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Marketing mix

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Marketing mix

UNIT 7 “Marketing mix

    I. Text

    Marketing is the term given to the different activities involved in distributing goods from the manufacturer to the final customer. It means two things. First, it is a strategy and set of techniques to sell an organization's products or services. This involves choosing target customers and designing a persuasive marketing mix to get them to buy. The mix may include a range of brands, tempting prices, convenient sales outlets and a battery of advertising and promotions. The combination of the different elements of a company's marketing plan is known as the marketing mix, that comprises the 4 Ps: products(goods), price, place, promotion. The four Ps are a useful summary of the marketing mix, the activities that you have to combine successfully in order to sell. Let’s look at

    these activities in detail.

    1. Products (Goods) can refer to the materials and components used to make products, or the products that are made.

    Here are some examples of these different types of goods:

    Consumer goods that last a long time, such as cars and washing machines, are consumer durables. Consumer goods such as food products that sell quickly are fast-moving consumer goods, or FMCG.

    A brand is a name a company gives to its products so they can be easily recognized. This may be the name of the company itself: the make of the product. For products like cars, you refer to the make and model, the particular type of car, for example, the Ford (make) Ka (model).

    Brand awareness or brand recognition is how much people recognize a brand. The ideas people have about a brand is its brand image. Many companies have a brand manager who is in charge of creating brands and keeping them in customer's minds through advertising, packaging, etc. A brand should have a clear brand identity so that people think of it in a particular way in relation to other brands.

    A product with the retailer's own name on it is an own-brand product (BrE) or own-label product (AmE).

    Products that are not branded, those that do not have a brand name, are generic products or generics.

    2. Promotion includes all the activities aimed to increase the demand for a product. Sales promotion denotes the work of selling a product by all useful methods such as: powerful advertising; personal persuasion of possible customers by visit, phone or letter; exhibitions, displays and demonstrations; competitions for prizes; free samples; trading stamps, etc.

    Advertising is an important element of the marketing function. It is used to increase sales by making the product or service known to a wider audience, and by emphasising its superior qualities. A company can advertise in a variety of ways, depending on how much it wishes to spend, and the size and type of the target audience. The different media for advertising include television, radio, newspapers, magazines and direct mail, by which advertisers send letters, brochures and leaflets directly to potential customers.

    Advertising is a highly developed business. In the UK, for example, approximately ?5 billion is spent on advertising each year.

    3. Pricing is an important stage of marketing. Products, for example skis, exist in different models. Some are basic, some more sophisticated. The cheapest skis are low-end or bottom-end. The most expensive ones are high-end or top-end products, designed for experienced users (or people with a lot of money!). The cheapest entry-level skis are for beginners who have never bought skis before. Those in between are mid-range. If you buy sophisticated skis to replace basic ones, you trade up and move upmarket. If you buy cheaper skis after buying more expensive ones, you trade down and move downmarket.

    Downmarket can show disapproval. If a publisher takes a newspaper downmarket, they make it more popular, but less cultural, to increase sales.

     1

    Mass market describes goods that sell in large quantities and the people who buy them. For example, family cars are a mass market product. A niche or niche market is a small group of buyers with special needs, which may be profitable to sell to. For example, sports cars are a niche in the car industry.

    4. Place. After manufacturers produce finished goods from raw materials or from components. They usually sell them in bulk to a wholesaler. The wholesaler supplies the goods to many different retailers and then the retailers sell them to individual customers.

     People buy things in a shop (BrE) or store (AmE). Companies may call it a retail outlet or sales outlet. there are a lot of different types of shop: chain stores, department stores, hypermarkets, etc. in Britain a shopping centre or shopping precinct is a purpose-built area of building in a town centre with a number of shops. Outside towns, there are shopping malls, where it is easy to park.

    A fifth P which is sometimes added is packaging: all the materials used to protect and present a product before it is sold.

    This first concept of marketing as selling and persuasion is by far the most popular idea among both managers and the public.

    The second, and by far more important concept of marketing, focuses on improving the reality of what is on offer. It is based on understanding customers' needs and developing new solutions which are better than those currently available. Doing this is not a marketing department problem, but one which involves the whole organization.

    Creating company-wide focus on the customer requires the continual acquisition of new skills and technology. Marketing is rarely effective as a business function. As the chief executive of Hewlett Packard put it: 'Marketing is too important to leave to the marketing department'. Such companies understand that everybody's task is marketing. This concept of marketing offering real customer value is what business is all about.

