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Preservation of Meat and Meat Products

By Derek Gibson,2014-02-18 12:22
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Preservation of Meat and Meat Productsof,and,meat,Meat,MEAT

    Preservation of Meat and Meat Products

    中目肉童?宪十I

    CHIN^ME^TRESEARCHCENTER

    WWW.Cmrc.com.crl

    肉类研究

    MEATRESEARCH

    2010.3

    PreservationofMeatandMeatProducts

    WANGPanpan

    (CollegeofFoodScience,SouthwestUniversity,Chongqing400716) Abstract:Meatandmeatproductswhicharenutrient

    richarevulnerabletomicrobialcontaminationand

    influenceofsurroundingenvironment.Thisarticlesummarizedthehistory,principles,meth

    odsand

    influencingfactorsoffoodpreservation.Thecommonmethodssuchaslow

    temperaturepreservation,

    fermentationtechnology,dryingpreservation,potpreservation,packagingtechnology,micr

    owave

    technology,irradiationpreservationandmanagementtechnologywerealsointroduced.

    Keywords:meatproducts;storage;applications;principles 0lntroduction

    eatandmeatproductsaremainlycomposedby

    protein,fat,carbohydrate,waterandother

    traceconstituentssuchasvitamin,pigment,flavor

    compound,etc.Meatandmeatproductswhichare

    nutrientrichandhighwateractivityarevulnerableto

    microbialcontaminationandinfluenceofsurrounding

environmentduringProcessing,storageand

    transportation.Itwillcausedeterioration.metachromasia andstalephenomenon.Therearestillsomepathogenic microorganismtomakemeatproductscorruptionbecause itisdifHculttocontrolsourcepollutionandsecondary pollutionfromadditivetoendproducts.A11thesewil1 shortentheshelflifeofmeatproductsandmakecirculation unbalance.Sometimesitwillendangerpeople'shealthand "fe.Therefore,thenecessarypreservationmeasuresmust betakentoreducemicroorganismandenzyme'sactivity, preventfatoxidation,extendstorageperiodandensure thequalityandsafetyofmeatproducts.

    1Thehistoryoffoodpreservation

    Foodpreservationisanoldtechnology.Foodswere storagewithsaltfromtheDeadSeain3000BC.Salt fishwasmadebytheChineseandtheGreeksatthe sametime.Allthesecouldberegardedasthebeginning ofcurepreservation.TheRomanslearnedtouseiceto keeplobsterabout1000yearsagowhichwasregarded asthebeginningoflowtemperaturepreservation.Pot

    preservationwasalsodevelopedwellatthattime.The Romansleamedtouseicetopreservelobsterthatcouldbe 收稿日期:2009-j0-22

    regardedasthebeginningoflow-temperaturepreservation. Smokedriedpreservationappearedatthesametime. NicolasAppertputfoodsintothetankandcreated cannedfoodwhichcOHldberegardedasmodern

    technologyoffoodpreservation.Sincethenlotsof modemmethodsoffoodpreservationappeared.Frozen f0Odappearedaround1883andirradiationpreservation

    appearedin1943,etc.Theessentialdistinguishments betweenmoderntechnologyoffoodpreservationand ancienttechnologyoffoodpreservationarethatmodem foodpreservationtechnologyonthebasisprincipleof otherstoragemethodsusedmanualcontrolmeans.Itcan notbeaffectedbytime,region,climateandcouldbe implementedlargescale,highqualityandefficient.

    Foodpreservationasaneffectivemeanstostorage foodresourcescouldreducethelossoffoodsanddelay therelativeshortagestateoffoodresourcescausedby populationexpansion.Ithasanirreplaceableposition. Therefore,itisnotonlyadutybutalsoaresponsibility forfoodinvestigatorstodevelopmoreeffectiveandmore advancedfoodpreservationtechnology.

