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Micro hydro in Sri Lanka

By Holly Ferguson,2014-07-01 03:14
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Micro hydro in Sri Lanka

    Micro hydro in Sri Lanka

    SHPDevelopmentandProgrammeWorldwide ;Microhyd?r0InSriLanka

    ;广一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一一1

    ;Astrategyforempoweringdisadvantagedrural ;communitiesinSriLankaisnowgainingbothna- ;~onalandinternationalrecognition.Theobjectiveof

    ;theElectricityConsumers’Society.istoenab~tom-

    ;munitiestohavetheirownrenewab~energysource, ;ofwhichtheyhavecontrolinall

    ;PERERAandTILAKW.KARUNARATNEreport. ;L——————————————……………..j

    ;SriLankahasbeenanagricul-turalcountryforover2500

    ;years.Waterbeingaprerequisitefor ;agriculture,thecountryhaslongpos- ;sessedahighlydevelopedirrigation ;system.Consistingofhundredsofstor. ;agetanks,thissystemcollectswater ;fromrainandstreamsandusesitto

    ;growrice,thenation’sstaplefood.Yet

    ;theirrigationsystemwasneverused ;asanenergysourceortorunma.

    ;chines.

    ;Historically,theenergysourcefor ;SriLankanswasfuelwood.whichwas ;availableinabundance.Therewasno ;centralsystemtosupplyfirewood-?find-? ;ingitwastheindividualfamily’sre.

    ;sponsibilibuttheneedsofeachfam. ;ilywerenotgreat.Thereisnoarchaeo. ;1ogicalevidencethatpointstotheex. ;istenceofacentralizedsystemforpro. ;visionofenergy.orfortheuseoffuel ;oil,coalorelectricityinthecountry. ;Thissituation,however,startedchang. ;inginthenineteenthcentury.Thees. ;tablishmentofapublicelectricitysys. ;tem(18951andtheintroductionofmi. ;crohydropowertoprocesstealeaves ;intheplantationsector(I9401werethe

;mareturningpoints.

    ;Soon,thenumberofmicrohydro ;powerunitsstartedincreasing,gradu- ;ally,andbythe1940s,therewere ;about500suchunits.allusingim. ;portedequipment-inoperation.The ;averageplantsizewasabout75kW, ;andmatchedafactory’sannualde.

    ;mandforpower.Thel940sand

    ;l950salsosawavastdevelopment ;inthemajorhydropowersectorin ;SriLanka.Severalofthelarge.scale ;storagehydroschemes,suchas ;LaxapanaandGalOya.commenced ;operationduringthisperiod.These ;majorhydroschemesproducedelec

    ;tricityinsuchquantitiesthatthe ;Governmentencouragedfactories ;runningonvillagehydrotoswitch ;tothegrid,withtransformerspro

    ;videdonfavourableterms.Another ;reasontheyswitchedtothemain ;gridelectricitywasthatithadgreater ;capacity,andsoallowedforexpand

    ;ingproduction.

    ;Thechangesinpeople’s

    ;lifestylesinthepost.colonization ;periodmadethemlookforecient

    ;andlesscumbersomewaysofdo. ;ingtheirwork.Thiscompelledthem ;touseenergysourcesotherthan ;biomass.forbothdomesticandin. ;dustrialpurposes,creatinganew ;dependenceonenergysourcessuch ;aselectricityandfueloil.

    ;Byl985,35%ofthepopula-

    ;tionhadaccesstothenationalelec. ;tricitygrid,whilemajorhydro ;schemesaccountedforaround85% ;ofthecountry’selectricitysupplyal

    ;thoughonly5%oftheestateowned

    ;hydroschemesthathadbeenfunc. ;tioninginthe1940swerestilloperat- ;ing.Seeingtheimportanceofalter-

    ;nativeenergyinthefuture.ITDG. ;SouthAsiastartedworkonvillage ;hydroinl990.

    ;However,thepositionofhydro ;powerchangedinl996,whenthe ;longdroughtthatprevailedinhydro- ;reservoirareasresultedinpowercuts ;floruDtosixhoursaday.Theinad- ;equatepowercompelledthegovern- ;ment-monopolyCeylonElectricity ;Board(CEB)toincreasepowergen- ;eration,mainlythroughuseofther- ;malandgassources.sincealmostall ;bighydropowerpotentialwas

    ;tapped.Theuseofimportedfuel ;causedelectricitypricehikesandad- ;verseenvironmentaleffects.These ;developmentsemphasizedtheneed ;foraltemativeenergysources,which ;wouldbeenvironmentallyfriendly ;andcanservethepoor.Thislatter ;considerationisveryimportantina ;countrywhereover50%ofthepopu- ;lationarerecipientsofgovemment ;subsidy.