    Exercises.

    1. Translate into Russian.

pricing

    promotion

    persuasion,

    currently,

    acquisition,

    to charge prices,

    consumer durables,

    fast-moving consumer goods,

    the make of something,

    low-end / bottom-end,

    high-end / top end,

    entry level,

    trade up / down, outlet.

2. Explain

target customers,

    tempting prices,

    a range of brands,

    to be on offer,

    move upmarket /downmarket,

    niche (market) ,

    product endorsement.

    3. a. Fill in the gaps with the words from the boxes.

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    product, price, marketing, ‘The Four Ps’, place, marketing mix, to promote

    ……………

    ….. is the term given to all the different activities intended to make and attract a profitable demand for a product. This involves:

    ; identifying consumer needs and wants in order to develop the ………...

    ; setting the ……...

    ; deciding on the best ………. to sell the product..

    ; deciding on how best ……………… the product.

    These four factors are often referred to as …………. or the …………………….

media, brand image, publicity, corporate advertising, target, product advertising, public relations

    (PR)

    ……………… is an important part of the marketing mix. Its aim is to increase sales by making a product or service known to a wider audience, and by emphasizing its positive qualities. A company can advertise in a variety of ways, depending on how much it wishes to spend and the size and type of audience it wishes to……………. The different ……………. for advertising include television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the internet and direct mail. The design and organization of advertising campaigns is usually the job of an advertising agency.

    ………………. is not directly concerned with increasing sales of a particular product or service, but more with the………………, or picture a company wants to present to the public. ………………. experts specialize in organizing activities and events which generate positive ……………. for companies. Unusual advertising campaigns sometimes get extra publicity for the company by way

    of media reports about the campaign.

     b. Listen to the tape and check your answers. 0 0

     0 0 4. Listen to a marketing manager talking about her company. Complete the

    passage below.

     It's true that we've been deeply affected by our competitor's latest 1 s ________ s ________ . A new plan of action must be developed as soon 2 as possible. L _______ have been particularly high in every foreign 34 c _______ . We have lost m ______ m ________ in Russia and 5Venezuela. Even in the home market we c ___ c_________ . However 6we are not going to g _____ u ________ . We are developing a new 7 m ________ p ________ which will help us regain some of our market 8 share. The war will c _____ for some time yet but we are confident that we can still win.

    5. Complete the passage below using the appropriate words or phrase from the box.

    price product marketing the four Ps promote place

    1....................................is the term given to all the different activities intended to make a

    profitable demand for a product. This involves: identifying consumer needs and wants in order

    to develop the 2 ....................................; setting the 3.............................. deciding on the best

     3

    4..................................... to sell the product deciding on how best to 5............................... the

    product.

    These four factors are often referred to as 6………………………… .

    6. Complete the passage below using the appropriate words or phrases from the box.

     to target corporate advertising publicity public relations

     media product advertising image

    1.................................... is an important part of the marketing mix. It is used to increase sales by making the product or service known to a wider audience and by emphasizing its superior qualities. A company can advertise in a variety of ways, depending on how much it wishes to spend and the size and type of audience it wishes 2.................................... The different 3....................................

    for advertising include television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the internet and direct mail. The design and organization of advertising campaigns in the job of an advertising agency. 4………………….. is not directly concerned with increasing sales of products or services but more with the overall 5..................................... a company wants to present to the public. 6................................ experts specialize in organizing actions and events which generate positive 7.................................... for companies. Original advertising campaigns can sometimes also get some extra publicity for the company by way of newspaper articles and/or TV and radio reports about the campaign.

7. Determine whether these statements are true or false. Explain why.

    1. The marketing mix comprises the 4 Ps.

    2. Products are different types of goods.

    3. Brand image in the mental picture of a particular product which a consumer carries in his

    mind.

    4. Advertising is an additional element of marketing.

    5. It is more important to decide what price to charge than where to sell the product.

    6. Packaging adds to the products image.

    7. The only aim of marketing in to sell the company’s product.

    8. Questions

    1. What is the most popular idea about marketing?

    2. What does the marketing mix included?

    3. What are the 4 Ps?

    4. Why is it so important to improve the brand image of the product?

    5. How can it be achieved?

    6. What in the aim of advertising?

    7. What does the price of products depend on?

    8. How are goods distributed?

    9. Are the four Ps a complete definition of marketing?

    10. What is a more important concept of marketing?

    9. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using the words in the box.

