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Consideration and development of anaerobic fermentation equipment on solid organic rejectamenta

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Consideration and development of anaerobic fermentation equipment on solid organic rejectamenta

    Consideration and development of anaerobic fermentation equipment on solid

    organic rejectamenta

    Sep.2007JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversity,,01.14No.3274277

    Considerationanddevelopmentofanaerobicfermentationequipment

    onsolidorganicrejectamenta

    TIANXiaofeng,andXIAJiqing

    EngineeringCollege,NortheastAgriculturalUniversity,Harbin150030,China Abstract:Thisarticle,basedoninvestigationandanalysis,existedanaerobicfermentationequipment,withaviewtotheproduction

    ofhigh

    latitudearea,pointedoutthethoughtofexploitingefficientanaerobicfermentationequipment,including:thesettting

    independentequipmentofacidogenicphaseandmethanogenicphase;theapplyingconbinationofAFandUASBinmethanogenic

    phase;adoptingefficientsludgeinverseflowingequipmentandthetechniqueoffloraenrichment,andefficientmethodofsaving

    energyandthermalretardation;adoptingautocontrolwhichcouldmaketheequipment1Rlnefficientlyandstably.

    Keywords:anaerobicfermentationequipment,solidorganicrejectamenta,applicability,design

    CLCnumber:S216Documentcode:AArt.icleID:10068104(2007)03027404

    Introduction

    Methanetechnologywhichusedathomehasalready

    popularizdeinourcountry,withthedevelopmentof

    largescalebreeding,recentlyourcountrystartedto

developlargescalemethaneproject.Butindustria

    lizedanaerobicfermentationequipmentisonlyused widelyinsouthofourcountry,andmostprojectsadopt fullmixedfermentationtechnics,someofthatadopt combinedreactor,havenotheatretainingandcale

    facientestablishment,onereasonthattheseequipments andtechnicshasnotbeenextendedincoldareais temperatureandlowefficiency.Circulatingperennially incoldareamustovercometheinfluenceoflow temperature,inaddition,theseequipmentscouldnot adaptthefermentationofhighconcentrationmaterial, itmaybebuiltup,soitisnecessarytodesignahigh efficiency,circulatingstablysystemwhichcouldauto

    controlandcannotbebuiltup.

    Inordertousetheanaerobicfermentationequip

    mentwidelyincoldarea,onthebasisofanalyzing theresearchprogressofallkindsofanaerobicfermen

    tationequipment,thearticlediscussedthedesign ideaofsolidorganicrejectamentaanaerobicfermen

    tationequipmentwhichadaptedthedemandofhigh concentrationmaterialandlivestockfecesincoldarea. AnalysingontheCharacteristicsof

    SolidRejectamentaAnaerobicFer

    mentationEquipment

    Withtheresearchandpractice,manyformsofsolid rejextamentaanaerobicfermentationequipmentappear, theanalysisofthecharacteristicoftheseequipmentsis asfollows.

    Routinestylereactor

    Routinereactor

    Routinereactorhassimplestructureandisusedwidely. Thereactorhasnotdasher,thematerialexsitsinthereac

    torwithestateofspontaneousdeposition,theliquidis Received9March2007

    SuppoSedbyNationalNaturalSciencesFoundation(20040224001) TIANXiaofeng(1981-),male,Ph.Dcandidate,engagedintheresearchofbiomassenergy

    Towhomcorrespondenceshouldbeaddressed.E-mail:Nq12345@sohu.com

    E-mail:xueba0engIish@neau.edu.cn

TIANXiaofengPta1.Considerationanddevelopmentofanaerobicfermentationequipment

    onsolidorganicrejectamenta-275-

    devidedintofourparts,thatisscumlayer,supernate layer,activelaye~depositlayerfromtoptobottom.The anaerobicfermentationbacteriaactivateintheactive layerI".

