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    Appendix i Draft SPD

    Open Space

    Supplementary Planning

    Document

Guidance for planners, applicants for planning

    permission, consultants, developers and all other

    interested parties.

    Consultation Draft

    May 2008

    Contents

    Introduction 1 p. 3 When will this SPD be applied? 2 p. 4 What types of open space will be required? 3 p. 5 How will the policy operate? 4 p.7 Where are the open spaces to be provided? 5 p.11 How are developer contributions for off-site open space calculated? 6 p.12 How are commuted sums for the maintenance of open space 7 p.12 calculated?

    How is the provision of open space to be secured? 8 p.13

    Further information 9 p.13

    Appendix 1 p.14 Appendix 2 p.14

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1. Introduction

1.1 Kettering Borough Council is keen to ensure that all residents in the borough enjoy a

    high quality living environment. A key element in contributing to the quality of the

    environment is access to adequate and safe open space with opportunity for both

    formal and informal recreation. Open spaces, sport and recreation all underpin

    people‟s quality of life.

1.2 This document is a Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) to North

    Northamptonshire Core Spatial Strategy Policy 7: Infrastructure Delivery and

    Developer Contributions, which states that:

    “New development will be supported by the timely delivery of

    infrastructure, services and facilities necessary to provide balanced, more

    self-sufficient communities…Developers will either make direct provision

    or will contribute towards the provision of local and strategic infrastructure

    required by the development either alone or cumulatively with other

    developments.

1.3 The purpose of this Open Space SPD is to ensure that adequate open space, sports

    pitches and facilities for children and young people are provided to serve all new

    residential development in the borough. The SPD also provides guidance on

    opportunities to enhance the quality and accessibility of existing open space

    provision.

    1.4 The Government‟s Planning Policy Guidance Note 17: Planning for Open Space,

    Sport and Recreation provides guidance for Local Planning Authorities in seeking to

    achieve three long term outcomes:

    ? Networks of accessible, high quality open space, sport and recreation

    facilities in both urban and rural areas, which meet the needs of residents and

    visitors, are fit for purpose and economically and environmentally sustainable;

    ? An appropriate balance between new provision and the enhancement of

    existing provision; and

    ? Clarity and reasonable certainty for developers and landowners in relation to

    the requirements and expectations of local planning authorities, in respect of

    open space, sport and recreation provision.

1.2 To help achieve these aims, PPG17 advises that local authorities should set their

    own standards of provision for a range of open space, sport and recreation facilities and

    include these within their Local Development Frameworks. These standards should be

    used to ensure that the occupants of new houses have access to sufficient, good quality

    open space to meet their recreational needs.

1.3 This document sets out new local standards for the provision of open space in

    connection with new housing development in the Borough. It provides information on the

    level of open space contributions that will be sought from new residential developments,

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together with other explanatory advice. The level of contributions will be updated

    annually.

1.5 This SPD sets minimum quantity standards and size standards for open space

    across the Borough. Development Plan Documents, masterplans or development briefs

    for key sites may contain specific policies on open space that vary from these standards,

    and will supersede the borough wide policy.

1.6 The final SPD will form part of Kettering Boroughs LDF. In accordance with the

    Town and Country Planning (Local Development) (England) Regulations 2004, this

    consultation seeks the involvement of all interested parties in the development of the

    SPD

1.7 The six objectives of this SPD are to:

    ? Retain, improve and create access for all to open space, sport and recreation

    facilities, including through the enhancement of links between urban open

    spaces and the countryside and the sustainable management of these

    facilities.

    ? Integrate spatial and transport policies and locate new open space, sport and

    recreation development where it is accessible to a range of transport modes;

    ? Reduce crime, the fear of crime and anti-social behaviour;

    ? Increase leisure opportunities for children and young people;

    ? Deliver a wide range of high quality, sustainable open space that is fit for

    purpose, throughout the Borough; and

    ? Provide an appropriate balance between the provision of new open space

    and the enhancement of existing open space, so that the needs and

    aspirations of existing and futures communities are met.