    ;Context

    ;Today,SriLankahasapopulationof19.1million,ofwhich ;70%liveinruralcommunities.Inmeet. ;ingthepeople’senergyneeds,indig

    ;enoussourcesofbiomassaccount ;for7l%ofallenergyfasurveyre. ;vealed98%ofruralhousesusefuel ;woodforcooking).Oil,meanwhile ;whichisentirelyimported.accounts ;forl9%.withkeroseneusedforlight. ;ingmostoftheruralhouses.The ;21

    ;

    ;SHPDevelopmentandProgrammeWorldwide ;othermainsource..electricity..only ;provideslO%ofthetotalconsumed. ;About54%Ofthepopulation

    ;hasaccesstogridelectricity,with ;mostofthisfigurelivinginurbanar

    ;eas.Afarsmallerproportionofthe ;ruralpopulationhasgridaccess,the ;lowpopulationdensityandthehigh ;transmissioncostsmakingpower ;supplyforremoteareasunviable. ;Manyruralfamiliesarewithoutelec

    ;tricitVatpresentandforthenextfew ;yearsatleast,ifnotmorepermanently. ;Inthewakeofannualdemandforelec

    ;tricitygrowingatlO%.themainsup

    ;plier,CEB,isfacedwithanecessary ;evilthermalpowerwhichhaslong

    ;termconsequencesfortheenviron

    ;ment,healthandthegovemmentcof- ;fers

    ;ITDGintelistenlion

    ;Imcontex.t.thatthe.rehasbeenarenewedinterestinnon-

    ;conventionalandrenewablesources ;ofenergy.TheEnergyProgrammeof ;theITDG—SriLanka(now’ITDG—

    ;SouthAsia’)identifiedthisneed.and

    ;tookthefollowingmeasures: ;?introductionofmicrohydro(MH, ;powerasadecentralizedsourceof ;energy

    ;?developingastrategytopromote

    ;thisformofenergypublicly

    ;?establishmentofasustainable

    ;systemthatcanbeimplemented, ;managed,operatedandmaintained ;bythepeople,tocontinuethe ;project’srole.

    ;Theresultwastheformulation ;andimplementationofaspecific ;project,VillageHydro,from1994,as ;analternativetoconventionalenergy ;sources.Theproject,whichaimedto ;implementmicrohydroinavillage ;setting,possessedthefollowing ;components:

    ;?resolvingtheengineeringand

    ;technicalissuespertainingtothe ;MHprojects

    ;?designingandimplementingMH

;projects

    ;?availabilityofsubsidiesandfund—

    ;ing

    ;?improvingthequalityandbenefits

    ;oftheprojectoutputs

    ;?replicationofvillagehydro

    ;?capacity-buildingofpublicandpri

    ;vatesectororganizations

    ;?collectionanddisseminationofin

    ;formation

    ;?influencingpolicymakerstopro—

    ;motemicrohydropowergenera

    ;tionconcepts

    ;?internationalnetworkingtoshare

    ;experiences.

    ;Thestrategy-anElectricity ;Consumers’Society

    ;Theprocessbeganbyidentifyingremotevillageswithout ;accesstoelectricitybutwiththepo

    ;tentialforhydropower.Oncethevii

    ;lageswerelocated,theEnergy ;ProgrammeofITDGSouthAsiaand

    ;itsTechnicalAdvisoryCommittee ;conductedfurtherstudieswiththe ;supportofvillagers.Ifthereweresuf- ;ficientresourcesforavillagehydro ;unit,theEnergyProgrammevisited ;thevillageanddiscussedthe ;coummunity’senergYneedswithre.

    ;gardtothemeanstofulfilthem.The ;possibilityofusingthewaterpower ;wasalsotakenup,leadingtothe ;topic’villagehydro’.Suchvisitsand

    ;longdiscussions,supportedbyvis

    ;itstoexistingvillagehydroprojects, ;eventuallyconvincedthepeoplethat ;theycouldutilizewaterpower. ;Drivenbythedesiretohave

    ;electricity,villagersformedthem. ;selvesintoasocialorganization ;calledtheElectricityConsumers’So.

