,2005.Shearedfleshgrassonground andweighedfleshweight,airdriedandweighed. ZHOULianrenela1.StudiesonFastRemediationofSodaMeadowAlkalineSoi1?3?

    Investigatedandcoveredplantspecies(estimate method),plantheight(randomizedchoose10plants) andsoon.Rootwassampledat20depthaftermeasur

    ingtheshootbiomass,andweighairdryweight. Analysisofdata

    Analysisofvariance(ANOVA)wasperformedus

    ingSASpackage(SASInstitute,1999).Multiplecom

    parisonsweremadebyusingtheleastsignificant difference(LSD)andleastsignificantranges(LSR)at 0.05probabilityleve1.Meanvalueswerereposedin TablesandFigs.

    ResultsandAnalysis

Water-saltdynamicchangeofsoil

    Effectofprecipitationonsalinityofsalinizedsoil Theprecipitationdirectlyaffectedthesoilmoisture transferandburia1depthofgroundwater,andthen affectedsalinitydynamicchangeofsoil.Zhaozhou CountywasdistinctfromFig.1.Theprecipita

    tionmainlyfocusedfromJulytoSeptemberwas 300.3mm.accountedfor69.1%ofthewholeyear, andreachedthemaximuminAugust.Thesoilwater 120-41-Precipitation?EC

    contentincreasedwiththerisingofprecipitation,and thesolublesaltwasatsurfacelayer.Itdissolvedand flowedtotheunderlayer.Asaresult,thesalinityof ploughlayerwasfilteredtounderlayersoil.There wassignificantnegativerelationshipbetweenthepre

    cipitationandsoilsaltcontent,R=0.911>R0.05,4 (0.811)(Fig.1).

    Inspring(fromMarchtoMay),precipitationwas 52.1mm,theproportionoftotalannualis11.9.The soilsaltcontentwasthebiggestoftheyearbecauseof littleprecipitationandlargeevaporation.Precipitation was74.7mm.accountedfor17.2%ofthewhole

    yearautumn(SeptemberandOctober),Rainfallwas focusedinJulyandAugustthoughprecipitationwas notgreat,alsocausedundergroundwatertablein- crease.Undergroundwatertableinautumndirectly liedonprecipitationinsummer.Precipitationatwinter (DecemberandJanuary)wasonly6.3mm,accounted f0r2.8%.SeasonalvariationsofprecipIitationcausedsalt accumulationindryseasonsandsaltdoffinginrainy

    season.Theseacceleratedexchangesbetweensaltion insoilsolutionandcationonthecolloidsurface,and increasingthebasificationintensityandspeed. 12345678910ll12

    Month

    Fig.1TheaveragerainfallandthesoilECchangepermonthfrom2001to2003

    Fig.1showedthatasignificantnegativerelationship betweentheprecipitationandsoilsaltcontentfrom MaytoOctober,R=0.927>R0.05,4(0.811).It suggestedthattheprecipitationplayedakeyrolein soilsaltmovementduringthisperiod.

    Effectofevaporationonsalinityofsalinizedsoil Theevaporationisoneofthedirectreasonstoin

    fluencethesoilsalinity.Duetotheevaporationsigni

    ficantchangeswiththechangedseasons,thesalt contentofthesoilploughlayerwaschanged,too. http://publish.neau.edu.ca

    0=0_fd00一譬ls.nrr-]

    432l0

    ????加O

    l6

    l_)I10Id0o

    ?

    4?JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversity(EnglishEdition)Vo1.17No.42OlO

    Soilwatermovementaffectedbyevaporationprocess, therebycausedthewatersalt.DynamicAccumulating

    processofwaterwascomingwithsalt,waterevapora- tionandsaltleaveannualevaporationwasabout 1800.0mminthisarea.Mostoftheevaporation

wasfromApriltoJuly,about228.4359.4mm,and

    theleastofitwasfromJanuarytoDecember,which wasjust11.713.4mm.Theannualevaporation

    was4timeslargerthanthatoftheprecipitation.It wastoodrythatthesoilwaterupwardmotionover downwardbygravityinthecapillary.Thesolublesalt ofthesoilandgroundwaterfollowflowedupward andconcentration,thenaccumulatedtosurface,thus promotedtosoilsalinization.