2. When will this SPD be applied?

    2.1 The Borough Council‟s standards for the provision of open space will be applied to

    all applications for new residential development that result in a net gain in residential

    units. This includes proposals that involve:

    ? conversions

    ? changes of use

    ? flats

    ? bedsits

    ? sheltered and extra/close care housing where the applicant has not

    completed an “Extra Care Housing Pro Forma”

    ? affordable housing

    ? self-catering holiday accommodation (that is capable of normal residential

    use)

    ? agricultural workers dwellings

    ? renewal of planning permission that has expired at the time of submission

    ? revised planning permission (where the number of bedrooms increases as a

    result of the revision)

    ? Planning applications to make temporary dwellings permanent

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2.2 The following forms of development will not be subject to the policy:

    ? rest homes

    ? nursing homes

    ? extra/close care housing where the applicant has completed an “Extra

    Care Housing Pro Forma”

    ? replacement dwellings

    ? residential extensions

    ? residential annexes

    ? revised planning permission (provided that the number of bedrooms is not

    increased by the revision)

    ? renewal of planning permission that has not expired at the time of

    submission

    ? temporary dwellings

3. What types of open space will be required?

3.1 The Council will normally require developers to provide for the eleven types of open

    space in the table below. Each type of open space has its own „Vision‟, which describes

    the purposes and particular features of the open space.

    "A welcoming, clean and litter free site providing a one-stop

    community facility with a wide range of leisure, recreational and

    enriched play opportunities for all ages. Parks and gardens should be

    Parks and Gardens well maintained, providing varied vegetation, clear pathways,

     appropriate lighting and ancillary accommodation (including seating

    and litter bins) and well-signed to and within the site. Sites should

    have a written management plan and

    measures should be taken to address identified issues at these sites.

    „A clean, well vegetated, litter free site with clear pathways and

    natural features that encourages wildlife conservation, biodiversity Natural and Semi-and environmental awareness. Management of local sites should Natural Greenspace involve the community/stakeholder if at all possible and there should (includes Urban be a clear focus on maintaining and increasing the conservation and Woodlands) biodiversity value of these sites and ensuring public access where appropriate. Sites should have a written management plan and

    measures should be taken to address identified issues at these sites.‟

    “A clean and well-maintained greenspace site. Sites should have

    appropriate ancillary accommodation (dog and litter bins etc),

    pathways and landscaping in the right places providing a spacious

    outlook and overall enhancing the appearance of the local

    Amenity Greenspace environment. Larger sites should be suitable for informal play

    opportunities and should be enhanced to encourage the site to

    become a community focus. Smaller sites should adopt a design led

    approach to discourage inappropriate informal play”

    A site providing a mix of well-maintained formal equipment and

    enriched play environment in a safe and secure convenient location

    Provision for Children overlooked by housing and footpaths or located within a larger park

     facility. The site should have clear boundaries; be clean; be litter, dog,

    vandalism and graffiti free; and be lit. Sites should also comply with

    appropriate national guidelines for design and safety"

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    “A site providing a robust yet imaginative play environment for older

    children in a safe and secure location, with clear separation from

    younger children facilities, that promotes a sense of ownership. The

    Provision for Young site should include clean, litter and dog free areas for more informal

    People play and areas of shelter (with seating) and where appropriate sites

    should be well lit. Sites

    should also comply with appropriate national guidelines for design

    and safety”

    “A well-planned, clean and litter and dog fouling free sports facility

    site, with level and well-drained good quality surfaces, appropriate

    Outdoor Sports good quality ancillary accommodation including changing

    Facilities accommodation, toilets and car parking . The site should have

     appropriate management ensuring community safety and include

    lighting and the use of mobile CCTV where

    appropriate to address anti-social behaviour.

    A clean, secure and well-kept site that encourages sustainable

    development, bio-diversity, healthy living and education objectives

    with appropriate ancillary facilities (eg litter bins and water supply) to Allotments and meet local needs, well kept grass and good quality soils. The site Community Gardens should be spacious providing appropriate access and clear

    boundaries and conform to current best practice and local policy for

    allotment management.”

    “A clean, well-maintained, safe and secure corridor with clear

    Green Corridors pathways, linking major open spaces together and enhancing natural

     features. Corridors should provide ancillary facilities such as bins,

    seating and lighting in appropriate places and signage.”