     1-creative process 2- design 3- distribution 4- end-users 5- first

    6-hire purchase 7- image 8- labels 9- mail order 10- need 11-opportunities 12- outlets 13- patterns 14-place 15-

    posters 16-price 17-product 18-production-orientated 19-

     4 profitably 20-promotion 21-range 22-rival 23-satisfy 24-

    strengths 25- threats 26-weaknesses

1. What is-marketing? Marketing is the ……….. of satisfying customer needs .......

    2. What is 'the marketing mix'? It consists of 'the four P's': providing the customer

    with the right P..... at the right P ...., presented in the most attractive

    way (P...........) and available in the easiest way (P.....).

    3. What is 'a product'? A product is not just an assembled set of components: it is something customers buy to a ... they feel they have. The ..... and the of the product are as important as its specification.

    4. What is 'price' ? The product must be priced so that it competes effectively with

     .. .... products in the same market.

    5. What is 'promotion'? The product is presented to customers through advertising (TV commercials, .... , etc), packaging (design, ........,etc), publicity, P.R. and personal selling.. 6. What is 'place’? Your product must be available to customers through the most

    cost-effective channels of ........... A consumer product must be offered to ……….. in suitable

    retail …………. , or available on ......... or by ...........

    7. What is meant by 'S.W.O.T.'? A firm should be aware of its S . and W.............. and the O …..….

    and T …….............. it faces in the market place.

    8. Why are firms becoming more customer-orientated and less ......... ? Because new products must be created to meet the changing .... of customers' needs a firm can't rely on the success of its

    existing of products. The customer and his or her needs must come ...........! 10. Advertising slogan

    Many advertising contain a slogan or short phrase to attract the consumer’s attention. Effective slogans are usually short, easy to remember and easy to repeat. Here are some authentic slogans from advertisements.

1 Get into our bed and sleep better ........... a cosmetic cream

    2 Down under: it's home to us ...........

    b the Army 3 Would Mrs O'Brien trust her precious soles

    to just anyone? ........... c white correction fluid

    4 I went to work and left my wrinkles d socks at home ...........

    e watches 5 Waist disposal unit ...........

    f Australian airline company 6 M.P. (Member of Parliament) involved in

    cover up ........... g video camera (camcorder)

    7 Prices that won't leave you speechless.........

    h mattress 8 The architects of time ..........

    i telephones 9 Could you be a more inspiring leader? .........

    10 The focus of attention ........... j 'Nordic ski' exerciser

b. What type of product do you think each one is advertising?

    1. Not everyone was meant to fly.

    2. The colour of life.

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    3. Doesn’t he deserve a dinner that looks as good as yours?

    4. By the time you remember you left it on, it’s off.

    5. See and be seen with.

    6. Does she or doesn’t she?

    7. This year you should wear something loud.

    8. Doesn’t your family deserve less?

    9. Introducing seven easy ways to make a chicken fly.

    10. The best things in life are still make by hand.

    11. Never before has something so little done so much for so many. 11. Translate into English.

    a. Реклама представляет собой любую оплачиваемую форму представления и продвижения продукции, услуг или идей каким-либо конкретным человеком или

    организацией. Она процветает в основном в странах со свободной экономикой, ориентированной на получение прибыли. Это один из главных факторов ускорения сбыта товаров, способствующий подъему жизненного уровня. Реклама не может превратить плохой товар в хороший. Однако то, что она может сделать, и делает это сообщает о старых и новых товарах и услугах.

    b. Бренд- имя производителя, торговая марка или знак, обычно, официально

    зарегестрированный и защищенный, который ставится на товар, чтобы покупатель мог

    распознать марку или качество товара.

    Товары, на которых ставиться марка производителя, либо другое им выбранное имя, помещаются в специальную упаковку при выпуске с фабрики. Целью является сделать бренд легко узнаваемым и отличным от других подобных товаров на прилавках.

    Важна готовность потребителя при возможности выбора покупать какой-то определенный

    вид одного и того же продукта.