    Itisusuallyusedatnormaltemperature,ithas lowefficientandscumlayercanappeareasily. Completemixedreactor

    Completemixedreactorwasusedwidelyinthepast. Itinstallsadasherintheroutinereactor,thematerial andthebacteriaareinthecompletemixedestate.Compar- ingwithroutinereactor,itsefficiencyisobviously higher,anditiscalledhighspeedreactor~Thisreactor oftenadoptsconstanttemperaturecontinuouslyfeeding orhalfconstanttemperaturefeeding.

    Advantages:thistechnicscandisposalfeedliquor whichcontainshighstrengthsuspendingsolid;andthe

    liquordistributeshomogeneously,too,whichavoids stratifiedestateandincreasesthecontactbetween substrateandmicrobe;andthetemperaturedistributes

    homogeneously,too,anystayerthatentersthereactor canrapidlydisperseandremainatthelowestconcen

    tration;sothatavoidsscumincrusting,jamming,gases

    capingandchanneling.

    Disadvantages:thisreactorcannotmakeSRTand MRTgreaterthanHRTwhenitisrunning,soitsvolume isbigger,itneedssufficientagitationandtheexpen

    ditureishigher,whilelargescalereactorcannotmix

    thematerialcompletely,sowhentheliquoreffusesout ofthereactor,itcancarrythesolid,sothemicrobelosses more.

    Plugflowingreactor

    Plugflowingreactor(PFR)alsocallspushflowing reactor,itisarectangularuncompletemixedreacto~ Highconcentrationsuspendingsolidmaterialenters fromoneend,thendischargesfromanotherendafter passingthroughsomebaffleplates.Asaresultofpro

    ductionofbiomassinthereactor,itpresentsperpen

    dicularmix,butthehorizontalmixactsminutely.The materialinthereactorflowsattheestateofpiston pushing.Atthefeedend,hydrolyticandacidification actionisstrong.Astheshortageofinoculation,itneeds circumfluenceofthesolid.

    Advantages:itdosenotneedagitation,thestructure ofthereactorissimple,theexpenditureofenergyis lower~Itissuitableforthedisposalofhighconcentration suspendingsolid,runningexpediently;lessmalfunc

    tion;higherstability.

    Disadvantages:thesolidcandepositeasilyatthe bottomofthereactor,whichcaninfuencetheeffective

    cubage,andreduceHRTandSRT;itsefficiencyis lower,itneedscircumfluenceofthesolidandmicrobe astheinoculation,becausethevolumeisbig,the temperatureinthereactorcannotretaincongruously, andmayincrusteasily.

    Sludgeretentionreactor

    Nowthemostfrequentlyusedofsludgeretentionreactor isUASB.itisalsoareactorwhichdevelopsthemostra- pidlyallovertheworld.

    AdvantagesofUASBincludesthatthestructureof thereactorissimple,hasnotagitatingdeviceandthe paddingonwhichtheanicrobegrows.LongSRTand MRTmakeitattainhighloadingrate.Theformationof sludgegranulemakethemicrobeimmobilizenaturally, whichimprovestheconditionofmicrobeandenhances thestabilityofthetechnics2].

    DisadvantagesofUASBincludesthatalltheliquid entersfromthebottomofthereactor,theloadingof thethreephasesegregatorishigh,thefeedingcan onlycontainlowconcentrationsuspendingsolid,soit cannotbeusedforthedisposalofwastewaterwhich containshighconcentrationsuspendingsolid.Itneeds effectivewaterdistributortomaketheliquiddistribute homogeneouslyatthebottomofthereactor.When theloadingorthecontentofthesuspendingsolidin thefeedingrises,orthepoisonmaterialisexcess,the sludgemayrunoff.

    ThereactorofappendicuIatevelum(AF)

    Theanaerobiccullender,whichiscalledanaerobicfilter tankreactororanaerobicbiologicfiltertank,belongs

    totheAF.Therearetwokindsofanaerobiccullenders whichareupflowanddownflow.Thecraftworkistoadd thefillingintothereactortoprovidesurfaceformicro- organismgrowingandtheorganicmatterisremoved http://publish.neau.edu.cn

.

