Cecil J. Picard
State Superintendent of Education
? April 2005
Table of Contents
Unit 1: Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography ............................................................ 1
Unit 2: Economics in Louisiana ........................................................................................... 12 Unit 3: Louisiana’s Government .......................................................................................... 30 Unit 4: Early Peoples of Louisiana and a Meeting of Different Worlds ................................ 44 Unit 5: The Acadian Odyssey .............................................................................................. 53 Unit 6: Louisiana Becomes a State ...................................................................................... 66 Unit 7: Civil War and Reconstruction .................................................................................. 79 Unit 8: Transitions to the Twentieth Century ....................................................................... 90 Unit 9: Eras of World War II and Civil Rights ................................................................... 103 Unit 10: Louisiana Ends the Twentieth Century and Enters the Twenty-First ..................... 115
Unit 1: Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography
Time Frame: Approximately three weeks
This unit focuses on how geography has affected the development of Louisiana. It has determined the climate and the natural resources available. The utilization of the state’s resources and the livelihood of its inhabitants are all directly affected by geography. Louisiana reflects a multicultural tapestry of cultural heritage, blending the traditions and celebrations of its diverse people.
Students understand that knowledge of geography is essential for understanding the development of Louisiana. Students recognize that the topography, climate, and resources of Louisiana have influenced the lifestyle and work of its inhabitants. Students explore the many ethnic groups have contributed to Louisiana’s diverse culture. Students compare and
contrast Louisiana’s physical and cultural regions.
1. Can students use time zones in the United States or the International Date Line to
interpret a map or representation of a globe and calculate current times in
2. Can students locate major landforms and geographic features, places, and bodies
of water/waterways on a map of Louisiana?
3. Can students construct a map based on narrative information?
4. Can students construct a chart or diagram to display geographical information in
an organized way?
5. Can students describe and analyze the distinguishing physical and/or human
characteristics of Louisiana regions?
6. Can students describe ways in which location and physical features have
influenced historical events in Louisiana and the development of the state?
7. Can students explain how or why specific regions are changing as a result of
8. Can students identify and describe factors that cause a Louisiana region to change?
9. Can students explain ways in which goals, cultures, interests, inventions, and
technological advances have affected people’s perceptions and uses of places or
regions in Louisiana?
Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 1
10. Can students describe the causes and effects of cultural diffusion and effects of
cultural diversity in Louisiana?
11. Can students describe the contributions of ethnic groups significant in Louisiana
12. Can students explain cultural elements that have shaped Louisiana’s state heritage?
Unit 1 Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs)
GLE # GLE Text and Benchmarks
The World in Spatial Terms
1. Use time zones in the United States or the International Date Line to interpret
a map or representation of a globe and calculate current times in different
2. Locate major landforms and geographic features, places, and bodies of
water/waterways on a map of Louisiana (G-1A-M2)
3. Construct a map based on given narrative information (G-1A-M2)
4. Construct a chart or diagram to display geographical information in an
organized way (G-1A-M2)
Places and Regions
5. Describe and analyze the distinguishing physical and/or human
characteristics of Louisiana regions (G-1B-M1)
6. Describe ways in which location and physical features have influenced
historical events in LA and the development of the state (e.g., Mississippi
River/swamp in the Battle of New Orleans) (G-1B-M2)
7. Explain how or why specific regions are changing as a result of physical
phenomena (e.g., changes in the coastal wetlands) (G-1B-M3)
8. Identify and describe factors that cause a Louisiana region to change (e.g.,
natural occurrences, disasters, migration) (G-1B-M3)
9. Explain ways in which goals, cultures, interests, inventions, and
technological advances have affected people’s perceptions and uses of places
or regions in Louisiana (G-1B-M4)
Physical and Human Systems
10. Analyze the population characteristics and other demographic information
about the United States and Louisiana, including rates of increase/decrease
for demographic variables (G-1C-M2)
11. Explain why humans settled and formed societies in specific regions or why
immigrant groups (e.g., Acadians) settled in specific areas of Louisiana (G-
12. Describe the causes and effects of cultural diffusion and effects of cultural
diversity in Louisiana (G-1C-M5)
Environment and Society
15. Analyze the benefits and challenges of the Louisiana physical environments
on its inhabitants (e.g., flooding, soil, climate conducive to growing certain
Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 2
GLE # GLE Text and Benchmarks
16. Analyze the distribution and uses of Louisiana’s natural resources (G-1D-
17. Identify a contemporary Louisiana geographic issue, and research possible
Fundamental Economics Concepts
42. Analyze situations involving scarcity (limited resources) at the individual,
group, and societal levels to determine the need for choices or what is
gained/lost by a decision (E-1A-M1)
75. Describe the contributions of ethnic groups significant in Louisiana history
78. Describe and analyze the impact of Louisiana’s geographic features on
historic events, settlement patterns, economic development, etc. (H-1D-M4)
80. Trace the state’s economic development and growth toward economic
diversity (e.g., fur trade, tourism, technology) (H-1D-M5)
81. Explain cultural elements that have shaped Louisiana’s state heritage (e.g.,
festivals, music, dance, food, languages) (H-1D-M6)
Teacher Note: As with the economics and civics, the geography GLEs should be reinforced and integrated within the context of Louisiana History.