    2Theprincipleandmethodsoffoodpreservation 2.1Theprincipleoffoodpreservation

    Notonlythereasonoffooddecaybutalsothemethod andprincipleoffoodpreservationarespecialresearch contentforfoodpreservation.Thereasonoffooddecay couldbeexplainedthroughfoodpreservation.Andthen scientificandreasonableprecautionarymeasureswereput forward.Al1thiscouldprovidetheoreticalprincipleforthe 207o卑第3期总第7;379

    processingandpreservationoffoods.

    Chemicaldeteriorationcanonlybereducedtothe leastlevelbutdonotbeeliminatedintheprocess.Physical deterioratiOncouldnotbeariskunderthesuitablestore environmentandconventiona1operation.Microbial activityistherealimpactfactorsforfoodpreservation. Therefore,Foodpreservationisputforwardforthe

    microorganism.Themainactionoffoodpreservationisto inhibitmicrobialactivity.

    2.2Themethodsoffoodpreservation

    Nowfoodpreservationisnolongertopreventfood spoilagefromtechnicalaspectbutdevelopintoimportant researchcontentforfoodscienceintheoreticalaspect.In accordancewiththeprincipleoffoodpreservationitcan bedividedintothefollowingcategories.

    2.2.1Foodpreservationformaintainingthe

    leastlifeactivities

    Thismethodismainlyusedforkeepingfleshfruit, vegetablesandotherfoodrawmaterials.Livingorganism hasanaturalimmunitytoresisttheinvasionofexternal microorganisms.Freshfruitsandvegetablesarestill engagedin1ifeactivitiesafterharvest.Chemicalreactions inorganizationonlyarereactedtowardtodecomposition directionandnolongersynthesized.

    111emolevigorousoflifeactivitythefasterdecomposition velocityofstoredmaterialsthenorganizationalstructure decomposed.Itisnoteasytostoragetheseproductsina longperiod.

    Iffoodsstoredatlowtemperaturecannotonlyinhibit organization'srespiratoryactionandenzymaticactivitybut alsomaintainminimumactivitiesandnaturalimmunityin alongperiod.Lowtemperaturecouldalsoresistmicrobial invasion.delayspoilageandextendshelfhfe.Inactual productioncoldpreservationandairconditionedstorage belongtothismethod.

    2.2.2FoodpreservatiOnforinhibiting

    metamorphicfactors

    Themainmetamorphicfactorssuchasmicroorganismand enzymecouldbeinhibitedundertheinfluenceofphysical factorsorchemicalfactors.Thusfoodqualitycouldbe maintainedinalongperiod.Theactivityofmicroorganism andenzymecouldrecoverywithoutthesefactorsand leadtofoodspoilage.Freezingpreservation,drying preservation,curepreservation,sugaringpreservation, controlledatmospherestorage,chemicalpreservationand soonbelongtothismethod.

    2.2.3Foodpreservationforusingfermentation Foodpreservationforusingfermentationrefersto delayfoodspoilagebyculturebeneficialmicroorganism andestablishmentgrowingco11ditionofthese

    microorganisms.Thismethodcouldinhibitputrefaction !!

    bacteria'sactivitiesanddelayfoodspoilage.Theprinciple ofthismethodisthatorganicacidandethylalcoholwhich getthroughfermentationactionwillinhibitmicrobial activityandmaintainfoodquality.Pickledvegetablesand pickledcucumberarepreservedbythismethod.

    2.2.4Foodpreservationforasepticprinciple

    Foodpreservationforasepticprinciplerefersto putrefactionbacteriainfoodwerecontrolledtoharmless

    1evelorwipedoutbyusingheating,microwave

    technology,irradiationpreservation,filtertechnologyand soon.Maintainthissituationinlongtermandthusfoodsare

    preserved.Potpreservation,irradiationpreservationand asepticpackingtechnologybelongtothismethod. 3Themainfactorscausefoodspoilage

    Themainobjectivesofmodernfoodprocessingarethat

    ensurefoodsafety,provideforhigh-qualityproducts andensurethecOnvenience.Themainreasonslead tofoodspoilageistheactionofmicroorganismand chemicalfactors.Asforprocessedfoodsareactionsof microorganism.Foodsafetysuchasflavor,colorand textureisrelatedtomicrobialaction,enzymeaction andchemica1reactions.Therefore.inordertocontrol thesefactorsthemainreasonandcharacteristicsoffood spoilagemustbeunderstoodclearly.