    Образ бренда- Картинка (мысленное представление) об определенном товаре, которое потребитель хранит в памяти. При помощи рекламы производитель старается усилить влияние своего товара не потребителя, чтобы он/она предпочитали этоу марку остальным.

    c. Концепция Malboro существенно изменилась с его основания. На самом деле табачная компания Филип Моррис в 1924 г. выпустила в продажу Malboro, они были нацелены на

    женщин. Его слоган был: ?Мягкие, как май?. Но продукт не имел успеха. И к началу 50х

    занимал около 1 % табачного рынка. И тогда компании обратились к Лео Бернетту, менеджеру по рекламе из Чикаго, чтобы тот пересмотрел ( to reposition) концепцию этого

    продукта как сигареты для мужчин . Он предложил рекламную кампанию основанную на образе ковбоя- и уровень продаж Malboro резко повысился. За один год эти сигареты стали четвертым продаваемым брендом Aмерики. А вскоре самым первым в мире.

    II. Dialogue

    1. Develop the dialogue using the snaps of conversation.

    A. ………. our goods are low-priced. We charge low prices all the time………….

    B. You mean cheap: your goods are poor quality ……………… Our goods are high-

    priced, but we give customer service …………….. And a lot of our goods are mid-

    priced: not cheap and not expensive ………………...

    A. …………….your goods are expensive. Customers don’t need services …………….

    B. You must be selling some goods at cost (what you pay for them) or at a loss (even

    less)……………………

    A. Yes. We have loss leaders- cheap items to attract customers in……………. But it’s all

    below the ‘official’ list price or recommended retail price …………….. We have a

    policy of discounting, selling at a discount to the list price …………………...

    B. …………….. if you goes on undercutting us, we can’t stay in business …………….

     0 0 2. a. You'll hear a sales representative demonstrating this product to a customer.

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Listen to the recording at least twice:

    Note down the questions that the customer asks.

    Fill the gaps in this summary:

    1. When you look at a Nimslo 3-D print you get an amazing feeling of …………………..

    and ………………..

    2. The cost to the end-user is under ? …………. We're offering you the usual …………….

    3. We can't let you have the goods on a ... or ..................... basis.

    4. Films are processed by us in our .... -controlled ..................... .

    5. The four images are printed onto a .... micro-lens ..................... .

    6. End-users' first ............................................................... films are processed free. It uses

    normal ......... film.

    7. You look through the viewfinder, press the ... and the …….……. exposure and focussing

     takes care of the rest.

    8. We're running a national .......................... , so end-users will be fully aware of the product

    and keen to ............................................... .

    Useful phrases

    b. Role play. Student A: demonstrate a product to a customer. Student B: ask questions for further information.

    I’ll just show you….. If I could just show you…..

     You’ll see that… You’ll notice that….

     Take a look and you’ll notice that… If you just come a little closer…

    Could you tell me/us… I’d like to know….

     What sort of delivery time/ discount are you offering?

    3. a. Any product gives various 'benefits' to the customer: these may be functional or

    practical (speed, power, efficiency etc) or psychological (attractive appearance,

    making the customer feel happy or proud, etc):

    Feature ------ >- Benefit

    A is more .............. than B, which means that.... Positive benefits

    B isn't as .................. as A, which means thatNegative benefits

Look at the three products (fans) compared here. Discuss the 'features and benefits' of each product, like

    this:

    ; The Acme 77B is available in bright colours, which means that it will be an attractive feature of your

    room.

    ; The Acme 77B isn't as powerful as the other fans, which means that it won't keep you so cool.

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     Rolac 241 Samco Acme 77B

    Airblast

    fan diameter 24 cm 17.5 cm 35 cm

    power consumption 20 watt 30 watt 75 watt

    yes yes no mosquito/fly killing

    3 2 4 settings

    speeds (r.p.m.) 600/1000 1000/1500 200/750

    45 25 40 air output 3(m/minute)

    colours available beige only white or black 5 bright

    colours

    country of Italy France Taiwan

    manufacture

    retail price ?17.99 ?24.50 ?14.99

    wholesale price per ?104.55 ?152.00 ?85.00

    100

    b. Work in groups. Ask your partners these questions: What benefits does your firm's

    product give? What will it do for the customer? How is it different to or better than the

    competition?

4. Marketing research.

    The class is divided into three groups.

    Group A: make a list of five or more regions or countries that are in competition with yours.

    Design a questionnaire to find out about people’s attitudes to your region and to its competitors.