    276.JournalofNortheastAgriculturalUniversity,,01 .14No.32007

    mainlybythebiologicvelumonthesurfaceofthe fillingthatoftenusesplasticrippleboard,filtermaterial ofcross,andsoon.Thewaterentersthereatorwhichis filledwithfiltermaterialfrombottom.Theorganicmatter jnthewaterisdegradatedintomethaneandcarbon dioxidebythereactionofagreatdealofmicroorganism whichisappendiculatedonthesurfaceoffiltermaterial andbaffledbythefilling.

    Thevirtueoftheanaerobiccullender:thereactorhas agreatdealofappendiculatebiologicvelumdepend

    ingonthefilling;theSRTofmicroorganismislong whichisexceed100daysandisnoteasytoflowout; thenaturalbedinthereactorwhichisformedbythe filteractionofdifferentkindsofmicroorganismcan producemanykindsofmicroorganismintheoptimal growthcircumstancesothatthemicroorganismhas higheractionandhasbiggerloadandtreatmenteffi

    ciency;thecrattworkneedssmallerenergy,iseasytorun andmanage.

    Theshortcomingoftheanaerobiccullender:thesepa

    rateeffectofsolid,liquidandgasisdiscontentedand

    easytobuildupbecauseofthegreatusageoffilling. Thereactorofcombinedtype

    UBFisareactorofcombinedtypewhichhasbeendeve- lopedbyGuiotfromCanadain1984.UBFiscombined ofUASBandAF.Thebottomofthereactorissludge bedwhichisformedwithhighconcentrationgrain sludgeandthetopofthereactorisfillingandtheflit

    crmaterialappendiculatebiologicvelumonthe surface.UBFprolongstheSRThugely,theconcentra

    tionofsludgeinthereactorishigh,intensifyingthe reactor'sadaptabilitytobadnessfactors,sotheUBFcan treatthehighconcentrationorganicmatterefficaciously andsteadily[.Thereactorhashighefficiencybecause thebiologicvelumclingingonthewaddingsupplys thelackofmicroorganismonthetopofthesludgebed. ThebutcherwaterofsomepackinghouseinBeijing istreatedwiththecraftworkofUBFwhichhasbetter anaerobicdigestioneffectintreatinglowconcentra

    tionsludgewaterandiseasytoblockintreatinghigh concentrationsludgewater.

    Email:xuebaoenglish@neau.edu.co

    ConsiderationonDevelopingtheAnae

    robicFermentationDeviceofTreating

    SolidRejectamentainFrigidZone

    Designthinking

    Aboveall,therearealsothreeproblemsintheanaero

    bicfermentationtreatmentofsolidorganicrejecta

    mentainfrigidzone:first,theproblemofadaptability temperature;second,theproblemofeffectanaerobic fermentation;third,theproblemofblockinginhigh

    concentrationmaterialfermentation.Alltheseproblems canberesolvedinthedesignofdevice.Thetotaldesign thinkingisabsorbingthevirtueoftheequipmentinexis

    tenceandovercomingtheshortcomingofthesedevices, accordingtotheneedsofenvironmentandproduction toinnovatedesigncompositetype.

    Theroutinereatorissuitforhighconcentrationfeed liquidandhavinghighsuspendsolidorganicwaste water;however,itisdimculttoimprovetheefficien

    cyoffermentationbecauseoftheshortmicroorga

    nismretainingtime,SOitisunsuitabletouseinindus

    trializationdevice.Inthereactorofsludgeretaining type,thevirtueofUASBandanaerobiccullendercan beusedbyus,thecurrentdirectionandtheproduced gasdirectionarethesameintheUASB,reducingthe chanceofblock,intensifyingthemillandmixfunc