    A clean and well-maintained site providing long-term burial capacity,

    an area of quiet contemplation and a sanctuary for wildlife. Sites Cemeteries, Disused should have clear pathways and varied vegetation and landscaping Churchyards and other and provide appropriate ancillary accommodation (e.g. facilities for Burial Grounds flowers litter bins and seating.) Access to sites should be enhanced by parking facilities and by

    public transport routes, particularly in urban areas”

    A clean, well-maintained, safe and secure site, with generally hard

    landscaping but may accommodate soft areas. Sites should be

    Civic Spaces adequately designed and maintained in order to serve a particular

    civic function. Ancillary accommodation, including toilets, lighting and

    CCTV should be provided where appropriate.”

3.2 As well as meeting the requirements of the vision statements set out above, and the

    standards that follow in this SPD, the provision of new open space or enhancement of

    existing open space should have regard to guidance set out in national planning policy

    and the development plan for Kettering Borough. Particular attention should be paid to

    the North Northamptonshire Sustainable Design Supplementary Planning Document

    (SPD), which includes guidance on how open space can contribute to measures that

    affect climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as measures to improve the

    quality of life for residents.

3.3 This SPD sets quantity standards for most of the above typologies, but does not set

    quantity standards for indoor sport facilities, cemeteries and burial grounds, civic spaces or green corridors. These typologies are either the subject of separate

    strategies or not appropriate for quantity standards with this SPD. However, financial

    contributions may still be sought for the creation, enhancement or maintenance of these

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typologies in certain circumstances, and will be assessed on a case-by-case basis. More

    details on these typologies are provided in parts G and H below.

4. How will the policy operate?

    4.1.1 The Council will provide developers with speedy advice on the open space

    requirements that their proposals entail (including through the use of GIS). To help

    developers estimate their open space requirements.

4.2 The operation of the policy is broken into two stages:

STAGE ONE: Does the housing development create a need for new open space?

4.3 For each of the seven types of open space, the Council will firstly assess whether a

    new area of open space needs to be provided as a result of the proposed housing development. This will be done by following Stages A to F below, for each type of open

    space.

    A. Estimate the number of residents living in the proposed development. This will be calculated by reference to the following assumed occupation rates for different sizes of

    dwellings:

No. of bedrooms 1 2 3 4 5+

    Assumed no. of residents 1 2 3 4 5

When an application is received in „outline‟ and the number and type of dwellings are

    unknown, the open space requirement will be estimated by applying a minimum density

    of 30 dwellings per hectare gross housing development and an average household size 1of 2.35. This is intended to provide an initial guide to the likely open space requirement.

    The initial figure will in all circumstances be updated by a detailed calculation based on the number of bedrooms, once a reserved matters application is submitted.

B. Calculate the existing amount open space within the following distance thresholds of 2the new housing development:

    ? Parks and Gardens: 480m

    ? Natural and Semi Natural Greenspaces: 720m

    ? Outdoor Sports Facilities: 960m

    ? Amenity Greenspace: 480m

    ? Provision for Children: 480m

    ? Provision for Young People: 480m

    ? Allotments and Community Gardens: 720m

For ease of measurement and clarity for developers, each of these distance thresholds

    is measured „as the crow flies‟ from the edge of the new housing development. See

    figure 1 below for an example:

     1 Based on DCGL Population Projections 2008. 2 This will be calculated using GIS to identify a catchment around the proposed development site with a radius equal to the relevant distance threshold. GIS with then calculate the amount of open space of each type within the relevant catchment.

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Figure 1: - Example of a 480m accessibility zone around a site

     3C. Estimate the existing residential population within the relevant distance threshold . Add this to the estimated population of the new housing development.

This will give a total population figure.

    D. Compare the existing amount of open space and the total population within the relevant distance with the following minimum quantity standards:

    ? Parks and Gardens: 0.3 hectares per 1000 people 4? Natural and Semi Natural Greenspaces: 0.9 hectares per 1000 people

    ? Outdoor Sports Facilities: 1.8 hectares per 1000 people

    ? Amenity Greenspace: 0.8 hectares per 1000 people

    ? Provision for Children: 0.45 play facilities per 1000 people

    ? Provision for Young People: 0.25 play facilities per 1000 people

    ? Allotments and Community Gardens: 0.4 hectares per 1000 people

     3 Estimated using GIS 4Whilst a development site may by physically large enough to accommodate an area of Natural and Semi-Natural Greenspace to the minimum standard, in the interests of making the most efficient use of land the Council will only require on-site provision under certain circumstances (e.g. the site already contains Natural and Semi-Natural Greenspace which would benefit from enlargement; or the topography/conditions of part of the site lends itself to use as Natural and Semi-Natural Greenspace). Where on-site provision is not required, the Council will, where appropriate, require a financial contribution towards the provision of new, or the enhancement of existing, Natural and Semi-Natural Greenspace off-site.