    The people you ask should rate each destination for its qualities on a scale 1 to 10 (or1 too 5 if

    you prefer):

    good value for money easy to get to good facilities good entertainment health and sport peace and quiet friendliness hospitality wilderness

    culture beautiful scenery uniqueness

    Ask them to describe each place in one sentence like this: ‘When I think of_, I think of_’

    (e.g. ‘When I think of S_I think of cold winds and a flat landscape’.)

Group B: Make a list of five or more regions or countries that are in competition with yours.

    Design a questionnaire to find out people’s attitudes to the les attractive features of these regions

    and your own region.

    Ask people which of these phrases describe each destination:

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Bad weather too far away too expensive

    hard to reach language problems unfriendly, gloomy people too crowded no beaches nothing for children to do

     too quiet bad food no package tours available Other:.........................(please specify)..................

Group C: Design a questionnaire to find out the importance of various factors in choosing a

    holiday destination.

    The people you ask should decide how important these factors are on a scale 1 to 10 (or 1 to 5 - if

    you prefer) for a main holiday and for a second holiday: different way of life night life no language problems

    historic places beautiful scenery good food

    learn new things bargain prices meeting people

    summer sports winter sports gifts & souvenirs

    outdoor activities visiting friends & relations relaxation

    part of longer trip

1. Each group will have to design a questionnaire about the region and its competitors and then

    conduct interviews with consumers (i.e. potential visitors). 2. When your group has designed its questionnaire, each member of the group should stand up and go round the class finding 'members of the public' (from other groups) to interview. Ask each of them the questions in your questionnaire.

    3. Report back to your group. Make a simple table using the information you have collected.

    4. Each group reports its results to the whole class.

    5. In groups of 3 or 4 discuss and write an advert for this running shoe, based on this information sheet. Try using the approach suggested underneath.

    1 Target market Who do you want to sell these

    running shoes to? Think of at least five things about

    the kind of person who will buy them.

    (e.g. Age? Sex? Income? Social class? Interests?)

    2 Image Now decide what kind of image you want

    to give to the shoes. Choose two adjectives to

    describe it and then think of a picture and a

    headline which will communicate this image

    immediately.

    3 ' Create a need Think of the needs that this shoe will meet.

    Begin the advert with

    questions like:

    Have you ever wanted ...? Are you looking for ...? Have you ever tried ...?

    4 Features and benefits

    Your feet stay dry in Here are five benefits of these Your feet won't wet weather You running shoes. Match the benefits smell They are will look very to the features listed in the very fashionable You information sheet. comfortable won't injure your Now write a few sentences about the features and benefits of these shoes. You could use ankles linking phrases like these:

    FEATURE means that ... BENEFIT

     9

    FEATURE makes sure that... BENEFIT FEATURE helps you to ... ' BENEFIT

    5 The call to action End your advert by asking the reader to take some action. Here are a few

    ideas:

    For more information, write to this address...

    Visit your local sports shop today. Buy them

    now, before it's too late,

III. Language focus.

     1.a. Match the words with their definitions .

    a. a company's products of a particular 1. catalogue (BrE) type; /catalog(AmE) / b. the stages in the life of a product, and Pmix/ portfolio the number of people who buy it at each R stage; 2. line/ range, O c. how a company would like a product to

    be seen in relation to its other products, D 3. lifecycle, or to competing products; U d. when a company pays for its products to C 4. placement, be seen in films and TV programmes; T e. a company's products, as a group;

    5. positioning,

     b. use these phrases to complete the sentences.

    a. product life cycles are so short 1 Banks are adding new types of that product launches are very accounts frequent, 2 Apple is going to simplify its product b.its product positioning in relation line to Psion's existing hardware 3 Consumers have mixed feelings products.

    about supermarkets c. it changed its product range

    towards more expensive cars. 4 When BMW bought Rover, d. of cigarettes in movies, 5 The new law will ban product

    e. extending their product portfolio placement,

    6 Following the launch of the Series 5 into financial services. laptop, consumers were slow to f. to their product mix. understand g. and deliver fewer but more 7 With this type of equipment in the competitive models. US,

    2. Match the words with their definitions:

    a.

    1. deep discounter a. very large shop, selling mainly food

    2. hypermarket/ b. very large shop (shops) with a wide variety of

    shopping malls goods, usually outside a town.

    3. convenience store c. shop in a town centre in the US which sells

    medicines; you can also have coffee and meals

    there.

    4. department store d. a supermarket with very low prices.

    5. supermarket e. very large shop with a wide variety of goods,

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