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Anthropology

By Melvin Rice,2014-07-01 04:16
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Anthropology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the social science. For other uses, see Anthropology (disambiguation). Anthropology Fields Archaeology Biological anthropology Cultural anthropology Linguistic anthropology Social anthropology Frameworks Applied anthropology Ethnography and Ethnology Part..

Anthropology

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the social science. For other uses, see Anthropology

    (disambiguation).

    Anthropology

    Fields

    Archaeology

    Biological anthropology

    Cultural anthropology Linguistic anthropology

    Social anthropology

    Frameworks

    Applied anthropology Ethnography and Ethnology Participant observation

    Qualitative methods

    Holism

    Cultural relativism

    Key concepts

    Culture ? Society Prehistory ? Evolution

    Kinship and descent

    Marriage ? Family Material culture ? Gender

    Race ? Ethnicity

    Functionalism

    Colonialism ? Ethnocentrism

    Postcolonialism

    Areas and subfields Anthropology of religion

    Biocultural anthropology

    Cognitive anthropology

    Ecological anthropology

    Economic anthropology

    Evolutionary anthropology

    Forensic anthropology

    Media anthropology

    Medical anthropology

    Palaeoanthropology

    Transpersonal anthropology

    Urban anthropology

    Visual anthropology

    Related articles

    Sociology

    Prehistory

    History of anthropology

    Outline of anthropology

    Category:Anthropologists

    v ? d ? e

    Anthropology ( /ænθrɵˈpɒlədʒi/) is the study of humanity. It has origins

    [1]in the humanities, the natural sciences, and the social sciences. The

    term "anthropology" is from the Greek anthrōpos (νθρωπος), "human

    being", and -logia (-λογία), "discourse" or "study", and was first [2]used in 1501 by German philosopher Magnus Hundt.

    Anthropology's basic concerns are "What defines Homo sapiens?", "Who are

    the ancestors of modern Homo sapiens?", "What are humans' physical traits?", "How do humans behave?", "Why are there variations and differences among different groups of humans?", "How has the evolutionary

    past of Homo sapiens influenced its social organization and culture?" and so forth.

    In the United States, contemporary anthropology is typically divided into

    four sub-fields: cultural anthropology also known as social anthropology,

    archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and physical (or biological) [3]anthropology. The approach to anthropology is reflected in four-field[4]many undergraduate textbooks as well as anthropology programs (e.g. Michigan, Berkeley, Penn). At universities in the United Kingdom, and much

of Europe, these "sub-fields" are frequently housed in separate [5]departments and are seen as distinct disciplines.

    The social and cultural sub-field has been heavily influenced by structuralist and post-modern theories, as well as a shift toward the analysis of modern societies (an arena more typically in the remit of sociologists). During the 1970s and 1990s there was an epistemological

    shift away from the positivist traditions that had largely informed the [6]discipline. During this shift, enduring questions about the nature and production of knowledge came to occupy a central place in cultural and social anthropology. In contrast, archaeology, biological anthropology, and linguistic anthropology remained largely positivist. Due to this difference in epistemology, anthropology as a discipline has lacked

    cohesion over the last several decades. This has even led to departments diverging, for example in the 19989 academic year at Stanford University,

    where the "scientists" and "non-scientists" divided into two departments: [7]anthropological sciences and cultural & social anthropology; these [8]departments later reunified in the 20089 academic year.

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