    Themainreasonscausedfoodspoilageincludes intrinsicfactorsandexternalfactors.Externalfactors refertobiologicalfactorssuchasmicro-organismsinair andsoil.Intrinsicfactorsincludetheroleofenzymes, physicalroleandchemicalrole.

    3.1Biologicalfactors

    3.1.1Microorganism

    Therearemanymicroorganismscausedfoodspoilage includingbacteria,yeast,moldandsomeviruses. Inmostoccasionsthemainreasonforfoodspoilage isbacteriarole.Deteriorationcausedbybacteria manifestedasfoodspoilage.It'sduetothatproteinsand aminoacidsarebrokedownbybacterialactivity.Itwill resultinfoulodourandstink.Thecommonbacteriain meatandmeatproductsarePseudomonas,Alcaligenes, Streptococcus,Bacillus,Leuconostoc,Shigella, Micrococcus,Staphylococcus,etc.

    Yeastgrowsandreproduceseasilyincarboh)drate

    containingfoods.Itgrowswellinslightlyacidic environment.Butitgenerallydoesn'tgrowinprotein-rich foods.Thecommonyeastinmeatandmeatproducts

    areCandida,Torulopsis,Rhodotorula,Pichia, Hansenula,Debarryomyces,Kluyveromyces,

    Schizosaccharomyces,etc.

    Moldgrowsandreproduceswellindryandaerobic environment.Italsobreedseasilyinstarchrichand

    sugarrichfood.Mold'growthandreproductionwillbe 201o耳第3期总第133

    '- ??.薯类研

    inhibitedinanaerobicenvironmentandmoisturecontent belowfifteenpercent.Thecommonmoldinmeatand meatproductsarePenicillium,Rhizopus,Aspergillus, Altemaria,Mucor,Fusarium,Trichoderma,etc. ThecommonVarusinmeatandmeatproductsorePrion, AvianInfluenzaVirus,FootandMouthDiseaseVirus, NorwalkVirus,Norviruses,NV,Coronavimsandsoon. Foodsafetyandqualitydependontheinitialnumber ofmicroorganisms,thesterilizationduringprocessing andenvironmentalcontro1.Carbohydrates.proteinand otheringredientsarecomposedoffoods.Therefore.itis notonereasoncausedfoodspoilagewhichisthecommon effectsbymolds,yeastsorbacteriaatthesametime. 3.1.2Agriculturalpestandrodent

    Thedeteriorationofdriedfood,frozenstorageandother agriculturalproductsareoftencausedbyagriculturalpest androdent.

    Agriculturalpestsarethegreatdangeroushazardfor foodpreservation.Theydirectlycausedtheincreasinglossof f00dpreservation.Foodswillalsobeseriouslycontaminated bythebreeding,migration,excrementandsoon.

    Agriculturalpestisthegreatdangersoffoodstorage. ItislOSSofsomefoodstoragewhichincreasedthedirect cause.Becauseofpestbreeding,migrationandexcreta,such ashullandtheb0dvitalsowillbeseriouslycontaminated thefood.Madegoodslosevalueofcommodity.Foods even1osecommercialvaluebythesepests.

    Rodentshavecharacteristicsofmixeddiet.big appetite,fastbreedingandstrongadaptability.Theyare hazardtofood.Forexamplesomepackingproductswill begnawedbythem.Diseasescanbeinfectedbyrodents. Theexcrementorresiduecouldalsocontaminatefoodand storageenvironment.Therefore,foodhygieneisaffected andsometimestheyarehazardtohumanhealth. 3.2Chemicalfactors

    3.2.1Enzymaticeffect

    Enzymeisaparticularproteininvinowhichhashigh catalyticactivityandcouldreduceactivationenergyof reactions.Thevastmajorityoffoodsespecialthefresh foodshavemanykindsofenzymes.Someenzymesin particularoxidizingenzymeandhydrolyticenzymecould generatecatalysisreactionduringtheprocessingand storageprocess.Thenthecolor,aroma,tasteandtexture offoodwillchange.