    ;ciety(ECS).TheECSthentooktime ;todiscussanddevelopanactionplan ;~

;22

    ;developmentoflocalcapa

    ;

    ;cityforinitiating

    ;

    ;avillagehydrounit.In

    ;addition,theECSpreparedanesti

    ;mateotcostsforsettingupaunit. ;andstartedraisingfundsthrough ;cOntributi0ns.

    ;Moreoftenthannot.itwasthe ;womenandchildrenthatwerein

    ;volvedinmeetings,inplanningthe ;projectactivities,andintheimple

    ;mentation.Forexample,womenand ;childrendecidedthedatesforsome ;constructionactivitiesforwhichthey ;providedlabour.Whendecidingas ;towhichroomsaretobelitinapar

    ;ticularhouse.itisagainwomenand ;childrenthattaketheleadindecision

    ;makingratherthanthemen,whowere ;insteadinvolvedintheheavywork ;component.

    ;ITDG—SouthAsia’srolewas

    ;specificandlimitedtofacilitation.It ;assistedpeoplebygivingtechnical ;informationatECS’sdiscussionsand

    ;bybeingarefereewhentheclearance ;fromgovernmentauthorities,touti

    ;lizewatersources.wassoughtafter. ;ECSconsistsofmembersofthevii

    ;lagecommunity.TheteamfromITDG

    ;SouthAsiawascomposedofafew ;staffmembers,assistedbyavolun. ;teerTechnicalAdvisoryComminee ;rTAC).WiththeECSandITDGSouth

    ;Asiatogether,theprocessofinitiat

    ;ingvillagehydrobegan.

    ;Becausetheprospectiveloca. ;tionsofvillagehydrowereinremote ;andhillyterrain,accessingtheloca

    ;tionwasverydifficult.TheECSfaced ;thisatallstagesoftheworkcon.

;structingthepowerhouse,transport

    ;ingthemachineryandlayingthe ;transmissionlines,etc.Ittook ;months,sometimesevenyears,of ;workingandovercomingsetbacks, ;fortheECStocompletethewhole ;exercise.Often,itwasonlythesheer ;determinationofbothpartiesthat ;madehydroareality.

    ;Inthisway,villagehydrounits ;werebuiltandstartedoperating.They ;areowned,managed,operatedand ;SHPNews,Winter,2002

    ;

    ;SHPDevelopmentandProgrammeWorldwide ;maintainedbythecommunity-Fun ;ECSs.Beingacollectiveofpeople, ;theECSenabledthebeneficiariesto ;developandcontrolhydropoweras ;alocalresource.increasingthe ;people’sautonomy.Forinstance,it

    ;wastheECSthatdevelopedinstitu- ;tionalmechanismsandthetaftffstruc- ;turesforeachvillagehydroscheme, ;withITDG.SouthAsia’ssupport.

    ;Thesetariffstructuresregularizedthe ;leviesandbecameausefultoolinas- ;sesslngvariousaspects,suchaseco’

    ;nomicviability,members’welfare,

    ;end-useproducts,sizinganddesign ;oftheschemes.

    ;Thetariffequationisdeliber. ;atelydesignedtoincludefactorslike ;numberofhouses,becausethishelps ;makesociallybeneficialdecisions.For ;example.itispossibletochoosebe- ;tweenonedesignapproachwhich ;linksmorehousestothehydro.and ;anotherthatlinksfewerhousesbut ;offersemploymenttoafewpoorer ;villagers.

    ;ITDG.SouthAsia’sexperience

    ;isthatallhydropowerequipment ;usedinplantationswasofforeign

    ;manufacturewhich,althoughitgen- ;eratedpower,didnothelpinbuilding ;localtechnicalcapacity.Furthermore. ;thelocalmanufactureofsmallhydro ;equipmentwasinhibited.Nobody ;hadspecialistexpertiseinvillagehy- ;dro,soimprovingthelocalcapabili- ;tiesthusbecameimperativetothe ;developmentofvillagehydro.Ac- ;cordingly,severalon-the-jobtraining ;programmeswereconductedby

    ;ITDG.SouthAsia.andthecapacity ;todesign,install,maintainandoper- ;ateunitswasestablished.Twomaior ;achievementsoftheseprogrammes ;havebeen:

    ;?thecapacity-buildingofsixlocal ;mechanicalworkshopstomanu. ;facturehydroturbinesandtheaf- ;filiatedcomponentswithlocalty ;availablematerials,andtopro. ;duceandadaptequipmentfrom

    ;existingdesigns

    ;?thedevelopmentofavillagehy- ;dromodelinwhichthetechnol- ;ogy,costandmanagementcom’