    Fig.2showedthatthesoilevaporationgradually strengthenedduetodry,windyandrisingtemperature. Sothesoilsaltcontentsignificantlyincreasedinthis stage.Theevaporationgraduallystrengthenedfrom JanuarytoJune,andthesoilsaltcontentalsoincreased withit,thecorrelationcoefficientwasR=0.945> R0.01,5wastheverysignificantlevelshowedinFig.3. Meanwhile,theevaporationwasthedominantfactor forsoilwatersaltmigrationinthisstage,becauseit hadlessinfluencebytheprecipitation.

    TheevaporationwasthestrongestinJulyand August,andthesoilsaltwasjustlowinthisstage. Thatprecipitationwasthedominantfactorforsoil watersaltmigrationinthisstage.Thecorrelation coefficientwasR=0.642<R0.05,5oftheevaporation withsoilsaltcontentwasfromJulytoDecember.It showedwhatwasnotsuitabletopredictthedynamic changeofthesoilsaltcontentbytheevaporation. Month

    Fig.2TheaverageevaporationandthechangeofsoilECpermonthfrom2001to2003

    NetevaporationandchangesofsaliResoll

saIinity

    Althoughtheevaporationisadirectfactorofsoil salinitychanging,Fig.2showedthatthesoilsalt contentdecreasedtothelowestvalueoftheyearwhen theevaporationwasgreatinJulyandAugust.Bythis time,theprecipitationreachedthemaximumofthe year.Itshowedthatsalinitydidnotalwaysincrease withtheevaporationincreasing.Byobservingthe testdata,theevaporationandprecipitationofthe meteorologicalfactorswerefoundthatallaffectedthe salinitychangeofalkaline-salinesoil,butanalyzed thewholedatasettofigureoutthatthecorrelation E-maiL:xuebaoenglish@noaH.edu.ca

    coefficientofevaporationandprecipitationwith salinityoftheMeadow.AlkalineSoilwas0.396and 0.541,respectively.Thecorrelationdidnotreach significantlevels,sotherewerelimitationsbyusing theevaporationandprecipitationtopredictthechange ofsoilsaltcontent.Itwasasignalitythatmadethe MultivariateStatisticalAnalysisbyevaporationand precipitationwithsoilsalinitytoshowthesalinity changeofalkalinesalinesoil.

    Madocorrelationanalysisbythediffereneebetween evaporationandprecipitation(netevaporation)and saltcontent.thecorrelationcoefficientwasR=O.785> R0.01,l1(0.684),itshowedthatthesoilsurface mn^孽?.c_l1

    一暑gI10一若JoQ

    ZHOULianreneta1.StudiesonFastRemediationofSodaMeadowAlkalineSoil?5?

    salinityincreasedwiththenetevaporationincreasing,

    soimprovementandrehabilitationofalkaline.saline soilshouldavoidthestageofnetevaporationbecom. inglarger,tochoicethestageofnetevaporation lower.Ithasopenedupanewwayforusingthenet evaporationtopredictthesoilsalinitydynamicchange onimprovementandrehabilitationofalkalinesaline

    300

    250

    200

    l50

    1O0

    50

    O

    soilprocess.Thenewmethodofpredictionsalinity dynamicchangeofalkaline-salinesoilareacould predictthesalinitydynamicchangeofsoilsurfacejust neededtodirectlyusedthelocalmeteorologicaldata. Thus,reducingthetediousexperimentalanalysispro

    cesswastoachievethepurposeofthesavingtimeand effort,andmakingitdeveloprapidlyandeconomically. 123456789l01l12

    Month

    Fig.3TheaveragenetevaporationandthechangeofsoflECpermonthfrom2001to2003

    Effectofremediation

    Effectofdifferenttreatmentsonpasturegrowth statusandcoverage

    AttheendofApril,thetestbegantousevarious treatmentstocoverthepressuresaltonthealkaline speckle,thepurposewastosignificantlyreducethe soilsalinityof7-8months.Monitoringsoilsalinity,

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com