    3.2.2Non-enzymaticeffect

    Nonenzymaticbrowningreferstobrowningcaused byMallardreaction,caramelreaction,ascorbicacid' soxidation.Thesebrowningoccursalongwithheating andstorage.Foodspoilagecouldalsocausedbyfood ingredientsandpackagingcontainerssuchasthe interactionbetweenfoodingredientsandmeta1ion.For

    examplewaterinprocessing,copperionorironionof appliancecontractwithfoodswhichcontaintanninwill generateumbrine.

    3.2.3Oxida廿on

    Oxidationcancausefoodspoilagewhichaccompaniedby foulsmellandleadfoodtoloseeatingquality. 3.3Physicalfactors

    Fooddeteriorationswhichcausedbyphysicalfactorsoften accompanybychemicalreaction.Thecommonphysical factorsincludemoisture,humidity,temperature,etc. Allthesewillinduceandpromotechemicalreaction. Foodspoilagewillbecausedalongwithelevating temperature.Therateofchemicalchanges,enzymecatalyzed

    biochemicalreactionandmicrobialgrowthwillbeaffected. Notonlythenutritionalcontent,flavorand

    appearancebutalsothegrowthanddevelopmentofmicro? organismsrelatetohumidity.Foodqualityhasaveryclose relationshipwithhumidityespeciallywateractivity. Wateractivityreferstoanindicatorofwater'sfreedom fromthermodynamicspoint.Bindingforceofmoleculesand vaporpressurewilldecreasewhensolutedissolvedinwater. Theratioofsolution'svaporpressureandpurewater's vaporpressurecouldbeusedtorepresentwateractivity. Wateractivityisanimportantfactorwhichaffectsthe shelflife,color,smell,tasteandothercharacte"stics ofmeatproducts.Itisthemostintuitiveandimportant basisforcontrollingmicroorganisminmeatproducts. Physicalpropertiessuchastexture,colorandflavorof meatandmeatproductsareaffectedbywateractivity. Wateractivityalsohasanimportantsignificanceforfood

    preservation.Wateractivityshouldbemeasuredfirstlyin meatproduction.Thenstorageperiodisdrewupthrough wateractivityandchoosethebestpreservationperiod. Manychemicalreactionssuchasfattyoxidation, pigmentfaded,proteincoagulationandotherswill acceleratebyrayoflight.

    3.4Otherfactors

    3.4.1Extrinsicpollutant

    Theproblemsoffoodsafetycausedbyextrinsicpollutant havebeenpaidattentioninrecentyears.Extrinsicpollutants includeenvironmentalpollutants,pesticideresidue, foodadditiveagentpollution,packingmaterial,etc. 3.4.2Mechanicalloss

    Theappearanceofanimalandplanttissueswillbeaffected bymechanicaldamage.Thespeedofwaterandrateof decaywillalsobeacceleratedbymechanicaldamage. Therearemanyreasonscausingfoodspoilage

    and.itistheresultofseveralfactorsinsomeoccasions. Variousfactorsmustbeidentifiedandmasteredinfood preservation.Differentproductsshouldchoosedifferent preventionmeasuresinactualprocessing.

    201o毒第;期怠第33舷差鋈

    4Commonmethodsoffoodpreservation

    4.1Low-temperaturepreservation

    LowtempeTa~represervationreferstoreducetemperatureand maintaininlowtemperaturestate.111estorageperiodoffoods willbeextendedbythisway.Notonlyfoodpreservationbut alsofoodprocessedandhalf-finishedproductpreservation coulduselowtemperatureprocessing.

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