Activity 1: Telling Time (GLE: 1)
Provide students with a map of the world that possesses major longitudinal lines and outlines of the continents. Have students label the major continents (review). Students should correctly label the prime meridian and international dateline as well as offer a brief description of which continents these lines intersect (note Greenwich, and its significance). Several examples of standard time zones (perimeters of longitude) with a given time should be noted in the continental United States (e.g., Eastern time at 7:00 PM, Central time at 6:00 PM, Mountain time at 5:00 PM, and Pacific time at 4:00 p.m.). Have students determine if a pattern exists (standard time changes every 15 degrees longitude, regression of hours from east to west). Once the pattern is acknowledged, have students fill in the remaining time zones on the map with attention given to the 0 degrees longitude and 180 degrees longitude and its effects on time.
Have the students place selected cities (e.g., New Orleans, LA; San Francisco, CA; New York City, NY; Denver, CO; Paris, France; Rome, Italy; Bombay, India; Tokyo, Japan, Sidney Australia; Bagdad, Iraq) on the map in their approximate locations. Provide a scenario for students that involves making telephone calls from their hometown to several Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 3
destinations (selected cities) and denote the time in Louisiana and in the selected cities (AM or PM).
Teacher Note: This activity may provide teachers with an opportunity to assess basic map skills such as identification of continents, oceans, location of absolute points (latitude/longitude) and/or use of the compass rose).
Activity 2: Identifying Louisiana Geographic Features (GLEs: 2, 3)
Provide the students with a map of the southern half of the United States, and have them draw a compass rose and locate the following:
; Gulf of Mexico
; Sabine River, Pearl River, Mississippi River (and designated boundaries)
; 33 degrees north latitude
; Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi
Provide the students with various maps of Louisiana for inclusion in a portfolio and have them identify the following:
; Waterways: Mississippi River, Red River, Atchafalaya River, Sabine River, Pearl
River, Calcasieu River, Ouachita River, Vermilion River, Lake Pontchartrain,
Toledo Bend, Lake Maurepas, Lake Calcasieu, Bayou Teche, Bayou Lafourche,
; Land regions: Using a legend (e.g., color code), students should represent the
major land regions of Louisiana (i.e., Mississippi Floodplain, Terraces, Marshes,
Red River Valley, Hills region,)
; Unique features and regions: Using a legend, identify locations such as Mt.
Driskill, Dolet Hills, Nacogdoches Wold / Kisatchie Wold, Kisatchie National
Forest, Chalk Hills, Salts Domes (Five Islands), cheniers, delta, barrier islands,
spillways and basins, oxbow lakes (e.g., Cane River, False River) and other
pertinent features such as state parks, Florida Parishes, Acadiana, and CENLA
(e.g., Louisiana Department of Tourism, Cultural Regions).
Expanded Activity: Provide students (individual or small group) with a road map of Louisiana (e.g., atlas, foldable), which illustrates various major transportation routes (e.g., I-49, U.S. 190, LA Hwy. 1). Offer several scenarios (one per student or small group) involving a starting point (e.g., Lake Charles) and a destination (Monroe or Poverty Point [Epps]). Challenge students to find the most feasible route (i.e., time, distance) between the two locations. The students are to write the ―best‖ directions in a narrative format denoting cardinal and intermediate directions, distance between relevant points (using scale), Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 4
landmarks (communities, points of interest, highway numbers), but omit naming the final destination (students are not to share any information with other groups). After every individual or small group has completed its task, have each individual or small group provide their directions to another group (include starting point, but omit destination). Allow the students to trace the route via the directions given (written or oral) and conclude as to what the final destination may be.
