Class: 081 Student Name: Wang Ying Student ID: A01313545
Title: Ford’s Events and Analysis
Fact: During the last centuty, Ford lost market share to Japanese companies making compact, fuel efficient cars. Lee Iaccoca, president of Ford at the time, determined to regain Ford’s share by rapidly developing a new small car called Pinto. Because the
Pinto was a rush project, styling considerations dictated engineering design to a greater degree than usual. In particular, the Pinto’s styling required that the gas tank
be placed behind the rear axle, where it was more vulnerable to being punctured in case of a rear-end collision. When an early model of the Pinto was crash-tested, it was found that, when struck from the rear at 20miles per hour or more, the gas tank would sometimes rupture and gas would spray out and into the passenger compartment. In a real accident, stray sparks may explosively ignite the spraying gasoline and possibly burn any trapped occupants.
Ford manages decided; nonetheless, to go ahead with production of the Pinto for several reasons.First, the design met all the applicable legal and government standards then in effect.Second, Ford managers felt that the car was comparable in safety to several other cars then being produced by other auto companies. Third, according to an internal cost-benefit study that Ford carried out, the costs of modifying the Pinto would not be balanced by the benefits.
The data were calculated. It is estimated that in the decade that followed at least 60persons died in fiery accidents involving Pintos and that at least twice that many suffered severe burns over large areas of their bodies, many requiring years of painful
skin grafts. Ford eventually phased out the Pinto model.
Position: It is unmoral.
Arguments: 1. Utilitarianism means a comparison that behavior and alternative behavior’s benefits. It advocates maximizing utility and match well with moral evaluations of public policies. It also appears intuit to many people and influence economics. Utilitarianism helps explain why some actions are general wrong and right.
On the contrary, Utilitarianism measures and compares different standards about the utility and some benefits and cost are intractable to measurement. Many of the benefits and costs of an action cannot be reliably predicted. It is unclear exactly what I to account as a benefit or a cost and assumption implies that all goods can be traded for equivalent of each other. Companies use indirect ways to reduce costs to get more
bonuses.In short, the goal of the most profits is the company’s pursue.
2.Kant’s theory: The critic that which is more important between benefit and moral is not pointed out clearly. Even if benefit has important status, collision still is collision. In fact, to bring moral into business is necessary.
3.Rawls’ theory: Original position—free equal rational and ignorant.
Principle of equal liberty (free and need), difference principle and principle of fair equality of opportunity (ability and effort) are main comments of the theory. He thinks that consideration of benefit and moral is free to companies and it is due to companies’ ability and effort. This theory is lopsided, too.
4. Ethics of care: An ethics that emphasizes caring for the concrete well being of those near to us.Ford’s managers must be think that themselves are
associated nearer. It looks like the Utilitarianism.Besides, the ethics of care is also called “Ethics of communism”and Ford is complying with the capitalist eethics to
create more value.
5. Ethics of virtue: An ethic based on evaluations of the moral character of persons or groups. Norms about the kinds of actions believed to be morally right and wrong as well as values placed on the kinds of objects believed to be morally good or bad. Benefit and harm cannot be retrained by laws and prefer to self-interest. It is why Ford does this choice.
;SummaryThe kind of analysis that Ford mangers used in their cost-benefit study to consider profit. The Ford mangers reduced costs and benefits primarily to economic costs and benefits(such as medical costs, loss of income, and damage to buildings)and these were measured in monetary terms. But the benefits of an action may include any desirable goods(pleasures,health,lives,satisfactions,knowledge,happinese)produced by an action, and costs may include any of its undesirable evils(pain, which the Ford studydid take into accounts,sickness,death,dissatisfaction,ignorance,unhappinese).The inclusive term used to refer to the met benefits of any sort produced by an action is utility.Hence,the name utilitanism is used for any theory that advocates selection of that action or policy that maximizes benefits(or minimizes cost).
The Ford manger analyst holds that the best way to evaluate the ethical propriety of their business decision-or any other decision-is by relying on profit’s analysis. The
socially responsible course for a business to take is the one that will produce the greatest net benefits for society or impose the lowest net costs. Not only a variety of business people to do this kind of analst, but also do government agencies, numerous moralists and so on.