    ;ponentsweresimplifiedsuffi- ;cientlyenabledthevillagersto ;handlemostoftheworklocally. ;Indevelopingthetechnicalca- ;pacity,theapproachwastotrainsome ;technicianswhosepotentialhadbeen ;identifiedthroughcomprehensive ;screening.Thetrainingcoveredsev- ;eralareas,includingtheredesignand ;manufactureoftheequipment--tur-- ;binesandthegenerators,single- ;phaseinductiongeneratorsfrewired ;fromthree.phaseinductionmotors, ;locallyassembledandavailableinthe ;market).inductiongeneratorcontrol- ;lersfmanufacturedfromelectronic ;componentsfoundinthelocalmar- ;ket)andsoforth.AsSriLankansare

    ;familiarwithmaintainingandoperat- ;ingthesemachines.thiswasfcIund ;tObeamoresustainableapproachto ;villagehydrothanusingtheimported ;equipment.

    ;Withtechnicalskillsdeveloped, ;avillagehydromodelmadeanda ;mechanismforpeople’sinvolvement

    ;(i.e.ECS)established,theprojectini- ;tiatedfourpilotvillagehydrosites, ;andthenmovedintothevillagehy- ;droreplicationprocess.Thistoowas ;adif6cultandtime.consumingpro- ;cess.sincealittlemodificationwas ;requiredwheninstallingavillagehy- ;drounit.tosuitittoitslocationand ;watersource.Theoutcomewasthe ;constructionandoperationof75vii- ;lagehydroschemesbyAugust2000. ;0fthesevillagehydros.oneisina ;teaestateservingtheestate

    ;labourers’families.andanotherisof

    ;low-headtechnology,apilotscheme ;initiatedfortestingpurposes.The ;schemespossessanaccruedcapac- ;itvofover400kW,andprovideelec. ;tricityandtheassociatedbenefitsto ;2000poorandunder.servedfamilies ;in75underprivilegedvillages. ;Generally,theECSmembers

    ;havecontributedover40%oftotal ;costsbycarryingoutcivilworks,wir- ;ing,installationandlayingthetrans’

    ;missionlinesforallvillagehydro ;schemes.Skilled,indigenouscasting ;technologywasmouldedintothe ;manufactureofturbines.Masonry ;expertisewaseasilyavailable,nor ;wasitdifficulttoprocurean

    ;electrician’sserviceforthework.The

    ;villagecontributionasawholecon- ;sistedofcash,materialsandlabour. ;Themainpartofthefundingforthe ;schemes,however,camefromvarious

;sourcessuchasthegovernment’s

    ;EnergyConservationFundandthe ;JanasaviyaTrustFund.1ocalgovem- ;mentauthoritiesandProvincialCoun

    ;cils.ITDG.SouthAsiaandaTAC ;ftechnicaladvisorycommittee),con- ;sistingofexpertsfromresearchinsti- ;tutionsandtheprivatesector,ren- ;deredthetechnicalsupport.

    ;Sincetheentireprojectprocess ;wasnewtothecountry,theexpert- ;enceearnedfromtheworkwascon- ;sideredvaluabletobothITDGSouth

    ;Asiaandthedonorsthatfundedthe ;Droject.Thelessonslearnedwere ;thusdocumentedandsharedwiththe ;othersconcernedatseminars,work

    ;shopsandatstaffexchangevisits, ;atloca1.regionalandinternational ;levels.Atpresent.thesubjectofvil- ;lagehydroisaddressedbyseveral ;publications,includingevaluation ;reports.InfacttheSriLankanexperi

    ;enceinvillagehydrocontributedin ;nosmallmeasureintheproduction ;OfITDG’spublicationsonthesub-

    ;ject.

    ;Theexperienceshowedthatthe ;initialinvestmentforvillagehydrois, ;fromthevillagers’perspective,high

    ;enoughtoseemunaffordable.This ;necessitatestheprovisionofinitial ;23

    ;

    ;SHPDevelopmentandProgrammeWorldwide ;capital,oratleastapartofit,exter

    ;nallytomakevillagehydroaf-ford. ;abletothepeoplethatmostneedit. ;Thiscaneitherbeasubsidyoraloan ;atlowinterestrates.dependingon ;theprojectandthecommunitycapac

    ;ity.Infact.asaresultoftheSuccess ;fuldevelopmentofvillagehydroby ;ITDG.SouthAsia.theDFCCBank

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