Activity 3: Off the Charts (GLEs: 4, 42, 78, 80)
Provide students with a graphic organizer (chart format, see example). Using a variety of sources (student research or teacher provided), collect data regarding either the collection of natural resources by commodity and/or annual sales totals derived from those Louisiana resources. Students will record the statistics in the appropriate rows/columns. A higher order thinking activity would require the students to denote statistical totals from selected past years (e.g., 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000). The students would be asked to determine if any trends exist (increases, decreases in amounts of availability or sales) and offer an explanation as to the cause of the trend. Additionally, students should predict the economic consequences (e.g., supply and demand, scarcity) and alternatives if a problem should exist. Using the latest statistics, students will create a pie chart or bar graph indicating the percent of total collection and/or total sales represented by each of the selected resources.
(Sample) Louisiana’s Natural Resources Collections
Natural 1960 1980 2000 Trend
Resource (+ / -)
Louisiana almanacs or atlases
Activity 4: Population Trends (GLEs: 4, 9, 10)
Provide two graphic organizers that would allow students to record the population of one or more selected ethnic groups in Louisiana (i.e., African American, American Indian, Asian, Hispanic) representing two separate time periods (e.g., 1900, 2000). Option: Divide the students into groups of three or four; then assign each group an ethnic group. Students would construct one chart designed to reflect the ethnic group’s population for a designated era and a separate chart to reflect contemporary statistics. The students would be asked to construct a basic timeline of events and a narrative that may explain the population trend(s) observed. The charts may include the formats of a bar graph or population pyramid (male/female, age). Population demographics may be included as well as comparisons between U.S., state, and parish statistics.
Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 5
Activity 5: Louisiana Location (GLEs: 1, 2, 3, 4)
Have students work in teams to find several locations around the globe and have them calculate current times in different places (e.g., have students create an imaginary itinerary for a dream vacation leaving Louis Armstrong International Airport in New Orleans for any destination they wish. The dream vacations should include a total of four destinations, each in a different time zone. Have them calculate arrival times, departure times, and what time it is in Louisiana during those arrivals and departures. (Mini-activity)
Expanded Activity: Then have students create a travel brochure for Louisiana, designed to make Louisiana appealing to a wide variety of tourists. Their brochure should include the following, in no particular order:
; creation of a map showing major landforms and geographic features, places, and
bodies of water/waterways
; narrative describing the route from the students’ parish to New Orleans and/or Baton
Rouge, with highlighting using colored markers or pencils on the map showing the
routes to follow
; chart that organizes the geographical information of the state and communicates,
―Where to Go in Louisiana and How to Get There,‖ detailing methods and routes of
transportation to at least five distinct geographical areas of the state
Activity 6: Louisiana Real Estate (GLEs: 2, 6, 15, 16)
Provide the students (individual or small group) with a basic (full page) physical map of
Louisiana featuring unidentified major waterways (i.e., rivers, bayous, lakes) that existed in the 1800’s (Avoid man-made lakes – i.e, Toledo Bend). The map may also include cities
/towns such as Shreveport (Shreve Town, 1836-39), New Orleans (Nouvelle-Orleans, 1718), Natchitoches (1714), Baton Rouge (1719), New Iberia (Nouvelle Iberia, 1779), Lake Charles (Charleston, 1861), Alexandria (1785), Monroe (Prairie de Canots, 1780; Fort Miro, 1790). Selected geographic features (e.g., Nacogdoches and Kisatchie Wolds, Chalk Hills, coastal
prairies, delta) and resources (e.g., alluvial land, natural springs, forest, fur bearing animals) may be emphasized (with a legend) in selected areas of the map.
Provide the students with a scenario dating back to either the late 1700’s or early 1800’s.
―You have been selected by a group of immigrants arriving in New Orleans (teacher can
assign a specific trait: farmers, craftsmen, fishermen) to assist them in starting a settlement
in Louisiana. Your first task is to complete the map by labeling the rivers and waterways Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 6
indicated on the map. (Cities could be listed with their original names or French names and students could be asked to provide the current (updated) names.) Second, select a specific
area of the state that you feel would accommodate your group as a settlement. Third, provide your group with 1) a map indicating the location of the settlement, 2) a description of the geographic area (i.e., directions from New Orleans, major waterway(s), geographic features and resources), 3) an explanation why this would be an appropriate location for the settlement (e.g., alluvial land for farming, access to fishing, lumber for craftsmen, trade
potential, 4) advise the immigrants of possible problems and obstacles that may exist (1700’s,
Activity 7: Physical and Human Phenomena of Louisiana (GLEs: 5, 6, 10)
Have class members examine a physical map of Louisiana and discuss its physical features. Have students identify where the largest percentage of people might live and offer ideas about why they think people settled there. Project a population distribution map of Louisiana. Have students analyze the accuracy of their predictions.