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    E. Assess whether the developer is required to provide for a new area of open space. A new area of open space will normally be required if the existing amount of open space is insufficient to cater for the needs of the total population. Using Amenity Greenspace as an example:

    ? The quantity standard for Amenity Greenspace is 0.8 ha per 1000 people.

    ? The estimated population of the new housing development is 150 people and the

    existing population within the distance threshold (480m) of the development is

    600, giving a total population of 750 people.

    ? (0.8 ha / 1000) x 750 = 0.68 ha

    ? The existing amount of Amenity Greenspace within 480m the development is

    0.4 hectares. This is a lower level of provision than 0.68 ha per 1000 people. It

    means that unless new Amenity Greenspace is provided, the open space needs

    of residents from the new housing development will not be met. The developer

    will therefore be required to provide sufficient new Amenity Greenspace to meet

    the needs of residents from the new housing development.

F. If a new area of open space is required, calculate how large that area should be.

    Using the same example:

    ? (0.8/1000 ha) x the estimated population of the new housing development (150 =

    0.12ha

    ? The developer will therefore be required to provide 0.12ha of new Amenity

    Greenspace.

4.4 This assessment will be carried out for each of the seven types of open space. A

    spreadsheet calculator used to undertake this assessment can be viewed on the

    Council‟s website (www.kettering.gov.uk/ldf). Using the data derived from steps A F above, a summary of open space requirements is produced (see figure 2 below).

    Kettering Borough Council will use this summary, on a case-by-case basis, to determine

    the open space requirement for developments. In assessing how to provide open space

    it is necessary to have regard to the guidelines on minimum size standards for each type provided in paragraph 5.5 below.

Figure 2 open space calculator example

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4.5 For each type, a requirement to provide a new area of open space will normally only

    be waived if it is found that the relevant quantity standard is met or exceeded at stage E.

4.6 Section 5 gives further details about where the new open space should be provided.

G. Assess whether the new development should provide or contribute to indoor sports

    facilities including swimming pools and sports halls.

    ? Residential schemes of 20 homes or more will be expected make a financial

    contribution to the provision of indoor sports facilities (alongside obligations for

    open space specified in D above). This will be established using KBC‟s emerging

    Sports Strategy and Sport England Standards.

STAGE 2: Does the housing development create a need to improve the quality of

    existing open space in the local area?

H. Assess whether the new development should contribute to improving the quality of

    existing open space provision.

4.7 It may be the case that, when assessed against the relevant quantity standards in

    paragraph 4.3 above, there are enough (e.g.) Parks and Gardens in the local area to meet the needs of the total population. If this is the case, the Council may instead

    expect a developer contribution to enhance the quality of existing Parks and Gardens in

    the area, in line with the relevant Vision in paragraph 3.1 above.

    4.8 Continuing with this example, the Council will firstly identify all Parks and Gardens within 480m (the relevant distance threshold) of the new residential development that

    are below the „quality standard‟ for Parks and Gardens. A developer contribution to enhance existing Parks and Gardens will normally be required when there is a Park and Garden within 480m of the proposed development that does not meet it‟s quality

    standard. There may be more than one Park and Garden within 480m that does not meet the quality standard. In such cases, the developer contribution will automatically be

    allocated to enhance the quality of the Park and Garden that is closest to the development site. However, if all Parks and Gardens within the 480m meet the quality standard, then the developer contribution for Parks and Gardens will normally be waived.

I. Assess whether the new development should make a financial contribution towards

    civic spaces, green corridors or cemeteries and burial grounds:

4.9 Although this SPD does not set quantity or accessibility standards for these

    typologies, new developments will be required to make a financial contribution towards

    civic spaces, green corridors or cemeteries and burial grounds. This may include the

    creation of a new open space asset or the enhancement and maintenance of an existing

    one. Kettering Borough Council will use the finding of the PPG17 Study and other

    emerging strategies to identify such requirements. For example:

    ? Kettering Borough Council‟s emerging Green Infrastructure Strategy will progress

    the findings of the PPG17 Study and work of the River Nene Regional Park in

    order to identify opportunities to create, enhance and protect green infrastructure

    assets in the Borough.

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