    tiontothesludgebed,favoringoftheseparationof solid,liquidandgas,andsoon.ButUASBalsohas shortcoming,suchasthemicroorganismoftopisdiffi

    culttoenrich,threephaseseparatorisunsuitablefor separatinghighconcentrationfeedliquid,soUASBcan notbeusedintheeffectsystemoftreatinghighcon

    centrationsolidrejectamentadirectly.Thoughthe combinedtypereactoraddAFonthetopofUASBto enrichmicroorganism,itiseasiertoblockintreating thehighconcentrationfeedliquid.Wethinkthatwecan combinethevirtueofAFandUASBinthetreatment ofthehighconcentrationfeedliquid,butweshouldnot addanaerobiccullenderonthetopofthereactor. Becauseofthedifferentgrowthcharacterofbacteria

    ofproducingacidandbacteriaofproducingmethane,it

TIANXiaofengeta1.Considerationanddevelopmentofanaerobicfermentationequipment

    onsolidorganicrejectamenta'277'

    isimpossibletomaketheproducingacidbacteriagrow fasterandmaketheproducingmethanebacteriagrow fasteratthesametimeinonefermentationreactor,there

    fore,werecommendtouseproduceacidphasesolelyin designingthedevice,tooptimizefiltrationandacidifi

    cationofrawmaterialinthepretreatmentandthepro

    duceacidphrase,soastodosufficiencypreparationfor thefollowingmethaneproducephase.Itismoreinfavor oftheexactcontrollingfermentationfactorstousethe fermentationstaplethathasbeenacidificatedintheme

    thaneproducephase.

    Thekeyassumeofdevicedesignproject

    Thedevicethatisusedforproducingmethaneiscall

    edkeydevice.Inordertosolvethethreemainques

    tionatpresent,thenewdesignshouldsatisfythefoil

    owrequest:tosatisfytheexistconditionofanaerobic microorganismsoastothereareenoughmicroorganism inthereactor;toadapttheneedofhighconcentration feedliquid;tostabilizethefermentationtemperature; thehighconcentrationfeedliquidcansuccessfullygo througheveryfermentationdevicewithoutforming scumlayeranditisconvenienttoremovethesediment sludgeatthebottomofthereactorastoadapttheanae

    robicfermentationofmanykindsofsolidrejectamenta; therunningparametercontroliscredibleandexact;itis successfultoseparatethesolidandtheliquid[5J.

    Wecantakethefollowmeasureinordertosarisfy thedemandabove:theanaerobicfermentationreactor ofmethaneproducephaseincludesanaerobiccullender andaUASBanaerobicseparator,bothofwhichare joinedbythepipelineatthebottom,tosolvetheadap

    tabilityofhighconcentrationfeedliquidbycombi

    ningthedown--flowanaerobiccullenderandtheup-- flowUASB,toformthebacteriumgroupofthewhole reatorbyusingthecarrieradheredwithmicroorga

    nism,therefluencingactivesludgeoftheoptimalpart, themixingofthecrudefeedandthetreatedfeed,to realizesludge'sandtheupclearliquid'sfunctionof refluence,mix,calefactionandmil1.Settingthedevice ofdraftletlonelyonthedevicecanadapttheneeds ofmanykindsofstaples.Automaticmonitoring,auto

    controlsystemcanmaketheprocessofanaerobicfer

    mentationrunexactlyandeffectively,thecontrolled parametersincludetemperature,pHvalue,load,con

    centration,refiuencefluxofsludge,time,additionof microelement,etc.

    Totakethefollowingmeasuresinheatpreservation: usingsunlightroomasworkshop;usingwatercircle

    calefactioninterlayerandmakethefermenterheat preservation(usingpolystyreneboardorperlite);using methanetoassistantcalefaction[.

    Supposedthatitcanrealizemicroorganismenrich

    mentallthetimebyusingtheimprovementdesign above,ifitiswellheatpreservationandcalefaction,the adaptionoftheconcentrationofthetreatedmaterielwill

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