Have students identify the population demographics of Louisiana by creating a pictograph that represents distinguishing characteristics of five to seven specific areas of Louisiana. Each area should have a distinct picture or icon to represent it (e.g., Provide students with the 2000 Census as a resource and establish a ―one symbol = 50,000 people‖ guideline.).
Students should be thoughtful in their design of pictographs, as these are representative of larger ideas. To complete their pictographs, they should include a brief narrative that explains the relevance of each selected symbol. These should be presented to the class as the basis for a class discussion on the ways in which location and physical features have influenced historical events in Louisiana and the development of the state (e.g., Mississippi River/swamp in the Battle of New Orleans).
Activity 8: Rivers and Roads (GLEs: 6, 9)
1. Provide students with a map outline of Louisiana with the following rivers and bayous (Mississippi, Red, Lafourche, Pearl, Teche, Sabine and Calcasieu). Have the students label the rivers/bayous as well as locate the cities of Natchitoches, Shreveport, Monroe, Alexandria, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Houma/Thibodaux, St. Martinville/New Iberia, Lake Charles. Have students write an explanation of the relationship of these cities to the rivers/bayous (i.e., transportation). Emphasis is placed on the fact that early settlements were located on major waterways. (See Activity 7 for founding dates.)
2. Using the same or a similar map, assist students in identifying the following major historic roadways such as El Camino Real (LA 6, Hwy 90 / Natchitoches to San Antonio to Mexico City), Old Spanish Trail (U.S. 90, Hwy 182 / New Orleans to New Iberia to Toomey / Sabine River), and Nolan’s Trace (U.S. 84 / Natchez to Texas). Using an atlas have students denote
one to two major cities on these routes not already listed as a river city (e.g., Crowley, Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 7
Lafayette). Have students draw conclusions as to why these cities flourished after the routes were established.
3. In addition to the selected historic routes, now have students draw (possibly a new map for portfolio) several major modern highways such as interstates (i.e., 10, 12, 20, 49, 55)*, U.S. highways (i.e., 65, 90, 165, 167, 190), and any major state highways especially local highways (i.e., LA 1, 6, 182). Again, have students label one city/town on the highways identified.
Teacher Note: Denote to students that interstate highways are numbered with even numbers from east to west routes and odd numbers from north to south routes.
Activity 9: Physical Change (GLEs: 7, 8)
Divide students into pairs or teams to develop questions and answers addressing physical process/natural disasters and its impact on coastal erosion. Content could include wetlands, Mississippi River, Atchafalaya River, flooding, hurricanes, and the Gulf of Mexico. In a class discussion, have students come to a consensus about how and why specific regions change as a result of physical phenomena.
Then, have students work in pairs or teams to identify and describe three to five factors that cause a Louisiana region to change. They should articulate these factors in an informal narrative, again presented in class discussion, as an opportunity to increase and modify understanding.
Expanded Activity: Create a wall chart or use Inspiration? software to list how humans have
created environmental problems in Louisiana. Have students brainstorm ways to correct these problems.
Activity 10: Vanishing Habitat (GLEs: 7, 8, 9, 17)
Introduce the term habitat to the students with the emphasis on a location (e.g., marsh, forest) that enables fauna to maintain life (food, shelter) and reproduce (nesting). The term migration should be introduced with examples of migratory wildlife (e.g., Canadian geese, hummingbirds) and migratory routes (e.g., river routes from Canada to Louisiana, Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Central America). Have the students line up on one side of an area designated as Canada or Northern U.S.; to represent Canadian geese. The teacher will place sheets of paper on the opposite side of the room to represent the favorable habitat areas in Louisiana (place one to two sheets less than the number of students participating). Have the students walk across the room and stand on a sheet of paper (one person per sheet). Explain that populations are supported by the existing habitat; therefore, the one or two students without a sheet of paper represent a loss in the population due to overpopulation/diminishing habitat and are temporarily eliminated from the activity. Have the students ― fly‖ back to the
other side of the room (Canada) with backs turned away from Louisiana. Teacher removes an Grade 8 Louisiana History;Unit 1;Louisiana’s Physical and Cultural Geography 8